(Archived document, may contain errors)
THE ANTI-DEFENSE LOBBY: PART I CENTER FOR DEFENSE INFORMATION
Of the many organizations currently active in the United States and which are regarded by some observers as the "anti-defense lobby," one of the most prominent is the Center for Defense Information. CDI, led-by retired Rear Admiral Gene R. LaRocque, who has served as the organization's director since its founding in 1972, is an impor- tant part of the apparatus of the Fund for Peace, a left-oriented tax-exempt instrumentality with headquarters in Washington, D.C., near the U.S. Capitol in a facility purchased in 1974 by General Motors heir Stewart R. Mott, a major financial backer of an assort- ment of leftist projects and groupsd Organizations within the Fund complex which interlock closely'with CDI include the Center for' Na- tional Security Studies, one of the nation's principal anti- intelligence community operations and an organization whose personnel show a pattern of interrelationship with the far-left Institute for Policy Studies; the Center for International Policy, some of whose-principal activists have also had close ties to IPS; In the Public Interest, a project designed to "counteract the onslaught of right-wing broadcasting"-with information gathered by CDI, CNSS, and CIP and made available through the efforts of a large group of 11peace" movement activists, members of Congress, and others; and the Fund itself, the former president of which has been identified with activities of the.World Peace Council, a Soviet-controlled in- ternational Communist..front organization.
CDI's program reflects LaRocquels view that the "military has become far too pervasive and powerful," and basic CDI literature stresses the theme that it is necessary "to ensure that the military in this country does not overreach civilian control." Primarily
through its regular newsletter, the Defense Monitor, th6 Center publicizes the results of its research and analysis on such de- fense questions as development of the B-1 bomber, the value of the cruise missile, development of nuclear weapons, the size of the Pentagon budget, and the value of U.S. military installations' in the I.ndian ocean and the Philippines ;-- all from a negative standpoint. At the same time, CDI material has downplayed the question of Soviet versus U.S. naval strength and has argued against anti-Communism as "the dominant theme of U.S. foreign policy for thirty years." The Center is among those groups currently arguing strongly for a U.S.-Soviet strategic arms limitation (SALT) agreement, a basic point being that such an agreement's'"most significant result" could be "the slowing of 'new nuclear weapons developments in both the United States and the Soviet Union." As part of its anti-nuclear weapons emphasis, CDI conducted the First Nuclear War Conference in Washington, D.C., during December 1978 in conjunction with IPS.
The Center claims that some significant successes have resulted from its work. A March 1978 CDI letter stated that "CDI analyses played a key role in cancellation of the B-1 bomber, nuclear strike cruiser, and additional heavy attack aircraft carriers" and that 'JWe influenced the slow-down in development of the new land-based mobile ICBM (MX)...and the reduction of the U.S. arms sales over- seas." In CDI's view, "None of these reduces the security of our nation one iota," a view that is apparently shared by such political leaders as U.S. Senators Mark Hatfield and Adlai E. Stevenson III, who have said that "we need this independent, privately funded source of information on military matters." CDI material is regularly distributed to members of Congress and to appropriate offices in the executive branch of government, and CDI personnel have appeared regularly to "lecture at Military War Colleges and at the State Department Foreign Service Institute." Two members of the CDI Board of Advisors, Paul Newman and Harold Willens, "served on the United States delegation to the recently concluded United Nations Special Session on Disarmament," which was also addressed by CDI Director LaRocque.
Operating on a budget estimated at approximately $300,000,'CDI solicits contributions from "concerned citizens," among whom have reportedly been Paul Newman and Stewart Mott. A major source of funds, however, has been a group of tax-exempt foundations, princi- pally in New York City, including especially such institutions as the Field Foundation and the Compton Foundation. Foundation support for the Fund for Peace and its projects, including CDI, since 1972 has amounted to a minimum of $2,299,495; the largest grantor has apparently been the Field Foundation ($1,073,800), with Compton the second-largest ($816,695)-. The largest grantor to CDI, insofar as the available information indicates, has been the Field Founda- tion with a minimum total of $530,000. Field has also granted op- erating funds to such groups as the Lawyers Military Defense Com__ mittee, which has worked closely with the National Lawyers Guild, and the Bill of Rights Foundation, the latter grants being to sup- port the Political Rights Defense Fund, an adjunct of the Trotskyite Communist Socialist Workers Party to which Mott has also given sup- port.
At present, the Fund for Peace complex is bringing into being a new project which interlocks with CDI and other Fund projects: the Campaign for Peace and Campaign for Peace Media-Center. Sup- posedly scheduled to become operational in late April or early to mid-May 1979, the Media Center has developed from a June 5, 1978, meeting convened by Mott and former U.S. Attorney General Ramsey Clark in Washington, D. C., to discuss "An International Campaign for Peace." Draft material currently being circulated indicates that the "central theme of the Center" is to be "The Dangers of the Arms Racen and that its program is designed to achieve maximum media impact around such issues as "Military Spending, SALT, Foreign Arms Sales, Budget Priorities, Detente, Nuclear Technology, Economic Conversion and the Test Ban." The CFP's proposed budget for 1979 has been projected at $106,400, it being expected that the budget will increase to $117,410 during 1980. Minutes of a November 16, 1978, meeting of the CFP Executive Committee state that Mott has pledged "$50,000 a year for two years, providing there was a 2 to 1 match for each of his dollars." He has also stated, however, that "he would contribute the first $50,000 with- out a match so the Media Service Center could begin." CFP's Board of Directors includes several people with ties to other parts of the Fund for Peace complex and includes at least two prominent 11peace" activists currently listed as members of the Soviet- controlled World Peace Council.
CENTER FOR DEFENSE INFORMATION
There are active in the United States today a number of organiza- tions which are viewed by some observers as forming, in the aggregate, the "anti-defense lobby." Of these, one of the most prominent is the Center for Defense Information (CDI), self-described in its pro- motional literature as "a project of The Fund for Peace," a left- oriented operation which maintains offices at 122 Naryland Avenue, N.E.,, Washington, D.C., in a building purchased in August 1974 for some $375,000 by General Motors heir Stewart Rawlings Matt to house the Fund for Peace and several avowed Fund projects. This arrange- ment was discussed by Stephen Isaacs in a detailed article published in the August 10, 1975, edition of the Washington Post:
Matt said he paid $375,000 for the house last August. He rents 80 per cent of it to the Fund for Peace and some of its member organizations, and uses the other 20 per cent for two of his own Washington employees and for space for himself when he is here "five or six days a month."
Mortgage payments and upkeep on the house run $43,000 a year, and the tenants pay $35,000 of that, Mott said. But that $35,000is more than made up by the $50,,000 he gives them. He is chairman of'the executive committee of the Fund for Peace.
Mott's tenants are organizations consisting mostly of former.government officials who have become disaf- fected "oppositionists."
They are the Fund for Peace's Center for National Security Studies, a left-wing think tank set up to in- vestigate the use of intelligence and national security claims to justify the growth of government power, which is headed by Robert Borosage; the Center for Defense In- formation, set up to scrutinize the Department of Defense, headed by retired Rear Adm. Gene R. LaRocque;the Twen- tieth Century Fund's National Security Study, headed by Morton Halperin, the one-time aide to Henry A. Kissinger who has sued Kissinger for tapping his telephones; a media project, in the Public Interest, which prepares material for newspapers and radio stations, and the Institute for International Policy, set up to publish a foreign affairs newsletter edited by Carl Marcy, who was top assistant on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee when it was headed by then-Sen. J. W. Fulbirght Csic7- The Center for Defense In'-3rmation regards its location as being of key significance, since it is "at the hub of Washington's legis- lative life, adjacent to @he'U.S. Senate office buildings and only 2 blocksfrom. the Capitol itself. The White House and most major government offices are minutes away, and easily readhed from the Center's headquarters."
ORIGIN AND PURPOSE
The Center was formed in 1972 with help from Mott and from the Fund for Peace,, cited by John Pierson in the April 24, 1972, issue of the Wall Street Journal as "kicking in enough money to get things started." According to Representative Les Aspin (D-Wis.) in remarks inserted into the May 1, 1972, edition of the Congressional Record announcing CDI's formation, "The Center for DeMse information gas been organized in order to gither and disseminate information about military programs, American strategy, and alternatives to the Penta- gon's position." Such a statement would not necessarily seem to connote a specifically anti-military predilection on the part of CDI, although a passage in the Pierson article quoting retired Rear Admiral Gene LaRacquewho has served as.CDI's director since the or- ganization's inception, is less neutral in tone than Aspin's -characterization:
"The military has become far too pervasive and powerful," continues Adm. LaRacque. "Defense tells State it wants a part for ships in Greece and State arranges it. That's so sailors can be near their families. But hell, sailors ought to be serving the nation, not the other way around."
Specifically, the admiral and his crew plan to chal- lenge "basic assumptions" underlying current defense thinking. For example, does the U.S. really need to de- fend other countries to defend itself? "I'd like to see what share of the defense budget goes to defending the 50 states," he says. "Maybe 25%?"
More recent CDI literature explicitly raises the spectre of a military establishment grown so powerful that it threatens to subvert traditional civilian control. A letter circulated in March 1978, for example, speaks darkly of the need "to ensure that the military in this country does not overreach civilian control and warns that 11continued unchecked investment in military force poses a threat-- the threat that excessive concern for security will overwhelm those very democratic values the military is designed to preserve and pro-' tect." This theme is carried through at greater length in CUM's basic promotional brochuref which asks the question "Who will Watch the Watchmen?" and proceeds t-a set forth what is apparently the or- ganization's operating rationale, which is worth quoting in full as an indication of whatever bias may properly be charged to CDI and its staff: Throughout this century, democratic societies have been challenged by the twin evils of authoritarianism and militarism.
In response, even the most liberal democracies have them- selves resorted to standing military establishments of unparalleled size and destructive power. America has entrusted its military with-great authority, powert responsibility, and treasure. To its credit and the safety of our democratic institutions, the American military honors the concept of civilian control.
Nevertheless, the need for continuous investment in [email protected] tary forces poses a threat--the threat that excessive concern for security will overwhelm the democratic values our military forces are designed to preserve and protect.
This threat was recognized even.by our founding fathers, who addressed the question in The Federalist Papers. Nore recently, the threat has been=escribed in terms of the "garrison state."
Whether in ancient Roman term , in the words of the Founding Fathers, or in contemporary political analysis, the problem is the same: how do we insure that the mili- tary and the interests which coalesce around it do not outrun the institutions intended to direct and control them?
Only continuing watchfulness can guard against unwar- ranted military influence. This was the objective in creating The Center for Defense.Information in 1972, and it remains a vital task for all Americans.
THE qUESTION OF OBJECTIVITY
As a "non-profit, non-partisan, public interest organization," the Center avows its dedication to "making available continuing, ob- jective information and analyses of our national defense--information which is free of the special interest of any government, military, political or industrial organization." Such a statement is re- miniscent of raRacquds statement, as quoted by Pierson in the 1972 Wall Street Journal article, that he was "going out of his way to fend off 'peaceniks who are anti-military and people who've left the military in anger.'" Whether CDI has avoided involvement with "Peaceniks who are anti-military" is perhaps open to argument;- cer- tainly, as will be seen subsequently, CDI and its associated groups %mrithin the Hatt-backed complex have maintained close working-relation- snips with, for example, the far-left institute for Policy Studies. And, as observed by Pierson, the reality of such an enterprise is that "objectivity-may be an impossible goal," a sentiment echoed in LaRocque!s statement that "Any group that tries to challenge the mili- tary power is going to be of a liberal bent," to which he added, "We've got to accept that. We're not going to get any money from the Barry Goldwaters, and I don't think I want any." Along the same lines, it is perhaps noteworthy that,, according to Pierson, L .aRacquenhas al- ready been dubbed the Ralph Nader of the military," an analogy used by LaRocquehimself in expressing -his desire for long-term effective- ness: "We don't want to be a flash in the pan .... It took Ralph Nader six years of just hard slogging to get established. I think it will take us just as long."
After better than "six years of ... slogging,n CDI has an ex- tensive and varied program of activity, all of it geared to the Cen' ter's avowed policy which, it is claimed, "supports a strong defense but opposes excessive expenditures or forces. It holds that strong social, economic, and political structures contribute-equally to national security and are essential to the strength and viability of our country." The Center's program, as outlined in CD1 promotional material, includes:
\u239\'95 the CD1 Library, "a growing, specialized collection of basic data and analyses essential to the work of our analysts and available toresearchers in the Washington area."
\u239\'95 The Defense Monitor, CDI's newsletter, "published .10 times a year, with each issue devoted to a specific defense issue." According to a CDI promotional letter dated November 15, 1978, "we send out over 8,000 copies of the Defense Monitor each month at a cost of $25,000 annually," and there are no "subscription or service charges" assessed.' CDI's basic brochure, issued prior to the November 1978 letter but subsequent to the election of President Carter in 1976, specifies that the Monitor "is sent to over 7,000 individuals and or- ganizations--500 to the media, including 25 magazines, 115 newspapers, and to most major wire services." The newsletter has been "quoted or referenced in news features and editorials -across the nation," while "Mili- tary war Colleges regularly reproduce Monitor material, as does the Pentagon, which provides cEp-ies to the Ad- mirals and Generals stationed in the Washington, D.C. area.11 Furtherf it is claimed that more than "5000 copies ... are rece4ved by Congressional offices, including those of 85 Senators and 200 Representatives at their re- quest. The Monitor is regularly reprinted in The-Concres- sional- Record."
"Special studies" consisting of "Occasional papers, mono- graphs, and analyses ... originated by the Center or developed. in response to special requests," some of them "generated by members of Congress, government agencies, independent organizations, and individuals." In addition, CDI analysts "frequently write" articles for "wide-circulation publi- cations,-both magazines and newspapers."
a series of books "started in 1976 ... with continued output on-at least an annual basis." CDI reports that "Current issues in U.S. Defense Policy, the first of this series, is already being used as a standard text in many college courses.11
the "Center's Reference Service," characterized as less "immediately visible than publications, although equally important since clients are heavily concentrated among decision makers and opinion leaders," which provides "de- fense information in response to individual requests." CDI claims that inquiries "come from England, India, Germany, Australia,-France, Denmark and Sweden, and other countries" as well as from "Members of Congress, congres- sional offices and committee staffs, the press, governmental offices, other organizations, independent researchers and scholars, students, and private individuals."
radio programs "for rebroadcast by local stations across the country".and television appearances "which contribute to the continuing expansion of the Center's audiences." in addition, "Assistance and coordination have also been supplied for the production of T.V. documentaries concerning defense issues." More recently, this aspect of the Center's activities has been expanded by the release of a CDI film, War Without Winners, characterized in the February 1979 issue of the Defense Monitor as an exploration of "the danger of nuclear war in today's world." The film examines such issues as"the power of nuclear weapons, expected deaths from nuclear war, how nuclear war would start, the size of U.S. and Soviet nuclear arsenals, who is ahead in the nuclear arms race, the spread of nuclear weapons, and the consequences of SALT treaties-" Directed by "Academy Award winning film maker" Haskell Wexler, the film was produced by CDI Board of Advisors member Harold Willens and "was made in cooperation with the Members ok Congress for Peace Through Law Education Fund." \u239\'95 various "Conferences, Seminars*, Meetings, Speeches, and Lectures" which, as "another major aspect" of the Center's work, "range from participation by single staff members to broader staff participation in convocations and conferences extending over several days." CDI em- phasizes that "Center members regularly lecture at Mili- tary War Colleges and at the State Department Foreign Service Institute." The other side of the coin is that "the Cimter itself is frequently the site of conferences, and seminars. Participants range from established experts to student groups and visiting classes."
\u239\'95 'ISpecial Courses for career groups" as part of what the Center calls its neducational activities," an example - being "a national security seminat in conjunction with the University of Maryland for congressional legislative aides." A similar effort consists of CDI "intern & Fellow Programs in conjunction with most major'universities and colleges" which "are conducted on continuous basis at the Center."
\u239\'95 "appearances of Center personnel, by request," to provide expert testimony "before congressional committees, and executive bodies such as the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency,. and the Department of State." Given the repeated emphasis on the influencing of the legislative and ex-- ecutive branches of government that appears in CDI publi- cations,' it is hardly surprising that the CeAter character- izes this as "Probably the most significant of all" aspects of its work and regards it as "indicative" of its "growing recognition."
CDI's leadership -- both with respect to key personnel and with regard to their basic point of view on defense matters -- has remained relatively constant over the years. In 1972, for example, according to Pierson, There were some "37 consultants," including
Dr. William Corson, a retired Marine lieutenant colonel and author of "The Betrayal," a highly critical study of U.S. counter insurgency in Vietnam; Leslie Gelb, compiler of the Pentagon Papers; Morton Halperin, who quit Henry Kissinger's White House staff over policy matters, and Dr. Ralph Littauer of Cornell, co-editor of another critical book, "The Air War in Indochina. " In assessing the potential for objectivity present in the roster of CDI consultants and staf:!, Pierson observed that "most of the people who are joining.the staff of the center or signing up as consultants are dedicated Pentagon budget cutters and well-known doves." As previously noted, retired Rear Admiral Gene R. LaRocque has been CDI's director since the organization's inception. The most re- cent (March 1979) issue of the Defense Monitor lists the following CD1 staff personnel:
Director: Rear AcEiral Gene R. LaRacque U.S. Navy (Rat.)
Deip!LtZ Director: Bri.q. Gen. B. K. Gorwitz U.S. Army (Rat.)
Assistant Director: Dr. Johanna S. ff.-Mendelson
Research Director: David T. Johnson
Senior Staff: Will1Z _J.Flannery James J. Treires, Economist Arthur L. Kanegis Dr. Thomas H. Karas Evelyn S. LaBriola Elsie May Abi El Mona Patricia Eisler
Research Interns: Matthew 14. Aid-(Beloit) Nicholas S. Fish (Harvard) Peter K. Skinner (Stanford)
in addition to LaRocque, several other CDI staff members have been with the organization for extended periods of service. Gorwitz, for example, has been listed as deputy director at least since publication of the May 197S issue of the Defense Monitor, while Mendelscn has been carried as assistant director since June 1978. Johnson was first listed as research director in the issue dated March 21, 1974; issues from September 1976 through April-May 1978, however, listed him simply as a member of the "Senior Staff," the research director designation being resumed with the June 1978 Monitor. Similarly, Dr. Robert M. Whitaker (Col. U.S. Air Force - Ret.-Jserved as staff director for CDI for the better part of two years, as shown in issues of the Monitor from Seutember 1976 through April-May 1.0,78; prior to that tiFe-,he had been listed as a member of the staff since the issue dated July 1975. Perusal of a neacly-complete set of the [email protected] Monitor (beginning with Vol 1, No. 2, June 7, 1972) yields the following compilation of CD1 staff personnel,.which is believed to be as nearly complete a listing as is possible at this point (the date beside each name represents the earliest available issue of the Monitor in which the individual.'s name is carried in a particular staff capacity): Director: First Listed: Rear Admiral Gene R. LaRocque June 7, 1972 U.S. Navy (Ret.)
Assistant Director: fi'ndsay Mattison June 7, 1972 Donald May June 7, 1972 Dr. Johanna S. R. Mendelson June 1978
Associate Director: Lindsay Mattison September 8, 1972 Lt. Col. Edward A. Miller September 8., 1972 USAF (Ret.)
Co-Director: Lindsay Mattison January 30, 1974
Deputy Director: Brig. Gen. B. K. Gorwitz May 1975 U.S. Army (Ret.)
Staff Director: Dr. Robert M. Whitaker September 1976 (Col-U.S. Air Force - Ret.)
Research Director: ffo-ward C. Reese December 12, 1973 David T. Johnson March 21, 1974
Director of Public Information: Dean Rudoy January 30, 1974
Staff Sally Anderson June 7, 1972 Robert Berman June 7, 1972 David Johnson June 7, 1972 William Ronsaville June 7, 1972 Dean Rudoy June 7, 1972 Judith Weiss June 7, 1972 John Nugent September 8, 1972 Josephine Fredericks May 15, 1973 Jane Doyle September 1, 1973 Larry Yuspeh December 12, 1973 Constance Matthews December 12, 1973 William Rust December 12, 1973 Bill Gulledge March 21, 1974 Robert Guttman March 21, 1974 Dennis Brezina April 1974 Barry R. Schneider August 1974 Dr. Stefan H. Leader August 1974 Rosalia Britt August 1974 Susan-Jane Stack August 1974
Staff (cont.) First Listed (cont.) fr-Uce Stoddard August 1974 Daniel Frankel August 1974 William Mako August 1974 Thomas Weber October 1974 James Schear October 1974 Evelyn S. LaBriola December 1974 Doron Bar-Levav January 1975 Richard Goldschmidt January 1975 Bruce Butterworth May 1975 Jim Slack May 1975 John Gile May 1975 Elizabeth Campbell May 1975 Elaine Richardson May 1975 James Willis July 1975 Michael 0. Fallon July 1975 Dr. Dennis F. Verhoff July 1975 Col. Robert M. Whitaker July 1975 Sheila D. Moore July 1975 Monoranjan Bezboruah July 1975 Phil Stanford November 1975 David B. Duboff December 1975 William J. Flannery May 1976 Senior Staff David T. -Johnson September 1976 Dr. Stefan H. Leader September 1976 William J. Flannery September 1976 Nancy B. Jones September 1976 Evelvn S. LaBriola' September 1976 Dr. 3re'"ffrey D. Porro September 1976 Cheryl L. Rosen September 1976 Dr. John F. Tarpey September 1976 (Capt. USN-Ret.) James J. Treires February 1977 Arthur L. Kanegis July 1977 Elsie May Abi El Mona August 1977 Dr. Jo Husbands September-October 1977 Johanna S. R. Mendelson April-May 1978 Dr. Thomas H. Karas August 1978 Patricia Eisler September-October 1978 Special Representative to the UN Sidney R. Katz February 1978
Consultants Dean Rudoy May 1974 Phil Stanford May 1975 David McKillop January 1978 Sidney R. Katz September-October 1978 INTERNS
A review of the same issues of the Defense Monitor indicates that the Center's "Intern & Fellow Programs" have beeR--quite active ones. The following individuals have been listed at various times either as "Junior Fellows" or as research interns, as noted:
Junior Fellows First Listed Mark LiFh_t February 1977 Stan Kaplan July 1977
Center Interns Jeffrey A. Barr September 1, 1973 Carmine F. Cardamone September 1, 1973 Theresa D. Lewis September 1, 1973 Thomas B. Mason September 1, 1973
Interns Janet Harris July 1975 David Duboff July 1975 Jeff Schwab July 1975 Randy Compton July 1975 James Firth (Colby College) February 1976 Paul N. Stockton (Dartmouth College) February 1976 Michael Mariotte (Antioch College) May 1976
Research Interns Wa'rilyn L. Boot (Harvard) September 1976 David L. Phillips (Trinity) September 1976 James Firth (Colby) September 1976 Cornelia J. Ravenal (Harvard) September 1976 Paul N. Stockton (Dartmouth) September 1976 Michael Ottenberg (Ripon College) December 1976 Charles C. Allen (Dartmouth) January 1977 Thomas Gleason (Denison) January 1977 Guy Thomas (Fairhaven College) February 1977 Sally Buckman (Wellesley College) July 1977 Jenny Sternbach (Univ. of Penn.) July 1977 Mark Sugg (St. John's College) July 1977 Amy Timmer (Mich. State Univ.) July 1977 James Cohen (Hampshire College) September-October 1977 Toby Seggerman (Stanford Univ.) September-October 1977 Pamela Strateman (Cornell*Univ.) February 1978 Jim Tierney (Allegheny) February 1978 Susan Helper (Oberlin College) June 1978 Lee Glickenhaus (Oberlin College) June 1978 Dmitri Steinberg (UCLA) June 1978 John Kunreuther (Haverford College) June 1978 Larry Friedman (Columbia Univ.) November 1978 Ellen McCollister (Cornell Univ.) November 1978 Matthew M. Aid (Beloit) February 1979 Nicholas S. Fish (Harvard) February 1979 Peter F. Skinner (Stanford) February 1979
Of the interns, Duboff appears to have been the only one to be listed subsequently as a full member of the CDI staff; and at least a few members of the staff have in turn moved on to employment with the United States Congress. According to the 1978 edition of the authoritative Congressional Staff DirectoxZ, for example, Larry M. Yuspeh was abli-to secure a position as "Financial Analyst" with the Senate Select Committee.on Small Business, while Bruce R. Butterworth was listed as a professional staff employee of the Subcommittee an Government Activities and Transportation of the House Committee an Government Operations. Another past CDI staff employee, Barry R. Schneider, has more recently served as a staff consultant on arms con- trol and military affairs to the influential Members of Congress for Peace Through Law and as a consultant on human rights for the MCPL Education Fund (see Heritage Foundation Institution Analysis No. 1, "Members of Congress for Peace Through Law and Members'of Congress for Peace Through Law Education Fund," April 1977).
BOARD OF ADVISORS
The CDI Board of Advisors represents a fairly broad range of in- .volvement from business and the professions, including retired mili- tary personnel. As shown in the March 1979 issue of the Defense Monitor, the current list is as follows (identifying data Ts -also .-EEFinverbatim from the Monitor listing):
* Doris Z. Bato -- Cos Cob, Connecticut
* Arthur 0. Berliis, Jr. -- Captain USNR (Ret.); former Vice-. President, Allen-Hollander Company * Benjamin V. Cohen Former Advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt * James R. Compton Pres4dent J. R. Compton Development Company; Board of Trustees, Experiment in International Living
* Colonel James Donovan, USMC (Ret.) -- Author; former publisher, Journal of the Armed Forces
* Charles H. Dyson -- Chairman of the Board, Dyson-Kissner Cor- poration
* Seth M. Glickenhaus -- Investment Broker
* James D. Head President, Strategy Development Company
* Stewart Mott Philanthropist Paul Newman Motion Pictures Jubal Parten Oil Producer & Cattle Rancher, Madison, Texas Lawrence S. Phillips -- President, Phillips-Van Heusen Cor- poration Randolph S. Rasin -- Presideni, The Rasin Corporation, Chicago Dr. Earl C. Ravenal -- Former Director, Asian Division (Systems Analysis), Office of Secretary of Defense John Rockwood -- Publisher, Chicago, Illinois Jonathan F. P. Rose Builder/Environmental Planner \u239\'95 Albert M. Rosenhaus Vice President, J. B. Williams Company \u239\'95 Robert P. Schauss -- Metallurgical Engineer; International Consultant for Industrial Development \u239\'95 Alfred P. Slaner -- Former Presidentf Kayser-Roth Corp. Dr. Herbert Scoville, Jr. --.Former Deputy Director, Central Intelligence Agency Philip A. Straus -- Partner, Neuberger and Berman, Members, New"York Stock Exchange
Susan W. Weyerhaeuser -- New York, New York Harold Willens Chairman of the Board, Factory Equipment Corporation
Abraham Wilson Attorney, Partner, Kadel, Wilson and Potts, New York, N.Y. Others who have served as members of the advisory board in past years, as listed in available issues of the Defense Monitor, include: * Morris B. Abram, Jr. -- Pembroke College, oxford, England; founder and former President of [email protected] Vote and Harvard Independent
* Marriner S. Eccles Former Chairman of the Federal Reserve Board
* G. Sterling Grumman G. S. Grumman & Associates, Inc., Mem-. bers New York Stock Exchange \u239\'95 Harry Huge Partner, Arnold and Porter; Chairman, Board of Trustees, UMWA Welfare & Retirement Fund
\u239\'95 Dr. Jeremy J. Stone -- Director, Federation of American Scientists
\u239\'95 Paul Warnke -- Former Assistant Secretary of Defense, inter- national Security Affairs
The membership of CDI's advisory board represents an interlocking relationship with several other groups which are of more than passing interest. Stone' 's organization, for example,*has been identified with activities of the Coalition for a New Foreign and Military Policy, probably the most all-inclusive df the so-called "anti-defense lobby" efforts; and it is regularly featured in Coalition publications as a recommended'resource organization. The FAS has also been active in such undertakings as the campaign against the anti-ballistic missile (ABM); the National Campaign to Stop the B-1 Bomber; and the Campaign to Stop Government Spying, now known as the Campaign for Political Rights, a coalition which includes, in addition to various political and church groupso, such organizations as the National Lawyers Guild, National Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, National Committee Against-Repressive Legislatlon, and National Alliance Against Racist and Political Repression, all ot which have been officially identified as fronts for the Communist Party, U.S.A., along with Morton Halperin's Center for National Security Studies, another project of the Fund for Peace. The September 1978 issue of the F.A.S. Public Interest Report lists Halperin as a member of the FAS National Council and Scoville as one of the organization's sponsors.
Scoville is not the only CD1 advisor to'have had experience in government. Newman has recently participated in United Nations delib- erations on disarmament as part of the American delegation appointed by President Carter; and Warnke, who until very recently had served as President Carter's chief arms negotiator as head of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, is now busily engaged in promoting public support for the President's strategic arms limitation (SALT) agreement.
Willens, in addition to his affiliation with CDI, has been listed as a member of the Board of Trustees of the Fund for Peace and as a principal leader in the anti-Vietnam war Business Executives Move for Vietnam Peace and in BEM's Businessmen's Educational Fund, all of which have been among significant beneficiaries of Mott's financial largesse. With respect to the Businessmen's Educational Fund, it is noted that on April 29, 1972, there was played over Radio Hanoi a tape, .Identified as a regular broadcast of the BEF, in turn identified as the public relations arm of BEM. In this broadcast, one Randy Floyd, claiming to be an ex-Marine pilot, denounced U.S. bombing of North Vietnam, called for a set date for withd-awal of all United States forces from Vietnam, and accused U.S. miiitary forces of war crimes against the Vietnamese people. The program was billed as BEF's "In the Public Interest," the same name used by a broadcast series spon- sored more recently by the Fund for Peace and identified in a 1973 Fund mailing as having been "created two years ago to answer the need for balance on radio." BEM is currently known as Business Executives Move for New National. Priorities and is-a constituent member of the Coalition for a New Foreign and Military Policy. Mott's other involvements have been many and varied. A major contributor to the support of CDI (in 1975, he was reported to have "given $60,000 to the centex over the past three years"), Mott has also donated, often heavily, to such organizations as the Business- men's Educational Fund and Members of Congress for Peace Through Law, as well as to the Fund for Peace itself. From 1970 through 1974, Mott reportedly gave $63,953"to the liberal National Committee for an Efiective Congress (see Heritage Foundation institution Analysis No. 5, "National Committee for an Effective CongresT," -April 1.978) and $283,747 to the Fund for Peace. Mott and his sister, Maryanne Mott Meynet, have also been among contributors to the Youth Project, a leftist apparatus whose executive director from 1972 to 1977 was. Margery Tabankin, well-known anti-Vietnam war activist who traveled to Communist North Vietnam in.1972 and who is now serving as Deputy ..Associate Director of ACTION in the Carter administration under Sam Brown.(see Heritage Foundation Institution Analysis No. 9, "The New Left in Government: From Protest to Policy-Maicing," November 1978). In 1971, Mott endorsed the so-called nPeople's Peace Treaty," drafted in Hanoi and characterized by the House Committee on internal Security as "fully support./Ing/ the communist position on Vietnam." He par- ticipated in A Fegruary 1977 benefit for the Political Rights Defense Fund, an adjunct of the Trotskyite Communist Socialist Workers Party, along with such other celebrities as actor Edward Asner, feminist Kate Millet, and former U.S. Attorney General Ramsey Clark, and cur- rently serves as a member of the National Council of the National Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, cited by both the Senate Inter- nal Security Subcommittee and the House Committee on Un-American Activities as a front for the Communist Party, U.S.A.
Ravenal's background also includes more than his service withthe Office of the Secritary of Defense; it involves an extended connection with activities of the Institute for Policy Studies, one of the na- tion's principal purveyers of extreme leftist theory and activism (see Heritage Foundation Institution Analysis No. 2, "Institute for Policv Studies," May 1977T_. An official TPS history, Beginning the Secona Decade, 1963-1973, listed Ravenal as being among some 56 Associate Fellows who had been part of the "Past IPS Faculty;" and a major study, The ?=oblem. of the Federal Budaet, published in November 1975, reflected his participation tudy Group an the
Federal Budget, a-project of the institute for Policy Studies and the Transnational Institute, a principal IPS subsidiary the leader- ship of which includes the head of the British section of the Fourth Thternational, a world-wide Trotskyite Communist-apparatus with a documented record of support for terrorist violence. Ravenal has also contributed to the most recent IPS budget study, a volume on The Federal Budget and Social Reconstruction: The People and the State published in 1978. This-latest study desc s him as "a ?=elow at the Institute for Policy Studies" who "has written a number of books and articles on American foreign and military policy, and teaches International Relations at Georgetown and Johns Hopkins Universities."
INTERLOCXS WITH FUND FOR PEACE
Of the 24 individuals currently serving as members of the CDI Board of Advisors, no fewer than 12 (Bata, Berliss, Compton, Donovan, Dyson, Ravenal, Rosenhaus, Sciauss, Scoville, Slaner, Straus, and Wilson) were also listed as members in the August 1974 issue of the Defense Monitor, the earliest issue to carry such a listing. Prior to August 1974, the Monitor simply listed current CDI staff employees and, above the usual identification of CDI as "a project of the Fund .for Peace," enumerated the Fund's Board of Trustees, which, as of the May 1974 issue, was as follows:
Mo=is Abram, Jr. Myres S. McDougal Arthur.D. Berliss, Jr. Joseph E. McDowell Louise R. Berman- Sen. S.M. Metzenbaum Cyril E. Black Stewart R. Mott Julian Bond Davidson Nicol Dr. William G. Bowen Nicholas Nyary Sen. Edward W. Brooke Earl D. Osborn Joel 1. Brooke A.H. Parker Ellsworth T. Carrington Mrs. Maurice Pate James E. Cheek Lawrence Phillips Joseph S. Clark Stan'Ley K. Platt Barry Commoner Robert V. Roosa James R. Compton Albert M. Rosenhaus Randolph P. Compton Matthew B. Rosenhaus Andrew W. Cordier Henry E. Schultz Norman Cousins Alfred P. Slaner Royal S. Durst Young M. Smith, Jr. Dr. Helen Edey Josephine B. Spencer Richard A. Falk H. Peter Stern Richard N. Gardner Mark Talisman Robert W. Gilmore Dr. Kenneth W. Thompson G. Sterling Grumman Audrey Topping
Charles-Guggenheim Ira D-. Wallach Rev. Theodore Hesburgh Philip M. Warburg Harry B. Hollins Jerome B. Weisner Harry Huge Harold Willens Mrs. Thomas E. Irvine Franklin H'. Williams Adm. Gene La Racque Abraham Wilson Arthur Larson Charles W. Yost Walter J. Leonard Mrs. Arthur N. Young Joseph P. Lyford
Of the above, 11 have been identified in CDI literature as members of the CD1 Board of Advisors: Abram, Berliss, James R. Compton, Grumman, Huge, Matt, Phillips, Albert M. Rosenhaus, Slaner, Willens, and Wilson; LaRacque, as previously noted, has been the Center's di- rector continuously since 1972. A list of the officers and board members of the Fund circulated in 1975 cited Nyary as president, Wilson as vice president and counsel, and Mott as one of two co-chair- men of the Fund's Executive Committee. Because of the significant in- terlock existing between CDI and the Fund for Peace, it is noteworthy that Nyary, as president of the Fund, served as a member of the Ameri- can delegation to a September 23-26, 1976, world Conference to End the Arms Race, for Disarmament and Detente, organized by the Continuing Liaison Council of the World Congress of Peace Forces and held in .Helsinki, Finland. The president of the Continuing Liaison Council is also secretary-general of the World Peace Council, and the 3 'elsinki conference was a major WPC undertaking during 1976. The WPC has long been recognized as-the principal international Communist front organi- zation, a fact which lends added significance to involvement in its activities by a key leader in the CDI-affiliated Fund for Peace. As shown by a July 1978 report prepared by the Central Intelli-ence Agency 9 at the request of Representative John M. Ashbrook (R-Ohio),..the World Peace Council, "with its headquarters in Helsinki, is the most Im- .portant Sovidt front organization" and "supports disarmament on Soviet terms.(without international inspection) along with various subsidiary campaigns backing Soviet policy on the Middle East, Cyprus, Chile, South Africa and other regional problems." As the same report demon- strates, ultimate control of WPC policy actually lies with a represen- tative of this international Department of the Soviet Communist Party, which even "stands firmly over the KGB /Soviet Secret Police/ for clandestine political activities. In tKese matters the KGB-may act only on direction of the ID."*
*Another 1974 member of the Fund's Board of Trustees is also of particular interest. According to a w-anuary 1959 report of the House Committee an Un-American Actiivities an Patterns of Communist Esvionace, Louise Bransten Berman /nee Posenbe=g/ "has several times been identified with Soviet espionage operations in-this country." INTERLOCKS WITH CENTER FOR NATIONAL SECURITY STUDIES
In view of the interlocking relationship which exists between CDI and the Fund for Peace, it is hardly surprising to find a similar situation with respect to,CDI and other projects of the Fund such as the Center for National Security Studies, the Center for International Policy, and In the Public Interest. In 1976, for example, Matt was listed by CNSS as a member of the organization's Advisory Committee', along with Richard J. Barnet and Peter Weiss of the far-left Institute .for Policy Studies. Another principal IPS activist, Robert Borosageol was listed as the group's director, a position now held by veteran anti-intelligence community activist Morton Halperin. CNSS today stands pre-eminent among those organizations which are carrying on the systematic campaign of litigation and other activities designed to weaken the U.S: government's intelligence organizatidns; and it is of some significance that the organization has, throughout its careerf maintained close working relations with key IPS people.
INTERLOCKS WITH CENTER FOR INTERNATIONAL POLICY
The Center for International Policy describes itself as "a non- profit education and research organization that examines the relation- ship of U.S. foreign policy to the status of human rights and needs - .- political, economic, and social -- in the-third world." A CIP doc- ument quoted in the January 26, 1977, edition of the Congressional Record cites the group's concern with "Intervention in the domestic af !Fairs of Chile, military and economic support of dictatorships :Ln Greece, Korea, Brazil and elsewhere, and an effort to -involve the U.S. in Angola," all of them situations,, as stated by Representative Larry McDonald (D-Ga.), in which "the United States supported indigenous non-Communist groups in resisting Soviet-planned and financed aggression .by Communists."
CIP's official publication is international Policv Revort, which also carries a listing of the group's staff and advisory board. The editor of this publication of CIP "associate" Susan Weber, who has also served as business manager for The Elements, self-described as a publication of "the Transnational Institute, a program of the In- situte for Policy Studies." Among those who have been members of the CIP Board of Advisors was, until his assassination, Orlando Letelier, form-ar official in the pro-Communist government of Salvador Allende in Chile. Letelier is known to have been receiving funds on a monthly basis from the DGM, the Cuban secret police apparatus controlled by the Soviet KGB, and was a prominent leader in the Institute for Pclicy Studies and the IPS Transnational institute. The May 1978 issue of International Policv Report listed the following CDI-connected indi- viduals as members of the EIP Board of Adviscrs': Benjamin V. Cohen, Stewart R. Mott, Susan Weyerhaeuser, and Abraham Wilson. The complete
list, which includes former high-ranking gotrernment personnel and several individuals with ties to the Fund -fwr Peace, is as follows, with identifying data taken verbatim from the Remort: Thomas R. Asher, lawy'er,*Washinigton, D.C. William Attwood, president and publisher, Newsday; former U.S. ambassador
Peggy Billings, Women's Division, Board of Global Ministries, United Methodist Church
Joel 1. Brooker retired partner, Elmo Roper & Associates
Benjamin V. Cohen, advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Jerome Cohen, director of East Asia Legal Studies, Harvard Law School.
Adrian W. Dewind, former legislative'Counsel, U.S. Treasury
Richard A. Falk, professor of international law and practice, Princeton University
Donald M. Fraser, Member of Congress
Arthur J. Gcrldberq, f ormer Supreme Court justice and ambassador to the U.N.
Philip C. Jessup, former U.S. member of the International Court of Justice; former U.S. ambassador
Philip Johnson, president, Council for Religion and International Affairs
Leon H. Keyserling, former dhairman, Economic Advisory Council Wassily Leontief , economist, Nobel laureate, and professor, New York University
Sally Lilienthal, sculptor, San Francisco
Stewart R. Mott, trustee, The Fund for Peace
Edward Snyder, executive secretary, kriends Committee on National Legislation
Susan Weyerhaeuser, trustee, The Fund for Peace
Abraham Wilson, par-Itner, Kadel, Wilson & Potts
Charles W. Yost, senior ::'ellow, Aspen institute; -former U.S. representative to the U.N.
INTERLOCKS WITH rN THE PUBLIC INTEREST
In the Public Interest, which has been described by former Senator Walter Mondale (D-Minn.) as "an invaluable service," has characterized itself in the following language, according to an un- dated IPI brochure: "To counteract the onslaught of right-wing broad- casting, the Fund for Peace, through IPI, has developed a strong, ef- fective voice to inform the American public." To IPI, the "[email protected] tion` consists of such organizations as the John Birch Society, Liberty Lobbyp America's Future, former California governor Ronald Reagan, and the American Security Council, cited as "a strong military-industrial complex backer." The same source reflects that
IPI provides accurate, up-to-date, often exclusive information and analysis an current events at no charge to newspapers and radio stations throughout the fifty states.
Information is gathered by the investigative scholar- ship of the three research centers of The Fund for Peace --
The Center for Defense information, The Center for National Security Studies, The Institute for International Policy /now known as the Center for international Polic-P -
as well as the studies of its university fellows, the results of its seminars and conferences, and a wide range of other sources.
In "reaching 8,000,000 people with alternate points of view as an educational service of the Fund for Peace," IPI bills itself as 11not a single voice but many voices," including such CDT-affiliated individuals as LaRocque, Paul Newman, and Herbert Scoville. Other "voices" have included prominent anti-Vietnam war activistslak-e Fred Branfman, William Sloane Coffin, and Dan Luce;.former U.S. Attorney General Ramsey Clark; economist John Kenneth Galbraith; environmental activist Joe Browder; consumer movement panjandrum Ralph Nader; IPS-activists Richard Barnet and Robert Borosage; and. numerous members of the U.S. Congress, among them Representatives Les Aspin (D-Wis.), Yvonne Burke and Ron Dellums (D-Calif.), James Symington (D-Mo.), and Charles Whalen (D-Ohio) and Senators Frank Church (D-idaho)t Dick Clark (D-lowa), Joseph S. Clark (0-Pa.), Alan Cranston (D-Calif.), John Culver (D-lowa), Sam Ervin (D-N.C.), J. William Fulbright (D-Ark.), Fred Harris (D-Okla.), Floyd Haskell (D-Colo.), Edward Kennedy (D-Mass.), Eugene McCarthy (0-Mlinn.), George McGovern (D-S.D.)i Charles Mathias (R-Md.), Lee Metcalf (D-Mont.), Walter Mandale (D-Minn.), Edmund Musk,;e (D-Maine), Charles Percy (R-111.), William Proxmire (O-Wis.), @nd Richard-Schweiker (R-Pa.). The undated IPI brochure also listed the members of the organi- zation's Board of Advisors, which has included several individuals with ties to CDI. The complete list, with identifying information, is as follows:
\u239\'95 Arthur Arundel, President,Arundel Communications;.President, WAVA (Arlington) \u239\'95 Richard Barnet, Co-director, institute for Policy Studies \u239\'95 Robert Borosage, Director, Center for National Security Studies
\u239\'95 Joel Brooke, tetired Partner, Elmo Roper Assoc.
\u239\'95 Joseph S. Clark, Vice President, American Academy of Political and Social Science; former U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania
\u239\'95 Randolph P. Compton, Chairman, The Fund for Peace
\u239\'95 Maxwell Dane, retired Chairman Executive Committee, Doyle, Dane, Bernbach, Inc.
\u239\'95 Morris Deest Chief Trial Counsel, Southern Poverty Law Center
\u239\'95 Royal H. Durst, Partner, The Durst Organization
\u239\'95 Richard A. Falk, Professor of International Law and Practice, Princeton University
\u239\'95 Rev. Richard Fernandez, Director of Public Education, Global Issues, Institute for World Order
\u239\'95 G. Sterling Grumman, President, G.S. Grumman & Assoc., Inc.'
\u239\'95 Russell D. Hemenway, National Director, National Committee for an Effective Congress
\u239\'95 Nicholas Johnson, Chairperson, National Citizens Committee for Broadcasting
\u239\'95 Edward Lamb, lawyer; Chairman, Lamb Communications, Inc.
\u239\'95 Gene R. LaRocque, Rear Admiral U.S.N. (ret.); Director, Center for Defense Information
\u239\'95 Carl Marcy, Attorney; Former Chief of Staff, Senate Foreign Relations Committee \u239\'95 Eugene McCarthy, former U.S. Senator fr-m Minnesota
\u239\'95 Edward A. Miller, Colonel, U.S.A.F. (ret.); staff member for Senator Gary Hart
\u239\'95 Stewart Mott, philanthropist \u239\'95 Jei:emy Rigkin,, Chairman, People's Bicentennial Commission
\u239\'95 William'Schnsider, Associate Professor of Government, Harvard University
\u239\'95 Philip Stern, author and philanthropist
\u239\'95 Ira Wallachr Chairman, Gottesman & Co., Inc.
\u239\'95 Abraham Wilson, Lawyer, Kadel,, Wilson & Potts
\u239\'95 James Wynbrandt, Executive Editor, Progressive Radio-Network
As with other Fund for Peace projects described in preceding sec- tions of this study, the interlocking relationship between In the Public interest and the Center for Defense Information*is readily apparent from a simple comparison of the organizati6ns' respective -advisory boards. In addition to CDI Director LaRocque, the advisory board of IPI has included Grim=an, Mott, and Abraham Wilson, all of whom have been among members of CDT's own Board of Advisors; and Col. Edward A. Miller, in addition to working for Senator Gary Hart (D-Colo.), has served in the past as Associate Director of CDI-
The Center for Defense Information operates an a budget which has been estimated as being approximately $300,000. The organization's basic promotional brochure states that the "Center for Defense Infor- mation is a project of The Fund for Peace" and that "The Fund has no endowment; all of its projects depend wholly upon the interest and support of concerned citizens." Such "concerned citizens" have re- portedly included both Paul Newman and Stewart Mott; and CDI also solicits contributi'Ons through the direct-mail mechanism, an induce- ment beincr the 501(c)(3) tax-exempt status of CDI's parent Fund for Peace. A CDI solicitation letter dated November 15, 1978, and signed by LaRacque as*director states that "Contributions to the.Center for Defense Information are tax-deductible. They should be.made payable to the Fund for Peace.."
Another major source of funds for the Center and other Fund pro- jects has been a group of tax-exempt charitable foundations, princi- pally in New York City. These foundations generally enjoy a couanon denominator that is of no small interest: officers or directors' who have also served as members of the advisory boards of CDI or IPI, or else as trustees of the Fund for Peace. The trustees of the Danforth Foundation, for example, which is based in St. Louis, Missouri, in- clude James R. Compton, a trustee of the Fund for Peace and a member of the CDI Advisory Board, and Charles Guggenheim, also a trustee of the Fund for Peace. Similarly, Morris B. Abram, who has been-listed as a member of the CD1 Advisory Board and of the Board of Trustees of the Fund for Peace, is president of the Field Foundation in New York, while Philip M. Stern, a member of the IPI Board of Advisors, is also president of the New York-based Stern Fund. Also, Robert W. Gilmore, who has served as a trustee of the EPP, is president of the Hertz- Gilmore Foundation of New York; and yet another Fund trustee, Dr. Helen Ede irector of New York City's Scherman Foundation. .y, is a d Finally, the directors of the Compton Foundation, another New York- based institution,'include Fund for Peace trustee Kenneth W. Thompson, while the foundation's officers include CDI advisor and EPP trustee Jam s Compton and IPI advisor and Fund for Peace Board of Trustees Chairman Randolph Compton.
Listings of major grants to the Fund for Peace and its various projects, including the Center for Defense Information, as published in annual editions of the Foundation Center's authoritative Foundation Grants Index, are set forth below and include, where specifiid, the ..aates on=hlch the.grants were authorized and the purposes for which .they were made by the granting institution:
* $330,.000 from the Danforth Foundation, St. Louis, Missouri, 1972, to the Fund for Peace "for fellowship program for in- ternationAl peace and world order studies."
* $75,000 from the Field Foundation, New York, New York, 1972, to the Fund for Peace "for support of Centerfor Defense Information."
* $75,000 from the Field Foundation, 1973, to the Fund for Peace, Center for Defense Information, "To support research and public education on the economic and social consequences of American military policy."
* $5,000 from the Abelard Foundation, New York, New York, June 10, 1974, to the Fund for Peace "For Project on an Open Society" to "stimulate research and creative scholar- sRip in development of warless system of international re- lations and to impart such knowledge to the public."
* $75,000 from the Field Foundation, January 1974, to the Fund for Peace "For research, public infcrmation, and other work of its Project for an open Society."
* $20,000 from the Field Foundation, January 1974, to the Fund for Peace "For work in Project for an Open Society involving monitoring and reporting publicly on Federal Law Enforcement Assistance Administration and related matters."
* $119,475 from the Compton Foundation, New York, New York, 1974., to the Fund for Peace "For general purposes."
* $53,625 from the Compton Foundation', 1974, to the Fund for Peace "For Warburg Fellows."
* $20,000 from the Compton Foundation, 1974, to the Fund for Peace "For general support and public interest purposes."
* $20,000 from the Compton Foundation, 1974, to the Fund for Peace "For Foreign Affairs Center."
* $20,000 from the Compton Foundation, 1975, to the Fund for Peace "For general purposes."
* $5,494 from the Compton Foundation, 1974, to the Fund for Peace "For convocation."
* $5,000 from the Compton Foundation, 1974, to the Fund for Peace "For public interest purposes."
* $125,000 from the Field Foundation,, February 1975, to the Fund for Peace nFor general support of Center for National Security Studies, DC, which is engaged in research and public information activities concerning growth of state power in the name of national security."
* $75,000 from the Field Foundation, June 1974, to the Fund for Peace "To support its Center for Defense Information in DC, which undertakes research and public education on economic and social consequences of American military policies."
* $15,000 from the Stern Fund, New York, New York, 1974, to the Fund for Peace "For Center for National Security Studies in its efforts to encourage more openness in government and re- straint on military and political adventures."
* $15,000 from the Stern Fund, June 1, 1974, to the Fund for Peace "To establish Center for National Security Studies to question the ominous growth of state power which has developed under the banner of 'national security.'"
* $91,000 from the Compton Foundation, December 10, 1975, to the Fund for Peace. * $20,000 from the Compton Foundation, December 31, 1975, to the Fund for Peace.
* $20',000 from the Co=ton Foundation, March 26, 1976, to the Fund for Peace "For general purposes."
* $19,276 from the Compton Foundation, April 7, 1976, to the Fund for Peace.
* $75,000 from the Field Foundation, May 1976, to the Fund for Peace, Center for Defense information, "For research and public education on economic and social consequences of American military policies and their effects on liberty."
* $10,000 from the Field Foundation, May 1976, to the Fund for Peace, Center for National Security Studies, "'For work to monitor and report publicly an federal Law Enforcement Assis- tance Administration and related matters."
* $125,000 from the Field Foundation, November 1975, to the Fund for Peace "For general support of its Center for National Security Studies, DC, which is engaged in research and public information on growth of state power in the name of national security."
* $75,000 from the Field Foundation, September 1975, to the Fund for Peace "For research'and public information at Center for Defense Information, DC, on economic and social consequences of American military-policies and their effect on liberty."
$20,000 from the Field Foundation, November 1975, to the Fund for Peace "For work at Center for National Security Studies, DC, involving monitoring and reporting publicly on federal Law Enforcement Assistance Administration and related matters."-
* $15,000 from the Field Foundation, September 1975,-to the Fund for Peace for the same stated purpose.
* $7,8oa from the Field Foundation, September 1975, to the Fund for Peace "For research and writing at Center for National Security Studies, DC, on blacks and the military."
* $20,000 from the Stern Fund, March 1976, to the Fund for Peace, Center for National Security Studies, "For study of U.S. trade union and government intervention in French and Italian unions after World War 11 up to the present." * $76,500 from the Compton Foundation, 1976, to the Fund for Peace "To stimulate research and creative scholarship in development of warless system of international relations and to impart.such knowledge to the public."
* $26,405 from the Compton Foundation, 1976, to the Fund for Peace "For joint study, American University Field Staff in Hanover, NH, and Institute for the Study of World Politics, NYC."
* $25,782 from the Compton Foundation, July 1, 1976, to the Fund for Peace.
* $15,469 from the Compton Foundation, September 24, 1976, to the Fund for Peace "For general support."
* $133,000 from the Field Foundation, November 1976, to the Fund for Peace "To support Center for National Security Studies, DC, which is engaged in research and public infor- mation on growth of state power in name of national security."
* $75,000 from the Field Foundation, March 1977, to the Fund for Peace nFor Center for Defense Information in DC which under- takes research and public education on economic and social consequences of American military policies and their effects on liberty."
* $17,000 from the Scherman Foundation, New York, New York, 1976, to the Fund for Peace.
* $150,000 from the Compton Foundation, September 14, 1977, to the Fund for Peace, Institute for the Study of World Peace, "For general support and for fellowship program."
* $61,169 from the Compton Foundation, November 17, 1977, to the Fund for Peace "For general support."
* $25,000 from the Compton Foundation, September 14, 1977, to the Fund for Peace "For Institute for the Study of World Politics program wi.th American Universities Field Staff
* $15,,000 from the Compton.Foundation, Ma