October 3, 2000
I want to thank Chairman Sessions for requesting this written testimony on the U.S. Department of Justice's use of performance-based management, with a particular focus on their first required Performance Report, from the 1993 Government Performance and Results Act, to tell the taxpayers what their programs are accomplishing.
My name is Virginia Thomas. I am a Senior Fellow in Government Studies at The Heritage Foundation where my mission is to help the Congress and taxpayers focus on government accountability through the use of performance-based management techniques and effective congressional oversight. I must stress, however, that the views I express are entirely my own, and should not be construed as representing any official position of The Heritage Foundation. Although I am not a specialist in Justice programs, your invitation has given me the opportunity to review Justice Department reports on their activities concerning FY 1999, as well as related reports from the Congress, GAO and the Inspector General's office.
Your effort to focus your oversight authority on what is working and what is not working at Justice is a commendable one that has the potential to elevate policy debates about Justice's performance.
The presidential election elicits candidates who claim credit or tout new government spending for society's problems, when in truth, little is known about the effectiveness of existing federal programs. Americans should use this opportunity to demand credible information on such claims and promises. No federal program should continue or be spawned based on good intentions, political power, popularity or benign neglect. Washington has typically established programs and provided money for laudatory purposes, but rarely is there adequate follow through to judge whether the effort is achieving the desired results.
This paper is an effort to assess the Justice Department's effectiveness in achieving results for the American people based on their own reports that come from the 1993 Government Performance and Results Act.
Seven years ago, when Congress passed and President Clinton signed the Government Performance and Results Act (the Results Act), few realized the practical consequences that this law could have on our government. The Results Act requires that agencies prepare Annual Performance Reports that include:
A description of the agency's actual performance compared with the performance goals set in the latest annual Performance Plan for the applicable fiscal year (FY 1999 in this case);
An explanation of which goals were not met and why;
A description of what the agency will do in the future to achieve unmet goals; and
A description of actions to address performance goals that proved to be impractical or infeasible.1
The first set of these reports were due this last spring.
Performance measurement need not be a mere paperwork exercise, or an exercise in gimmickry. Instead it should focus policy-makers on how the government can deliver higher quality, more effective assistance to more people at less cost.
Does Congress know which Justice Department programs are most and least effective? Improved performance-oriented congressional oversight may reveal that programs are duplicative and do not aid those for whom the programs were intended. And, most importantly, such oversight may well deliver real results for those for whom programs were originally created.
Consequences of Failing to Identify and Reform Ineffective Justice Programs
Americans don't care if the government is training more people, arresting more criminals, getting more "hits" on their web sites or even putting more cops on the street. The real measure of success is whether federal activities and taxpayer dollars are preventing crime, maintaining our prisons, securing our borders, protecting our civil rights, reducing illegal drug supply and use and maintaining civil order while honoring the rule of law and balancing our civil liberties.
Few agencies, including the Justice Department, have developed the necessary performance measures and reliable data sources to demonstrate the results they are achieving to benefit the public. Yet neither the Justice Department, nor America can afford to not ferret out wasteful, ineffective programs and better replicate programs that work based on their important function in our society.
The federal government spent approximately $26.2 billion in FY 1999 out of a total discretionary budget of $575 billion on administering justice, a function that involves at least 27 other departments and agencies2, as well as the judicial branch.3 Over the past 10 years, the share of federal outlays for this governmental function has grown from less than 1% to almost 1.5% - which in a period of growing entitlement spending represents a large proportionate increase in taxpayer funding.
The United State Justice Department is akin to the largest law firm in the world. It represents the US government in court and is responsible for all federal criminal law prosecutions, as well as most civil legal litigation regarding the government.
For fiscal year 1999, Congress provided approximately $21 billion in appropriated and fee-funded monies4 for Department of Justice (DOJ) activities conducted by more than 125,000 federal employees in more than 2,700 offices within the United States and 120 foreign cities. This funding level represents a 50% increase in DOJ programs over the last 4 years, as Congress increased funding for this cabinet department by almost $6 billion with the explicit understanding that this money was to "fight crime."5
Summarizing Justice's efforts to measure its performance, we see:
The Department created 7 functions, 32 performance goals, and 175 performance measures to judge their own results.6
There are 69 self-proclaimed successes out of 175; 39 failures and 59 instances where no one could verify the results due to data problems or changed measurements.
In reviewing the Department's goals, one might expect to see different measures than the ones used. For example:
To reduce violent crime, Justice should measure each crime rate, particularly federal ones or violent crimes by number of incidents, and then also by arrests, prosecutions, convictions and % of sentencing served for crimes. Based on some reports on the outstanding warrants to be served that have been backlogged, Justice may want to consider measuring warrants served in this category as well. Another peculiar measure Justice uses in this goal is the measurement of reduction in La Cosa Nostra membership - a measure that does not pass common sense questions of how Justice would be able to know the population of LCN members.
To reduce availability and use of drugs, Justice is comfortable using a variety of process-oriented measures. Instead, they should consider measures placed in statute for the Office of National Drug Control Program such as: reduced drug use from 6.1% to 3%, reduced adolescent drug use by a specific percentage, reduced drug-related emergency visits by a specific percentage and reduced juvenile or property-related drug crime.
To reduce terrorism and espionage, Justice needs to measure reduced incidents of espionage. Terrorism acts that do occur would be a preferred measure over those that do not occur. One would wonder whether the data that supports these incidents are valid.
To improve white collar crime or other civil law enforcement areas, measurements should be based on success of government litigation and enforcement efforts in the state and federal courts.
Management goals should be consolidated, as they appear sporadically throughout Justice's report.
Justice needs to set measures carefully to balance the use of intrusive technology with proper respect of privacy. Wiretapping and similar invasive investigative techniques should be judged based on whether or not this evidence was used in a successful prosecution within a reasonable timeframe, such as one year.
Grants are proliferating out of Justice and they should be judged with strict accountability for the impact or benefit the public or the government is able to receive from each grant. Currently, there is little or no obvious reporting of results on grants in the Department's Performance Report.
Customer satisfaction measures or surveys should be used in appropriate functions, not, as appears now to be the case, with prisoners who are assessed on whether they found their transportation acceptable, but rather with the victims of crime who were assisted or should have been assisted with timely, quality service from public officials.
Programs focusing on missing children or violent crime against women should use common sense measures such as reduced incidences of missing children or reduced incidences of reported cases of violence against women. Certainly, the Justice Department should not be, as it appears to be, using performance management to force a potentially counter-productive law enforcement technique on local officials, such as # of grantees to implement a mandatory arrest policy in cases of violence against women.
In measuring the anti-trust impact of Justice's actions, a better set of measures would include whether consumers now have more choices, with higher quality and lower prices than they did prior to Justice's intervention/actions?
In Justice's report, there is no evidence of Justice cooperating with other federal offices to ensure successful governmental performance. Is Justice effectively sharing responsibility for various goals with other departments, such as IRS (for fair enforcement of tax laws) or Labor (for curtailing union corruption) or other Departments?
Contrary to the concern raised by Attorney General Reno in early sections of the performance reports about the perverse incentives that measures could raise so as to establish bounty hunting in the law enforcement arena, Justice's plan includes several such measures. These include measurements that count collected fines, # of crimes investigated, amount of assets seized or # of prisoners moved.
Prisoner maintenance is measured with poor and benign measurements. These could be replaced with measures such as: % of prisoners serving their complete sentence; # of escapes (which is currently used); adequacy of facilities and adequate maintenance of existing facilities.
Inmate service programs such as drug abuse, education, job training should be measured with techniques that verify that there has been a lasting impact from any federal assistance. These impacts should then be transparent to see which programs are working the best.
Some of the best and worst measures used at Justice are highlighted below:
Not using reduced incidences of crime, i.e. Violence Against Women Act
# of indictments and convictions in targeted drug efforts, in white collar crimes
# of people trained
Average response times for IDing fingerprints, getting naturalization done
No measure on reduced espionage.
No measure on effective use of wiretap authority.
# of escapes of prisoners
% reduction in LCN membership
# of packages of info created for grantees
# of new INTERPOL cases
# of persons prohibited from purchasing firearms who were stopped
$ value of fines, penalties and relief
# of terrorist acts prevented
Jurisdictions with mandatory arrest policies (VAWA)
COPS funding officers vs. # of officers and unrelated to reducing crime
Increasing the number of police on the streets
Quantity of drugs seized at border (although hard to know what percent this represents)
If Congress has given the Justice Department more than it can humanly do, the public needs to recognize this with credible, reliable, objective and transparent data on what is working and what is not working at Justice.
In a report to the Senate Governmental Affairs committee, the General Accounting Office (GAO)said:
"Overall, DOJ's progress in achieving desirable program outcomes cannot be readily determined since the agency has yet to develop performance goals and measures that can objectively capture and describe performance results. DOJ's performance measures are (1) more output than outcome oriented, (2) do not capture all aspects of performance, and/or (3) have no stated performance targets."7
The Mercatus Center at George Mason University ranked the Justice Department Performance Report 21st of the 24 largest federal departments and agencies with a grade of 23 out of 60 points. Specifically, they said of Justice's report:
"Tedious reading with lots of insufficiently explained acronyms and tables…The report is inwardly focused - not on Americans safety, freedom and access to dispute resolution, but on the `diverse activities and major accomplishments of' the DOJ"8
Justice should be able to demonstrate progress, but doesn't, in resolving the Department's most serious internal management problems, as documented by its own Inspector General.
Longstanding Problems at Justice
The first Performance Report should have demonstrated progress in solving many of the longstanding problems identified by Justice's Inspector General or the General Accounting Office, yet, there was little if any mention of these:
INS's organizational structure impedes its ability to both enforce immigration laws and provide services for immigration and citizenship.
Justice's INS cannot provide up-to-date information on immigration law.
INS can't pass an audit.
Vulnerabilities in INS' naturalization procedures and practices, coupled with a higher volume of naturalization applications, have increased the risk that U.S. citizenship will be granted to ineligible applicants. INS has allowed criminal aliens to be released into communities, and have increased the risk of granting citizenship to ineligible applicants.
Justice has significant financial management weaknesses. They are unable to track a new flood of federal funding into Justice, such as the $8.8 billion grant program for state and local law enforcement agencies to hire or re-deploy 100,000 additional officers to perform community policing.
Justice's DEA has such internal weaknesses as to allow embezzlements.
Justice's Asset Forfeiture program, as well as a similar Treasury program, operate asset forfeiture (such as illegal drugs, property and cash) programs which have inventories valued at several billion dollars. The programs are vulnerable to theft and misappropriation due to internal control weaknesses.
Justice's computer systems have been poorly planned, wasted time and money in delayed implementation and were unable to provide timely, useful and reliable data, as well as put vast amounts of sensitive data at risk of unauthorized disclosure.
Justice now houses 118,000 inmates in Bureau of Prisons facilities which have a capacity of only 89,675.
Detention space and infrastructure for criminals and illegal migrants are increasing problems. The INS and USMS are experiencing rapid growth in the use of detention space, from an average of 31,966 beds in 1996 to a projected 55,000 to 67,000 beds in 2001.
The INS program to deport illegal aliens is largely ineffective. Only a small percentage of non-detained illegal aliens with final deportation orders are actually deported. The INS fails to identify many deportable criminal aliens, including aggravated felons nor do they initiate Institutional Hearing Program (IHP) proceedings for them before they are released from prison. Ineligible aliens, including convicted felons, are inappropriately granted voluntary departure.
Financial mismanagement is bad enough, but government ineptness has resulted in unnecessary deaths. On June 2, 1999, New Mexico Border Patrol agents had a man, known as the railway murderer, in custody who was wanted for several murders. After being released back into Mexico, he is suspected to have murdered at least four more people, including Dr. Claudia Benton in Houston, Texas. Despite being wanted by the FBI9, Texas Rangers and the Houston police, INS agents let him go simply because of their lack of knowledge on how to use a database that includes fingerprints, photographs and criminal background information for those caught entering the country illegally. Attorney General Janet Reno told Congress that 37% of the 35,000 criminal aliens released over the last five years from INS custody went on to commit additional crimes.10
Clinton Performance Promises
President Clinton, in his Government Wide Performance Plans made a variety of related promises to improve government management and performance in the following ways:
President Clinton's promises 1999 and 2000
1999 Government Wide Performance Plan included the following priority performance goals:
Justice will maintain commitment to reduce the incidence of violent crime below the 1996 level of 634 offenses per 100,000.
Justice will provide funding for communities to hire and deploy 16,000 more officers in 1999.
Justice will reduce specific organized crime and its influence on unions and industries from the 1997 level, while intensifying efforts to prevent emerging organized crime enterprises.
Justice will ensure no judge or witness is the victim of an assault.
The Marshals Service will apprehend 80% of violent offenders within 1 year of a warrant's issuance, and will reduce fugitive backlog from 1998 by 5%.
Reduce the availability and abuse of illegal drugs.
Reduce the average time between application and naturalization of qualified candidates from 24 months to 6-10 months.
Increase the removals of illegal aliens from 111,794 in 1997 to 134,900 in 1999.
Identify over 38,500 unauthorized workers.
2000 Government Wide Performance Plan included the following priority performance goals:
Fund an additional 50,000 officers by 2005.
Provide law enforcement with latest technology for fighting and solving crime.
Fund new prosecutors.
Largest gun enforcement initiative in history to improve speed and accuracy of Brady background checks, add an additional 500 Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms agents, expand crime gun tracing and ballistic imaging systems, hire 1,000 gun prosecutors, fund smart gun technology research, fund over 100 prosecutors and 20 enforcement coordination teams, fund media campaigns on violence and gun safety, and get local law enforcement to end the reselling of used and seized firearms.
Establish the first national ballistics network to trace bullets and shell casings.
Lower recidivism rates
Promote responsible fatherhood for the nearly 500,000 inmates who leave prison or jail this year.
Combat gender-based crime by strengthening the justice system's response, support and enhance services for victims, fund a hotline and battered women shelters and expand outreach to under-served populations.
Reduce the rising Indian violent crime rate by increasing the number of law enforcement in Indian country, improve the quality of the criminal justice system, enhance substance abuse programs and combat youth crime.
Reimburse state and local governments for the cost of incarcerating criminal illegal aliens.
Combat money laundering and financial crime through interagency efforts and use of technology.
Combat terrorism with $11 billion.
Reimburse telecommunications manufacturers and carriers for retrofitting in conversion to digital to ensure wiretapping is effective in future.
Reduce overcrowding in the prisons.
Increase prisoner literacy.
Complete 1.3 million applications for citizenship and reduce processing time to 6 months by the end of 2000. (Backlog was over 1.8 million cases in 1999.)
Address application backlog in other immigration service programs.
Fund new Border Patrol agents so that there will be 9,800 agents on north and south borders, compared to 3,965 in 1993.
Add new state of the art technology - night scopes, ground sensors, fencing, lighting, new or improved road construction - to enhance border patrol enforcement.
Add 1,038 detention beds to 20,000 capacity. [Removed 178,168 aliens, including 62,838 criminal aliens]
Help fight drug problem with drug treatment, prevention, domestic law enforcement, supply reduction efforts, including Columbia assistance.
Office of Justice Programs has 849 employees (up from 334 in FY 1993) along with 110 contractors (up from 36 in FY 1993) working in 5 Bureaus, 7 Program offices and 7 Support offices - all of which were created since 1984. For fiscal year 1999, the Office of Justice Programs awarded about 4044 grants, providing $4.1 billion in FY 1999, up from 564 grants in FY 1993 totaling $800 million.11
OJP receives the fifth largest segment of funding for Justice activities (14.1%), following INS, Office, Boards and Divisions, FBI, and the Bureau of Prisons.12 Its mission is to prevent and control crime, improve the criminal and juvenile justice systems, increase knowledge about crime and related issues and assist crime victims.13 Funding for OJP has grown from $1.1 billion in FY 1995 to approximately $4 billion in FY 1999.14
In FY 1999, OJP received:
The Congress authorized $8.8 billion over 6 years for grants to local law enforcement agencies to add 100,000 new police officers to the streets in an effort to reduce crime. In fact, despite claims to the contrary, the number of officers funded by Washington is more like 40,000, a figure similar to the growth in numbers of police officers had there never been a new program. In addition, the police newly hired were largely in low-crime areas, giving them little ability to impact national crime rates. In fact, although national crime rates have decreased, there is no evidence of a correlation between grants awarded in high crime areas to reduced crime or even to more police officers on the street.16
Drug Court program
This program aims to improve public safety, reduce prison and jail overcrowding and reduce criminal recidivism through the use of intensively supervised drug treatment for drug addicted, non-violent offenders. Since 1989, an estimated 140,000 drug offenders have entered drug court programs.17 There are over 250 Drug Court Program Office federally funded drug courts, 60% of the total 415 operational drug courts nationwide. In FY 99, they received $40 million for these purposes. 18
Success in the program appears to be assessed with varying standards. Many drug court programs vary in their approach, population served, treatment techniques19, time at which participation is made available, program costs and completion and retention rates20. Although local flexibility is admirable, focus on results and outcomes should be made consistent so that programs can be critiqued based on their ability to achieve the clear objectives established in the programs' origination - reduced criminal behavior and reduced drug use.
A GAO report issued in July, 1997 on Drug Courts to the Senate Judiciary Committee indicated that as of that date, 40% of participants were enrolled in the program, 31% of those surveyed had completed the program and 24% had failed to complete the program because they withdrew, died or were terminated from the program. In addition, an average of 48% completed the program. 21 Thus, with the Drug Court performance measure, we don't know if within the "80% of participants who do not commit crime while in the program" these are individuals who are terminated, who may die or who may be otherwise unsuccessful in the program.
Whereas federal efforts should allow local communities flexibility:
(1) The programs' goals and measures should relate to breaking the cycle of substance abuse and crime for those who participate in Drug Courts. Thus, this program is ripe for longitudinal evaluative work - monitoring the long term progress of participants' drug and crime-related behavior who have passed through the program against those who were never in the program in the first place. Measures should focus on:
- reducing drug dependency and use
- reducing recidivism in criminal behavior, and
- graduation and retention rates
(2) Program officials should be setting the threshold for performance higher than the previous year, not engaging in low-balling measures for the potential good publicity of meeting goals or other possible reasons.
(3) Serious performance-management would never rely on self-reported information for evaluation; but rather would ensure that credible, objective data is collected about the performance of a tax-funded program.
Could we, with better planning, better goals and measurements, and more honest data, get less crime, better law enforcement, and better Justice-related results than we are getting today? Crime should be going down; costs to administer justice should be reducing; technology should be applied fairly, prosecutions should be supported by convictions, victims of crime should believe they have an ally in government, legal immigrants should be processed swiftly, and borders should be secure.
According to the Department of Justice's last Strategic Plan, one of its eight core values is:
Accountability to the Taxpayer. We are committed to serving as effective and responsible stewards of the taxpayers dollars that are entrusted to us. We are efficient and results oriented. We measure and report on our progress in achieving goals.22
Justice's first report on its performance with taxpayer dollars, although a work in progress, is a poor exhibit of this stated core value. We can only hope that future Performance Reports will live up to the expectations that Congress, in its wisdom of passing the Government Performance and Results Act, had.
Government should improve on the delivery of public services for purposes clear in the core value stated above. Yet, equally obvious is that Justice's funding is subject to increasing fiscal pressures. The discretionary budget - an increasingly pressurized portion of total federal spending - is being squeezed. In examining federal budget projections, entitlements will continue to take a growing percentage of total federal spending (66.6% projected in 2005), with defense spending decreasing (15.6% in 2005), interest payments on our national debt fluctuating (7.7% in 2005) and the discretionary budget is being squeezed from 21.3% of the federal budget in 1980 to only 10.1% in 2005. Congress will have no choice in the near future but to scrutinize Justice's budget based on these common sense performance concepts.
There is no doubt that political agendas, personnel and funding greatly influence the creation of a mission, measures and results of any administration, yet this analysis discusses how the Justice Department could better measure their performance and results.
To improve upon this initial effort, Congress and the Administration should:
Reduce the number of measures at Justice, consolidating them and making them more outcome-oriented and using greater common sense. Having too many measures is the equivalent of having no measures or priorities at all. Excessive measuring, especially in grants or delegated to state and local officials could end up causing a reign of paperwork terror - a reign that would have counterproductive impact on the ability of people to get results.
Improve the credibility of Justice's data for policy-makers. Truth matters.
Coordinate with other federal offices who are also focused on the same goals and outcomes and use similar or the same measures wherever possible. Policy-makers should know which tools of governance work best: tax incentives, grants, loans, educational campaigns, training or subsidies.
Have you developed the right measures to assess a program's success?
Which of these are achieving or failing to achieve their objectives?
Can you specify why each of your programs were initially established - what they were designed to address or solve?
For each program, can you specify the magnitude of the problem, the seriousness of the problem and the numbers of the population affected who are to be impacted by your program?
For each program, do you know what other public or private entities are attempting to solve the same or similar problem, if they are effective and what you are doing to coordinate with these other entities if appropriate?
For each program, can you demonstrate whether or not it has been proven to be effective in achieving its results? If not, can you give us a schedule by which such methodologically sound evaluations will be conducted to ensure that we are not wasting taxpayer dollars on non-productive or even counter productive programs?
For each program proven to be effective by an independent, credible authority, can you demonstrate that it is using the most cost efficient techniques to accomplish its goals?
- Can you describe the success, in human terms, of your programs?
Public office holders or candidates should refrain from asking the federal government to do more than it can possibly, realistically achieve. With tenacious, persistent, results-oriented congressional oversight, government can be reformed, downsized, streamlined and improved based on credible, objective information about program results.
Such oversight may expose the fact that Congress and past Administrations have layered program upon program, earmarking initiatives that don't add value as much as they help a political constituency of one sort or another. But such a focus would bring a new level of accountability and understanding to the American public that may stop candidates from over-promising and further waste.
Thank you for requesting this preliminary research and I look forward to working to assist you and your oversight of the Justice Department in additional ways.
Virginia L. Thomas is Senior Fellow, Government Studies at The Heritage Foundation.
1 31 U.S.C. 1116.
2 Budget Issues, General Accounting Office, GAO/AIMD-97-95 Fiscal 1996 Spending, p 61. The other related entities include: Education (Departmental Management), HHS (Administration for Children and Families), HUD (Fair Housing and Employment; Management and Administration), Treasury (Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms; Departmental Offices; Federal Law Enforcement Training Center; Customs Service; Secret Service; Violent crime reduction programs), US Tax Court, LSC, EEOC, Civil Rights Commission, Ounce of Prevention Council, State Justice Institute, Administrative Conference of the US, Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board.
3 U.S. Government, President's FY 2001 Budget, Federal Resources by Function, FY 2001, date, p. 42-43.
4 P.L. 105-277, P.L. 106-31, P.L. 106-51; FY 1999 Annual Accountability Report, U.S. Department of Justice, pg. v.
5Report on Departments Of Commerce, Justice And State, The Judiciary And Related Agencies Appropriations Bill, Fiscal 2000, U.S. House of Representatives, 106th Cong., 1st Sess., August 2, 1999, p. 7.
6 Cabinet Departments vary on the numbers of goals and measures. Examples include: HUD has 14 goals and 47 measures, USDA has 450 goals and 940 measures, HHS has 750 measures and EPA has 187 goals and 364 measures.
7 U.S. General Accounting Office correspondence to Senators Thompson and Lieberman, Observations on the Department of Justice's Fiscal Year 1999 Performance Report and Fiscal Year 2001 Performance Plan, June 30, 2000, p. 1-2.
8 Mercatus Center at George Mason University, "Performance Report Scorecard: Which Federal Agencies Inform the Public?," May 3, 2000, p. 21 of Appendix.
9 The FBI had issued a federal warrant on May 27 for this same person. Customs posted a lookout for him after June 21. Additionally, no INS agents ever informed other key law enforcement officials of prior border crossings by Resendiz.
10 Associated Press, "Fingerprint Data Merger Likely to Take 5 Years," The Deseret News (Salt Lake City, UT), March 9, 2000.
11 Data provided by Office of Justice Programs at the U.S. Department of Justice, September 2000.
12 U.S. Department of Justice, Accountability Report, March, 2000 p.VIII-8.
13 U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs 1999 Resource Guide.
14 Information came from OJP, Financial Management Division, September, 2000.
15 U.S. Department of Justice, Audit Report - Office of Justice Programs Annual Financial Statement, Fiscal Year 1999, June 2000, pp. 3-4.
16 Gareth Davis, David B. Mulhausen, Dexter Ingram and Ralph Rector, "A Report of the Heritage Center for Data Analysis: The Facts about COPS: A Performance Overview of the Community Policing Services Program," No. CDA00-10, September 25, 2000.
17 National Drug Court Institute Review (Alexandria, VA), "Research on Drug Courts: A Critical Review 1999 Update" Volume II, Issue 2, Winter 1999, p. 3.
18 U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs Fiscal Year 2000 at a Glance, June 2000, p. 6.
19 An array of substance abuse and rehabilitation techniques are used, including detoxification, stabilization, counseling, therapy, drug education, acupuncture, attendance at Alcoholics Anonymous or Cocaine Anonymous, relapse prevention and other treatments.
20 GAO found that 44% of the programs used a deferred prosecution (or diversion) approach for drug offenders, and 38% used a post-adjudication approach, with the remainder using both, a hybrid or an alternative technique.
21 Drug Courts: Overview of Growth, Characteristics and Results, GAO/GGD-97-106, pp. 10-11.
22 U.S. Department of Justice, Strategic Plan 1997-2002, September 1997, p.6