See Romina Boccia and Michael Sargent, “The Federal Budget in 2013: Dysfunction Revisited,” Heritage Foundation Issue Brief No. 4189, April 1, 2014, http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2014/04/the-federal-budget-in-2013-dysfunction-revisited.
 Discretionary spending makes up one-third of federal spending in any given fiscal year. Two-thirds of spending goes toward mandatory programs, including Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security, and interest on the debt.
 Jessica Tollestrup, “The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction,” Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, February 23, 2012, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42388.pdf (accessed April 28, 2014).
 For an analysis of possible budget process reforms, see Patrick Louis Knudsen, “An Analysis of Selected Budget Process Reforms,” Heritage Foundation Center for Policy Innovation Discussion Paper No. 16, April 11, 2014, http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2014/04/an-analysis-of-selected-budget-process-reforms.
 For further reading on the budget and appropriations process, see Boccia and Sargent, “The Federal Budget in 2013”; The Heritage Foundation, “President Obama’s 2015 Budget: How Government Expansion Will Limit Opportunity, Slow Economic Growth, and Erode Financial and National Security,” Heritage Foundation Backgrounder No. 2903, April 14, 2014, http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2014/04/president-obamas-2015-budget-how-government-expansion-will-limit-opportunity-slow-economic-growth-and-erode-financial-and-national-security; and Marguerite Bowling, “The $1 Trillion Omnibus Spending Bill Is Out: Now Find Out What’s In It,” The Heritage Foundation, The Daily Signal, January 14, 2014, http://blog.heritage.org/2014/01/14/1-trillion-omnibus-now-find-whats/.