The 9/11 Commission suggested it, Congress passed two laws
requiring it, and the fiscal year (FY) 2008 budget allocated funds
to begin implementing it. Today, the Department of Homeland
Security (DHS) finally announced a plan to establish minimum
standards for state-issued driver's licenses and identification
cards that are intended to be used for federal purposes (such as
passenger screening at U.S. airports). Congress should do its duty
and support the department's plan and fully fund the FY 2009 budget
request for REAL ID implementation.
The REAL ID Requirement
The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 and
the REAL ID Act of 2005 required that when key identification
materials, such as driver's licenses (and the documents used to
obtain them, such as birth certificates), are issued at any level
of government and used for a federal purpose, these
documents must meet minimum national standards of
authenticity. To prevent tampering, counterfeiting, or fraud, and
to enhance privacy protections, the laws also
established standard security features concerning
identification cards and the processes for issuing them.
These laws are grounded in common sense. Administrators of the
American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators had long
recommended similar measures. Requiring more secure documents and
procedures for issuance and monitoring is not a "silver bullet,"
but this strategy will help to combat identity theft, fraud, and
other crimes. Billions of dollars are lost each year due to
identity theft, the fraudulent obtaining of government
benefits, and other criminal activities related to this issue.
Making identity credentials more secure will also help to enhance
public safety at airports and other public venues.
Not a National ID Card
Real ID does not establish a national identity card. States
retain their sovereignty and traditional responsibilities. The
federal government does not gain more access to personal
information, nor does REAL ID create a national database. In fact,
the law adds privacy protections such as requiring more
security and background checks for government employees who
handle personal data.
One valid objection to REAL ID concerned the fiscal burden it
would place on states to implement the program. The roll-out plan
announced today by DHS reduces the initially estimated cost by more
than 70 percent with a responsible, phased implementation
procedure. By December 2009, states should be able to upgrade the
security of their license systems. The new systems will check the
legal status of all applicants to ensure that illegal aliens cannot
obtain REAL ID licenses. Such documents will only be issued
to persons lawfully living in the United States.
Some states are already close to meeting those standards.
Congress should fully support the DHS implementation plan. In
addition, Congress should appropriate the additional funds required
in FY 2009 to assist states in meeting the DHS timelines for full
implementation of REAL ID.
James Jay Carafano,
Ph.D., is Assistant Director of the Kathryn and Shelby Cullom
Davis Institute for International Studies and Senior Research
Fellow for National Security and Homeland Security in the Douglas
and Sarah Allison Center for Foreign Policy Studies at The Heritage