An intervention by Belgium (ostensibly to protect its citizens in the DRC) and the secession of the Katanga province led the U.N. to establish its first large-scale peacekeeping operation to establish law and order, protect civilians, and maintain the territorial integrity of the DRC. The U.N. Operation in the Congo (ONUC) was controversial and unsuccessful. The mission resulted in a number of U.N. causalities and did not resolve the conflict as fighting resumed after UNOC left. The mandate of the operation also sharply divided the U.N. membership and a refusal by a number of member states to pay for their assessments related to UNOC nearly bankrupted the organization. In the end, the most significant legacy of UNOC was to avoid similar missions in the future. As a result, it was nearly three decades before the U.N. again involved itself in more robust peacekeeping operations.
Angola, Chad, Namibia, Sudan, and Zimbabwe sided with Kabila.
Despite initial constitutional and popular objections, Joseph Kabila succeeded his father. According to the U.S. State Department he was the "natural and obvious choice" as "the only person who could hold together various government and military factions." Embassy Kinshasa, "How Joseph Kabila Became President; Conversations with A 'King Maker,'" March 26, 2011, http://www.cablegatesearch.net/cable.php?id=01KINSHASA1610 (accessed December 13, 2012), and "Joseph Kabila Sworn In," BBC, January 26, 2001, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/1138137.stm (accessed December 13, 2012).
The remnants of the forces responsible for the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR), also remained active.
Provided with a Chapter VII mandate, MONUC was charged with observing the Lusaka Agreement and the disengagement of forces. United Nations, "MONUC United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo," http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/monuc/ (accessed December 13, 2012).
Thomas M. Woods, "Crisis in Congo and the Challenge for the International Community," Heritage Foundation Web Memo No. 2124, November 7, 2008, http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2008/11/crisis-in-congo-and-the-challenge-for-the-international-community.
United Nations Security Council, Resolution S/RES/1925 (2010), May 28, 2010, http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/RES/1925(2010) (accessed December 13, 2012).
Jessica Hatcher and Alex Perry, "Defining Peacekeeping Downward: The U.N. Debacle in Eastern Congo," Time, November 26, 2012, http://world.time.com/2012/11/26/defining-peacekeeping-downward-the-u-n-debacle-in-eastern-congo/ (accessed December 13, 2012); Gaaki Kigambo, "MONUSCO in the Spotlight over 'Failed Mandate,'" The East African, December 1, 2012, http://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/news/Monusco-in-the-spotlight-over-failed-mandate/-/2558/1634400/-/jukbso/-/index.html (accessed December 13, 2012); and Jeffrey Gettleman, "The World's Worst War," The New York Times, December 15, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/16/sunday-review/congos-never-ending-war.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all& (accessed December 17, 2012).
CIA World Factbook, "Congo, Democratic Republic of the," https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cg.html (accessed December 13, 2012).
Johnnie Carson, "The Devastating Crisis in Eastern Congo," testimony before the Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, and Human Rights, Committee on Foreign Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives, December 11, 2012, http://foreignaffairs.house.gov/112/HHRG-112-FA16-WState-CarsonJ-20121211.pdf (accessed December 17, 2012).
In congressional testimony, Steve Hege, the former coordinator of the U.N. Group of Experts, addressed the issue of federalism, stating, "The best case scenario...is for the DRC to seize upon current negotiations to address...a federal state in the eastern Congo...through Congo's pre-existing decentralization legislation. Then, the international community must robustly support the DRC's central and provincial institutions and economic infrastructure to slowly diminish unfettered external control and meddling." Hege assessed that before decentralization can occur, there must be a strong federal state first. However, this approach would award undeserved legitimacy to Kabila, require time that the current crisis cannot afford, and idealistically assumes that Kabila would yield power once he possesses it. It is better to build governance with the endgame framework in place rather than build up a centralized model simply to deconstruct it. Steve Hege, "The Devastating Crisis in Eastern Congo," testimony before the Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, and Human Rights, Committee on Foreign Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives, December 11, 2012, http://foreignaffairs.house.gov/112/HHRG-112-FA16-WState-HegeS-20121211.pdf (accessed December 13, 2012).
The U.S. provided $451 million in economic assistance and $36 million in military assistance to Uganda and $221 million in economic assistance and $0.7 million in military assistance Rwanda in 2010. USAID, "U.S. Overseas Loans and Grants," http://gbk.eads.usaidallnet.gov/query/do?_program=/eads/gbk/countryReport&unit=N (accessed December 18, 2012).
The United States provides over 27 percent of the $1.4 billion MONUSCO budget this year. MONUSCO Facts and Figures, http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/monusco/facts.shtml (accessed December 13, 2012).
 U.N. Department of Peacekeeping Operations and U.N. Department of Field Support, "A New Partnership Agenda: Charting a New Horizon for UN Peacekeeping," July 2009, p. 35, http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/dpko/newhorizon.pdf (accessed December 18, 2012).
Frank Kanyesigye, "Congo-Kinshasa: AU Commends Regional Efforts on Congo," The New Times, December 13, 2012, http://allafrica.com/stories/201212130054.html?cid=nlc-dailybrief-daily_news_brief-link17-20121213 (accessed December 13, 2012).