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137 April 10, 1981 EL SALVADOR'S MARXIST REVOLUTION INTRODUCTION Within the last few months, the events in El Salvador have come to the forefront of American foreign policy. Since the bloodless coup in October 1979, which oust ed General Romero and many of the leaders of the armed forces, El Salvador has undergone an escalation of violence from Marxist and rightist groups result ing in approximately 10,000 deaths during 19
80. This already steep death toll increased further in January 1981 with the final phase of the general offensive,Il a military attempt by the leftist forces to gain control of El Salvador prior to the U.S presidential inauguration. The failure of the January "general offensivell has brought about a campaign t o muster international support to pressure the Salvadorean government to reach a negotia ted political solution with the leftist forces. This study examines the evolution, composition, political orientation, and objectives of the revolutionary left in El Salvador, composed of the DRU (Unified Revolutionary Directorate), a coalition of llMarxist-Leninistlr guerrilla groups, and the FDR (Democratic Revolutionary Front), the international arm of the DRU.
ORIGIN OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY The communist movement in El Salvador originated in 1921 with the formation of communist cells and Marxist labor movements by a mix of university students and peasants inspired by the Soviet Revolution. They established a for mal, overt party in 19
25. The most prominent leader of this movement, Augustin Farabundo Marti, was captured by the Salvadorean government in 1932 and sentenced to death. This followed the communist inspired uprising that year which claimed up to 30,000 S alvadorean lives including not only students and peasants, but also soldiers and others within the Salvadorean society. Since 1932, the PCS 2 Communist Party of El Salvador) operated primarily in a clandes tine fashion, infiltrating political parties and student groups.
They also formed front organizations, which concealed their Marxist orientation, and used them to foment unrest.
Castro to power, the communist parties throughout Latin America reassessed their strategy, and most of them concluded that pow er could be best attained through a prolonged armed struggle. This brought about a dispute within the PCS over whether the party should attempt to gain power through elections or through an armed revolutionary confrontation. This quarrel over tactics resu l ted in the formation of two factions within the PCS. The first faction, comprised of intellectuals headed by Shafik Handal, proposed to work through the electoral process. The second group, headed by Cayetano Carpio, included most of the younger members w ithin the PCS, and favored a prolonged armed struggle to destabilize and overthrow the Salvadorean government.
For the radicals within the Carpio faction, Cuba became a nearby center of indoctrination and military training Following the 1959 Cuban Revoluti on which brought Fidel THE EDXERGENCE OF FPL In spite of the Cuban support for terrorist movements, it was not until 1970 that the FPL (Popular Forces of Liberation Farabundo Marti) was formed, through a breakup of the two PCS factions. Through this split , Cayetano Carpio became Secretary General of the FPL, while Shafik Handal assumed full control of the remains of the PCS. The FPL, the largest and most influen tial of the Salvadorean guerrilla organizations, has conducted numerous terrorist operations, i n cluding assassinations, robberies kidnappings, assaults and extortions. This guerrilla organization was largely responsible for the deterioration in the relationship between El Salvador's business community and the military govern ment, primarily due to t h e government's failure to solve any of the many criminal acts committed against the private sector entrepreneurs. This mutual distrust increased due to FPL opera tions in which the guerrillas wore Salvadorean military uniforms creating suspicion among the business community that the FPL was integrated with members of the Salvadorean security forces. This suspicion was further reinforced by the May 1977 kidnapping of Mauricio Borgonovo, a prominent Salvadorean businessman, who was abducted by persons referr i ng to each other by military rank The FPL later claimed credit for this abduction In 1975, the FPL set up a front organization to carry out its propaganda activities. This front organization, the BPR Popular Revolutionary Bloc), was formed through a coali t ion of FPL supporters, primarily groups organized by Father Bernard Bourlang, a French Jesuit. Juan Chacon, Facundo Guardado, and Julio Flores, three of the four members of the Central Command within the FPL National Masses Committee, became the leaders o f 3 the BPR, while the fourth member, Oscar Bonilla, became Secretary General of AGEUS (Association of University Students of El Salva dor Both the BPR and AGEUS were housed in the same office in the National University of El Salvador. The BPR has conducte d many strikes, marches, and occupations of embassies and churches.
The strong anti-U.S. sentiment and Marxist-Leninlst ideology of both the FPL and the BPR are revealed through their publications including the Red Star, Popular Combat, Guerilla,,and The R ebel THE EMERGENCE OF THE ERP During the early 1970s, a second guerrilla group was created by "dissatisfied members of the PCS.Ir1 This group, the ERP (the People's Revolutionary Army), currently under the leadership of Joaquin Villalobos, followed the Ma o ist line and developed ties with several guerrilla organizations in Latin America, including the Tupamaro National Liberation Movement of Uruguay, the People's Revolutionary Army of Argentina, and the Leftist Revolutionary Movement of Chile (MIR The ERP h a s carried out terrorist operations similar to those committed by the FPL, including an October 1979 kidnapping of a prominent Salvadorean industrialist Jaime Hill by ERP guerrillas dressed in army and police uniforms The ERP formed its front.organization, the LP-28 (Popular Leagues of February 28), in 1977 to carry out the organization's propaganda activities and for recruiting purposes. The LP-28 and the ERP promote their Marxist philosophy through their publica tions, Proletariat Thought, Communist Press , Red Flag, Wake Up Peasant, and The Power is Born.from the Gun. The ERP and LP-28 undertook an important role in subverting the human rights movement in El Salvador by promoting an ERP member, Norma Guevara, into a position of leadership within the Salvad o rean Commission of Human Rights (CDHES THE EMERGENCE OF THE FARN The last major guerrilla organization was formed through the ERP's assassination of one of its members, Roque Dalton. This created a split within the ERP in 1975, resulting in the formation o f the FARN (Armed Forces of National Resistance The FARN has conducted numerous kidnappings of'foreign businessmen and charged exorbitant ransoms payment of the war tax becoming the wealthiest of the Salvadorean guerrilla groups. FAR"s former leader, Erne s to Jovel, who was recently killed in action, has been replaced by Ferman Cienfuegos 1 "Communist Interference in El Salvador, Documents Demonstrating Communist Support of the Salvadoran Insurgency U.S. Department of State, February 23, 1981. 4 To carry ou t -its propaganda activities, the FARN took over the FAPU (Unified Popular Action Front), which had been formed in 1974 by the ERP and two Catholic priests, Higinio and Jose Inocen cio Alas. The FAPU, whose theme is "armed struggle today, social ism tomorro w ," has conducted numerous strikes, marches, and propaganda distribution projects in El Salvador's labor movements and haslbbrked particularly closely with STISS (Union.of Workers of the Salvadorean Institute of Social Security been extensively publicized i n their publications, Pueblo and For the'zraletariat Cause, which have also conducted a vitriolic campaign against the Salvadorean security forces, the Salvadorean business commynity, and particularly the United States This group has been involved The Mar x ist ideology of FAPU and FARN has I THE COMMUNI ST PARTY OF EL SALVADOR The Moscow-oriented PCS remained active in El Salvador's political system through its "recognized legal front," the UDN National Democratic Union).2 It was through the UDN, formed in 1 970, that the PCS took part in the 1972 and 1977 Salvadorean presidential elections through the coalition of opposition parties known as UNO (National Opposition Union The UDN is comprised of several Marxist labor and peasant groups, including CUTS Salvad orean Workers Confederation), a Marxist labor conglomerate form one federation, and three federations form one confederation.
The PCS, which has been involved in El Salvador's labor movement for some years, formed its third controlled federation FUSS United Trade Union Federation of El Salvador), in December 1978.
With FUSS and two other federations, FESTIAVTSCES (Federation Union of Food, Garment, and Textile Industries Workers) and FENASTRAS (National Trade Union Federation of Salvadorean Workers the PCS achieved control of its first confederation, the above mentioned CUTS. The unions under the direction of CUTS have frequently taken over industries through violent tactics in cooperation with the guerrilla front organizations (BPR, LP-28 and FAPU The rol e of these unions in El Salvador's Marxist struggle was highlighted by the Secretary General of FENASTRAS Hector Bernabe Recinos, who declared in a radio interview, "The next move by FENASTRAS will be minor rebellions to give the people fighting experience and the staging of simulated uprisings in several towns.'I3 ERP, and the FARN, their respective front organizations, as well Under El Salvador's labor laws, ten unions are required to Even though the PCS inspired the formation of the FPL, the Karen De You n g El Salvador Post, March 8, 1981, p. A21 FENASTRAS Preparing General Strike, Rebellions," FBIS-LAM-80-151, August 4, 1980, Vol. VI, No. 151, p. 12 A Symbol of World Crisis The Washington 3 5 as other smaller terrorist groups such as the PRTC (Revolutiona r y Party of Central.American Workers) and its front group the MLP Movement of Popular Liberation), the PCS exercised very limited control over these groups. These groups, despite their similar ideologies, developed a strong rivalry for leadership within th e revolutionary movement, and the PCS went so far as to label them l!ultra-leftist. To reduce this friction, the Cubans "tried to play the role of peacemaker between the terrorists and the Commu nist Party of El Salvador.It5 It was not until 1979 that the PCS joined the guerrillas, and became directly involved in El Salva dor's "subversion and terrorism through its militant arm, the FAL (Armed Forces of Liberation).
UNIFICATION OF THE.SALVADOREAN INSURGENCY In January 1980, largely through Cuban initiatives , the three guerrilla front organizations (BPR, LP-28, and FAPU together with the PCS and PRTC front organizations, the UDN and the MLP formed an umbrella organization, the CRM (Revolutionary Coordinator of the Masses Likewise, in a May 1980 meeting in le a dership of the FPL, the ERP, the FARN, and'the PCS set aside their ideological differences, united and formed the DRU (Unified Revolutionary Directorate).6 "The DRU is the unified and military command of the revolution," and currently is composed of Cayet a no Carpio, Shafik Handal, Joaquin Villalobos, Ferman Cienfuegos and Roberto Roca, all of whom "describe themselves as Marxist Leninist.Il7 In November 1980, a subordinate group of the DRU was formed, the FMLN (Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front), b y the four DRU members and the PRTC. The FMLN is responsible for coordinating and executing the leftist military struggle to depose the Salvadorean government Havana, as Ita precondition for larger-scale Cuban aid," the DIPLOMATIC FRONT OF THE SALVADOREAN I NSURGENCY Due to the obvious Marxist orientation within the CRM, a front known as the FDR (Democratic Revolutionary Front) was formed in April 1980 "to disseminate propaganda abroad" and to isolate the Salvadorean government from the international communi ty. The FDR, a coalition of the CRM and the FD (Democratic Front), brought in a small IInon-Marxistl! element #!for appearances sake Tpe FD, which also came into existence in April 1980, is composed primarily of Marxist groups such as CUTS, STISS, and AGE US, and three small non-Marxist-Leninist political parties.
These three lisrna1l1! leftist leaning parties are the MNR (National NACLA Report on the Americas, Vol. XIV, No. 2 (March-April 1980 p. 20.
Samuel T. Francis, The Soviet Strategy of Terror (Washington, D.C The Heritage Foundation, 1981 Communist Interference in El Salvador."
NACLA Report on the Americas, Vol XIV, No. 4 (July-August 1980 p. 25 6 6 Revolutionary Movement), the MPSC (Popular Social Christian Movement), and MIPTES (Movement of Indepe ndent Professionals and Technicians The CRM is composed solely of Marxist groups. The AFL-CIO arm for Latin America, the American Institute for Free Labor Development, which has been involved in El Salvadorls reform programs, described the E'DR as Ifcompo s ed mainly of Marxis.t revolutionaries, but also containing elements of the democratic left which have joined the FDR in frustration at the inability of the moderate junta to gain full control over the government and military. lr8 The FDR chose Salvadorean multimillionaire Enrique Alvarez Cordoba, a member of the so-called fourteen families and long-time supporter of the guerrilla movement, as its first president. In 1979, Alvarez joined the BPR in the occupation of the Cathedral of San Salvador; and accord ing to Julian Ignacio Otero, a high ranking FPL defector, Alvarez contributed money to the guerrillas for the purchase of arms.
Following the assassination of Alvarez, Guillermo Ungo another individual born into a wealthy Salvadorean family, 'was appointed to the FDR presidency. Ungo, the leader of the rllsmallll MNR, confirmed during a July 1980 FDR press conference in Washing ton that he traveled to the Soviet Union in the 1960s. Accompany ing him on the trip was Fabio Castillo, who currently is the Secr e tary General of the Marxist MLP. Ungo, who served in the first Salvadorean government junta for two months following the October 1979 coup, described to NACLA his motivation for resigning I1[A]s the right gained more military control, we came to see that regardless of what we or the left did or said, the military would go right ahead with its plan to exterminate the guerrillasi.
These groups are so close to the popular and democratic organiza tions that the repression fell on us.'119 As with the Nicaraguan Sandinistas, the Salvadorean Revolu tionary Movement has developed a decoy, the FDR, made up of an overt leadership of nowMar x ist leftists. Their purpose is to give the insurgents international credibility despite the fact that these leaders have no significant power base independent of the Marxists who control the FDR THE SALVADOREAN CATHOLIC CHURCH Prior to Archbishop Romero's assassination, the hierarchy of the powerful Salvadorean Catholic Church was divided into three factions. The most liberal of these factions included Archbishop Romero and Bishop Rivera y Damas, the centrist faction was led by 8 "U.S. Labor's Role in El S alvador," Department of International Affairs AFL-CIO, Free Trade Union News, Vol. 36, No. 2 (February 1981 p. 2.
NACLA Report on the Americas, Vol. XIV, No. 4 (July-August 1980 p. 25 12 I U m a U i E I I 5 4 8 Bishop Revelo, while the most conservative of the factions included Bishops Aparicio, Alvarez, and Barrera y Reyes. However, within the rest of the clergy and religious community there were other factions, including a small group which not only collaborated with the Marxist guerrillas, but actually p articipated in the armed struggle with the guerrillas. This collaboration and involvement in El Salvador's subversion, particularly by "foreign Jesuits,lI was condemned by Bishop Aparicio. The prelate has recommended that several of these foreign priests, including Fathers Jerez, Sobrino, de Sebastian, and Hernandez, be deported.
Following the assassination of Archbishop Romero, Bishop Rivera y Damas was appointed Acting Archbishop of San Salvador.
The liberal position of Bishop Rivera y Damas should not be misconstrued as supportive of theMarxist guerrillas. In fact Bishop Rivera y Damas, has openly stated that the Salvadorean Church Itdoes not morally support the popular insurrection being carried out by leftist organizations.Il Furthermore, Bishop Rive r a y Damas said that Itthe Salvadorean left has not been honest with the people in that they are all Ilinclined toward i communism.1t11 The recent FDR statement claiming that the Church supports the guerrillas in their fight against the junta was vigorousl y denied by the Salvadorean bishops. The bishops said The fact that a small number of priests, nuns and laymen in the so-called 'peoples church' have followed a specific political option and have made a public commitment to the FDR is no reason to assume t h at this phenomenon is representative of the Salvadorean Catholic Church I THE GUERRILLAS' MILITARY STRATEGY From 1970 to early 1980, the Salvadorean guerrilla organiza tions had concentrated their terrorist attacks primarily against selected targets withi n the armed forces, the business community I strategy began to affect a larger sector of the Salvadorean populace as business operations closed, exacerbating the country's unemployment situation of casualties were suffered by innocent bystanders as a resul t of the frequent shoot-outs between the guerrillas and government forces. This guerrilla strategy of selective terrorism, however was modified during the early part of 1980, when the guerrilla organizations started to cooperate with each other. They decid e d to attempt to depose the Salvadorean miltary-civilian junta through a major military confrontation, and Itestablish a democratic and the diplomatic corps. By 1979, this selected terrorist I As violence spread, .increasing numbers lo l1 l2 ACAN/EFE: Janu a ry 30, 1981 Paul A. Fisher, "Clergy and Religious as Marxist Revolutionaries The Wanderer, March 26, 1981 Archbishop Says Church Does Not Back Insurrection, I' FBIS-LAM-81-013 January 21, 1981, Vol. VI, No. 013, p. P18. 9 revolutionary governmenti1 free f r om any U.S. dependence See Appendix I By July 1980, a high-ranking guerrilla leader, Jacinto Sanchez, defined three problem areas for the guerrillas that needed to be resolved for their strategy to succeed. The first such problem was to achieve a '!unifie d 1eadershipIl.of the revolu tionary movement. This, according to the guerrilla, was "progress ing rapidly.Il The second problem dealt with logistics, namely increasing !#the fire power and strength of the armed revolutionary organizationsll by training %o r e men for the war," obtaining additional Ilprovisions, weapons and ammunition,Il and improving llcommunications.ll The final area of concern to the guerrillas was "to gain international recognition,'I and thereby isolate the Salvadorean government from th e international community. Further more, Sanchez echoed the guerrillas' repetitive statement that the Salvadorean crisis could I'only be solved militarilyIf because there was "no longer room for a politjcal solution."13 At the same the the guerrilla organi z ations were sorting out their internal problems, they sought to expand the areas under, their control from the unpopulated guerrilla-dominated zone along the Honduran border. This military expansion plan, implemen ted during mid-1980 (as revealed by Napol e on Duarte in a November 1980 Washington meeting), consisted of assgming military control of the mountain range which divides the eastern region of El Salvador from the central and western zones, thereby splitting the country in half. This strategy collaps ed because the guerril las, numbering approximately 6,000 militarily trained individuals were no match for the 16,000-man,Salvadorean armed forces.
Therefore, the guerrillas adopted a temporary strategy of '!hit and runi1 terrorism while they continued to improve their military capabilities for the "final phase of the general offensive.If THE GUERRILLAS; JANUARY 1981 GENERAL OFFENSIVE By December 1980, the guerrilla forces announced that they were Ifin the final phase of the general offensive,11 since the F MLN had acquired llenough war material, including "rocket and grenade launchers, I' capable of destroying !!military fortresses and armored equipment.1114 Nevertheless, the most important factor of the guerrillas' timing of the !'general offensive,Il whic h was set for January 10, 1980, was the result of the U.S presidential election. This was pointed out by an FDR-FARN communique, which announced the general offensive Itfor the days l3 "PRTC Leader: Situation Can Only Be Solved Militarily," FBIS-LAM-80-144 l4 July 24, 1980, Vol VI, No. 144, p. P5 Weapons Claims," FBIS-LAM-80-253, December 31, 1980, Vol. VI, No. 253 p. P4. 10 prior to the presidential inauguration of the fanatical Ronald Reagan.I1l5 The guerrillas' strategy to overthrow the Salvadorean gover n ing junta.consisted of militarily confronting and weakening the army, acquiring popular support for a general strike, and isolating the Salvadorean government .from the international community In spite of the massive international support for the guerril l as the January 1981 "general offensive" failed because of four reirsons. First, the guerrillas experienced logistical problems which prevented some of their units from receiving weapons in time for the offensive. Second, many of the weapons received were more sophisticated than the guerrillas had previously used and, therefore, they were not familiar with their optimum use.
Third, the guerrillas failed to incite the population for a general uprising and strike, which Ifthe Salvadorean people com pletely di sregarded" according to Acting Archbishop Rivera y Damas.lG &Fourth, the guerrilla hard-core cadre had recruited poorly trained youngsters to serve in the front ranks of the offensive; and once these children got killed in battle, the more experienced cad re pulled back rather than expose themselves to hostile fire.
COMMUNIST SUPPORT TO EL SALVADOR'S INSURGENCY With fully documented evidence collected during the Carter Administration, the Reagan Administration.:has shown that El Salvador has become the obje ct of an international campaign by communist governments to destabilize the Central American region.
This evidence, consisting largely of captured PCS documents reveals the Communist bloc's involvement in supplying El Salvador's insurgency with arms and t raining. These captured documents disclose the trips made by Salvadorean guerrilla leaders, includ ing Shafik Handal, to communist countries (Cuba, Nicaragua, East Germany, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Ethiopia, Vietnam and the Soviet Union), to pro c ure Western-manufactured arms for the Salvadorean guerrilla movement See Appendix 11.) These commitments of nearly 800 tons of modern weapons by communist nations consisted primarily of supplying El Salvador's guerrillas with American-made arms and ammuni tions which had been captured or inherited by the present regimes of Vietnam and Ethiopia.
This documentary evidence has been partly confirmed by captured arms en route to El Salvador traced back to Vietnam a report by the U.S. Department of State, it is r evealed that In l5 "FDR, FARN Communiques," FBIS-LAM-81-005, January 21, 1981, Vol. VI, No 005, p. P7 Archbishop Says Church Does Not Back Insurrection p. P19. 11 in late January, Honduran security forces uncover an arms infiltration operation run by Salv a dorans working through Nicaragua and directed by Cubans operation, a trailer truck is discovered carrying weapons and ammunition destined for Salvadoran guerril las. Weapons include 100 U.S. M-16 rifles and 81mm mortar ammunition. These arms are a portion of the Vietnamese shipment: A trace of the M-16s reveals that several of them were shipped to U.S. units in Vietnam where they were captured or left b'ehind network, perhaps five truckloads of arms may have reached the Salvadoran guerrillas In this Using t his A similar seizure was made in El Salvador in which a plane carry ing %umerous weapons'l was captured. The pilot, a Nicaraguan government emplo ee, admitted !#flying two earlier arms deliveries to -El Salvador. IY THE SEARCH FOR A SOLUTION TO EL SALVAD O R'IS CRISIS Negotiations to form a coaltion government between the FDR and the current ruling junta are being advocated by a, variety of groups around the world as their concept of a Ifpolitical solutionll to the crisis in El Salvador. Perhaps some of the s e groups honestly believe that the FDR is the Ifmoderate oppositionll or the democratic left," as it is being called. Those who under stand the E'DR seek such a solution in order to shift the focal point of the Salvadorean political spectrum to the left a n d thereby, accomplish through negotiations what the Marxist guerril las have not been able to achieve militarily. Furthermore, even if successful, these negotiations would result in a government similar to the junta which succeeded the Romero government, which collapsed after two months due to the many differing ideologies among its members including persons who are currently affilia ted with the guerrillas and their front organizations.
The Ifpolitical solution1' being advocated by the Duarte government, and supported by the Reagan Administration, is a two-phased electoral process: in 1982, general elections for a constitutional assembly, and in 1983, presidential elections. In preparation for this process, Duarte has reorganized the Central Electoral Cou n cil. Its head, Jorge Bustamante, has invited all Salvadorean political groups, including the ItMarxist parties, to participate in both elections. However, the Marxist parties which are under the DRU/FDR, have shown no enthusiasm for this course. l7 "Commu nist Interference in El Salvador." 12 U.S. POLICY INITIATIVES The current overall U.S. policy toward El Salvador has to deal effectively with the existing military and political crises.
Only after the military struggle with the Salvadorean Marxist dominated guerrillas is resolved, will the Salvadorean government be able to initiate a'process leading toward democratization.
Thus, the principal political role of. the U.S in.El.Salvador should concentrate on militarily defeating those elements opposed to the democratic process, so,that an atmosphere conducive to elections can be created in time for the 1982 voting for a consti tutional assembly.
The military.role of the United States needs to be re-examined.
Under the Carter Administration, the United States pursued a policy of total constraint in supplying military equipment to the governments of El Salvador. From the overthrow of the Romero regime in October 1979, until the eve of President Reagan's inaugur a tion, the Carter Administration maintained a complete embargo on the supply of lethal military equipment to the govern ment of El Salvador. Instead, the U.S. policy attempted to rely on economic assistance and the pursuit of social reforms to undermine gu e rrilla attacks on the Salvadorean government, and encourage a political settlement of the conflict. However rather than cooperating with these policies, the guerrillas and their overseas Marxist supporters increased their determination to seize control of the country through military force. The Carter policies terminated with the January "final phase of the general offensive1' designed to topple the Duarte government.
Only in the aftermath of this full scale military assault, and after Chunist bloc interve ntion was detected, did the Carter Administration finally allow limited lethal military equipment to flow into El Salvador. In spite of the unsuccessful outcome of the guerrillas' final offensive, they have continued to pursue a I policy designed to overt hrow the Salvadorean government through military force.
The Reagan Administration should continue and even expand support for the Salvadorean armed forces, by providing the neces sary lethal and non-lethal military equipment and military advisors to offset the estimated 200 tons of military equipment already delivered to the Salvadorean guerrillas by the Communist bloc.
More importantly, the U.S. should assist the Salvadorean govern ment in preventing the delivery of the remaining 600 tons of military equi pment committed by communist bloc nations, but not yet received by the Salvadorean insurgency and ammunition smuggling operations, the U.S. should continue exerting pressure on the Soviet Union, Cuba, and Nicaragua.
Likewise, the U.S. should supply the Sa lvadorean armed forces with the surveillance equipment and training necessary to detect these weapons smuggling operations into the country. Honduras should also be encouraged to increase surveillance along the Salvadorean and Nicaraguan borders in order t o uncover the infil tration routes used to supply the Salvadorean insurgency with weapons and ammunition To halt these weapon 13 Politically, the Reagan Administration should encourage the Duarte government to proceed with its plans to hold supervised ele ctions for the constitutional assembly in 1982 and the presi dency in 19
83. This plan provides a reasonable framework for any groups interested in pursuing peaceful political changes in El Salvador In the meantime, the U.S. should continue to discourage n egotiations to form a coalition government betweep the Salvadorean junta and the FDR, which is merely a facade for the guerrilla controlled DRU. In addition, the U.S. should encourage the ruling junta in El Salvador to suspend any reform programs yet to b e enacted until after the elections. Through the elections, the Salvadorean people will be able to choose the political party offering those reforms or other programs they desire electoral process which provides the the most viable basis for both ending th e fighting and encouraging the development of a pluralistic democratic society in El Salvador It is the A final area of concern to the U.S. should be the Salvadorean private sector, the first target of terrorism by the Marxist guerrillas. During the last d e cade, the Salvadorean private sector has deteriorated to the point where its existence has been endangered, and therefore is in need of a program to help in its recuperation. The Salvadorean government, in cooperation with other countries and internationa l organizations, should enact a program to revitalize El Salvador's private sector. In the long run, a strong private sector will make El Salvador less dependent on foreign economic assistance.
CONCLUSION I 4 The Salvadorean guerrilla organizations, which compose the leadership of El Salvadorls revolutionary movement, came into existence through the various sub-divisions within the PCS (Commu nist Party of El Salvador) during the last decade In 1980 these splinter groups reunited along with the PCS, as a p r econdi tion for large scale military aid from Cuba. However, even after their abortive January 1981 attempt to topple the Duarte regime the guerrillas have persisted in advocating a military solution to the Salvadorean crisis. This is in spite of the Salv a dorean governmentls invitation to the Marxist groups to participate in the upcoming elections. The guerrillas' refusal to take part in the elections is understandable, since-their popular support has fallen, and is estimated currently at approximately 80, 000 people.
The misleading assumption abroad that the Salvadorean revolu tionary movement attracts the majority of the Salvadorean people and represents most of that country's democratic sectors, is a product of a skillful international campaign by the FDR . This campaign has included providing an impressive list of organizations composing the Salvadorean revolutionary movement. In fact, some of the groups listed by the FDR consist of as few as a dozen persons, while other groups have overlapping membership s . The irony of the Salvadorean insurgency is that they have acquiredw a measure of international credibility as representatives of the moderate, democratic opposition although the vast majority of its members describe themselves as IIM-L. ll The U.S. shou l d continue to support efforts to bring about a political solution1I to the existing Salvadorean crisis through the electoral process. Through such elections the Salvadorean people can decide for themselves the political orientation and programs they wish t o pursue. Thus, if any group believes it speaks for the Salvadorean people, it should be demonstrated through the planned elections Alexander Kruger Policy Analyst i APPENDIX I A The FDR's platform is spelled out in great detail in its official publicatio n , "El Salvador On the Threshold of a Democratic Revolutionary Victory,Il published in El Salvador in January 1981 by the FMLN-FDR. The tasks and objectives of the FDR are 1. To overthrow the reactionary military dictatorship of the will of the Salvadorean people for fifty years; to destroy the oligarchic and U.S. imperialism, imposed and sustained against its criminal political-military machine; and to establish a democratic revolutionary government, founded on the unity of the revolutionary and democratic forces in the People's Army and the Salvadorean people social power of the great lords of the land and capital 2. To put an end to the overall political, economic and 3. To liquidate once and for all the economic, political, and military dependence of our country on U.S. imperialism 4. To assure democratic rights and freedoms to the entire people particularly for the working masses, who are the ones who have least enjoyed such'freedoms 5. To transfer to the people, through nationalizations and the creation of collective and socialized enterprises: the r fundamental means of production and distribution that are now hoarded by the oligarchy and the U.S. monopolies, the land held in the power of the big landlords, the enterprises that produce and distribute el e ctricity and other monopolized services, foreign trade, banking, and large transportation enterprises. None of this will affect small or medium-sized private businesses, which will be given every kind of stimulus and support in the various branches of the national economy 6. To raise the cultural and material living standards of the population 7. To create a new army for our country, one that will arise fundamentally on the basis of the People's Army to be built in the course of the revolutionary process p a triotic, and worthy elements that belong to the current army can also be incorporated Those healthy 8. To encourage all forms of organization of the people, at all levels and in all sectors, thus guaranteeing their active, creative, and democratic involve m ent in the revolutionary process and securing the closest identification between the people and their government of our country around the principles of independence and self determination, solidarity, peaceful coexistence, equal rights, and mutual respec t between states 9. To orient the foreign policy and international relations I 1 I i 0 u L 4 a warn a mu Y a IC 2 y1 0 c a Y uo ru aa u I a a a C I u c Y 6 W m R Y ua ucm CYC ua Ul ua A-2 10. Through all these measures, to assure our country peace, freedom , the well-being of our people, and future social progress. Y i it 0. C8 e g i E tf m Yu Y rl r. I- u. C u rc 0 I4 m m am PO am YY 0 0 mo a0 4- 4 m 0 0 C" 0 2 Y Y 0 C m a e 9 D 0 c 0 Y Y 0 U 2 as 04 a "d I m.r ouu Y 9 09 P4 Ci YY Y m SW Y Y co En 0- e OC Y O. m mc Y s- OP baa arlaa nrl PC 0 m a YUY oeuu I ado I uza uu.3 m Y a Y e. m 4 4 *a I 4 0 n PO. r30 C a ac PLO C I r .a 0 w. D e.m