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Backgrounder #775

July 20, 1990

July 20, 1990 | Backgrounder on

Report on Voting Practices At the United Nations 44th GeneralAssembly


(Archived document, may contain errors)

775 July 20,1990 REPORT ON VOTING PRACTICES AT THE NATIONS 44thGENERAL ASSEMBLY INTRODUCTION Because of its increasing dismay that nations routinely vote against the United States at the United Nations and other international bodies, Congress in 1983 mandated that these votes be tabulated and publ i shed. As such, three laws, P.L. 98-164, P.L. 99-500 and P.L. 101-167 require the State Department to subst an annual report to Congress on the voting practices of the member countries of the U.N. in international organizations. This report, commonly calle d the Kasten Report after the sponsor of the original enabling legislation, Senator Robert Kasten, the Wisconsin Republican, has become an important tool for U.S. policy makers. Until this year, the Kasten Report had maintained the same format and methodol ogy from year to year to provide the continuity necessary for analyzing and comparing voting perfoymance over timi.

With the passage on November 20,1989, of Section 527 of the Appropria tions Act for Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Program s 1990, contained in P.L. 101-167, Congress changed the format of the report The 1989 report, released by the State Department on March 31,1990, has several differences from the versions of past years, but does not make the most potentially damaging chang e of incorporating consensus decisions in the calculation of how often a nation votes with the U.S called voting coin cidence. Some legislators who oppose the Kasten Report had hoped to include these decisions to make the U.N. General Assembly appear more ag greable to U.S. interests than it actually is.

Consensus decisions should not be included in the tabulation of how other nations vote at the United Nations in relation to the U.S.The reason: consen sus resolutions of the U.N. General Assembly or of any other legislative body often are non-controversial and frequently do not even touch on policy is sues. Many are housekeeping resolutions involving such routine matters as membership on continuing committees and commissions. Examples from the 44th General Assembly, which met from September to December, 1989, in clude Resolution 44/402l, Adoption of the agenda and allocation of agenda items, and 44/307, Confirmation of the appointment of the Administrator of the United Nations Development Program.

Other consensus resolutions, known as motherhood resolutions, desig nate years of celebration and various tributes and honors. Typical are Resolution 44/11, noting the Achievements of the International Year of Peace, and Resolution 44/19, on theTwenty-Fif th anniversary of the estab lishment of the United Nations Conference onTrade and Development.

Masking Disagreement. At every U.N. General Assembly there are a few consensus resolutions of genuine substance -like, the resolutions of the 44th General Assemb ly on the biennial budget plan -but the unanimity recorded in the final vote masks the hard bargaining and tradeoffs that make it possible to achieve consensus at the end. Even then, consensus may have been reached only when some nation or nations retreat ed from a principled posi tion. The meaningful divisions over issues of substance are hidden in commit tee proceedings or in informal negotiations, if in fact they are recorded at all.

Common to all of these categories of consensus is the fact that the fin al vote, or non-vote; is substantively meaningless. Including such resolutions in a voting scorecard, therefore, would skew the record, making U.N. proceed ings seem much more harmonious and collegial than they are. As in any legis lative body, the most a ccurate record is that focusing on definable differences in interests, principle, and policy.The methodology used in the Kasten Report reflects that approach.

Foundations United Nations Assessment Project has tabulated and sorted the-votes at Lhe44&-U.N Ge nera! Assembly-using- the methodology of the Kasten Reports of the past six years.This report provides the-necessary con tinuity and comparability by presenting the percent coincidence of countries votes with the U.S. at the G-eneral Assembly. In addition , it contains the per cent coincidence of countries votes with the U.S.S.R. and categorical break downs according to the major issues dealt with by the 44th General Assemb Because of the changes made to the Kasten Report this year, The Heritage 1 The first number in a resolution refers to the General Assembly session which passed it; the second number following the slash, indicates the numerical order in which it was passed. For instance, resolution 44/135 was the 135th resolution passed by the 44th General Assembly 2 ly, data not included in the Kasten Report but important to the analysis of countries performance in the General Assembly NOTE ON METHODOLOGY AND SOURCE DATA The tables showing percent coincidence of countries votes with the U.S and with the So viet Union take into account recorded votes during the 44th General Assembly, which held its plenary session from September 19, 1989 to December 29,1989.They are calculated on the basis of yes/no votes only.

They do not take into account absences or abstentions; they do not include decisions made by consensus.

The sum of the number of recorded votes on which a nation voted yes when the U.S. voted yes or no when the U.S. voted no yields a number of votes with the U.S.The sum of the number of recorded votes on which a nation voted yes or no and the U.S. voted yes or no yields that nations total yes/no votes. Each nations percent coincidence with the U.S. on all recorded General Assembly votes is derived by dividing that nations votes with the U.S. by its tot al yes/no votes. Dividing the sum of all nations votes with the U.S. by the sum of all nations total yes/no votes yields the average overall coincidence with the U.S.

Adopted by the General Assembly During the First Part of its Forty-Fourth Session (United Nations Department of Public Information Press Release GM977, January 22,1990 except for the 21 paragraph votes and three pro cedural votes, which are based on data obtained from the U.S. Department of State The calculations are based on data from Resolu tions and Decisions PAlTERNS OF VOTING AT THE U.N The average overall coincidence with the United States in the 44th General Assembly was 17.15 percent. Average overall coincidence of voting with the Soviet Union, meanwhile was a remarkable 95.07 percent.

Assembly covered a very broad range of issues, the majority fell into one of four topical categories 1) Economic Development/International Regulation Issues (1 1 votes average coincidence with the U.S. 2.20 percent; average coincidence with the U.S.S.R. 9 7 .81 percent Though the 140 resolutions on which votes were taken in the 44th General Examples: Resolution 44/26: The Law of the Sea U.N. congratulates itself for drafting the Law of the SeaTreaty, calls upon all nations that have not done so to sign it, a n d if not, to observe its provisions I 3 Resolution 44/50: Questions Relating to Information Urges elimination of imbalances in news reporting on developing countries (meaning criticism that does not take into account the interests, aspira tions, and socio - cultural values of all peoples) and mandates that the U.N.3 Department of Public In formation cooperate more closely with UNESCO from which the U.S. withdrew in 1985 2) Southern African Issues (24 votes: average coincidence with the U.S 11.65 percent; ave rage coincidence with the U.S.S.R. 91.50 percent).

Examples: Resolution 44/27 A International Solidarity with the Liberation Struggle in South Africa Reaffirms U.N. official recognition of the African National Congress and the Pan Africanist Congress as na tional liberation movements, with the right to use any necessary means, including armed strug gle, to end apartheid in South Africa; and orders South Africa to lift its state of emergency and end various repressive measures.

Resolution 44/27 F Relations b etween South Africa and Israel Singles out and condemns Israel as the major col laborator with the racist minority regime of South Africa (despite the fact that in paragraph C of the resolution the Federal Republic of Germany, not Is- rael, was determined to be South Africas leading trading partner. Among the sponsors of this resolu tion were Iraq, Kuwait, and Qatar, who, along with other Arab proponents of this resolution, are the leading suppliers of crude oil to South Africa 3) Middle Eastern Issues (37 votes: average coincidence with the U.S Examples:.

Resolution 44/40 A The Situation in the Middle East 17.96 percent; average coincidence with the U.S.S.R. 94.69 percent Condemns Israel for terrorist, aggressive, and repressive measures within and outside occupied Palestinian territory; condemns the U.S. for economic and strategic assistance to Israel; demands the immediate, unconditional and total withdrawal of Israel from all the territories occupied since 1967 4 Resolution 44/42: Question of Palestine D emands that Israel withdraw from the Palestinian territory occupied since 1967, including Jerusalem andfrom the other occupied Arab temtones (em phasis added) and calls for a Middle East Peace Con ference under U.N. auspices and for placing Palestinian te r rito ry under the supervision of the United Nations for a limited period, as part of the peace process 4) Disarmament Issues (44 votes: average coincidence with the U.S. 26.36 Examples Resolution 44/112: Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space percent; average coincidence with the U.S.S.R. 98.22 percent).

Insists that outer space should be used exclusively for peaceful purposes; calls upon the U.S. and the Soviets to undertake bilateral negotiations in a con structive spirit aimed at reaching early agree ment for preventing an arms race in outer space This echoes almost verbatim the Soviet line against the U.S. position on development of defenses against nuclear weapons Resolution 44/107: Urgent Need for a Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Calls for an end t o nuclear testing by all States in all environments for all time This, too, is the Soviet position and opposes the U.S. stance on an arms control issue Treaty Other Issues, on which there were 22 votes, include such resolutions as Resolution 44/240 Effects of the Military Intervention by the United States of America in Panama Condemns .the action of the U.S. military in Panama allegedly constituting A flagrant violation of inter national law and of the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of s tates.(No other nation except Israel, was condemned by name for involve ment in armed conflict. Even past resolutions on Af ghanistan called only for the withdrawal of foreign troops and did not mention the Soviet Union by name 5 Resolution 44/43: Judgeme n t of the International Court of Justice of 27 June 1986 concerning military and paramilitary activities in and against Nicaragua: need for immediate compliance In effect, this resolution affirms the International Court of Justices (ICJ) opinion in Nkarapa vs.

United States that General Assembly Resolutions constitute a form of international law, a position the United States has always (and for good reason strongly opposed. It also denies the U.S. its right, as expressed in the U.N. Charter, to deny ICJ jur isdic tion over a dispute Included in these votes were 21 taken on specific paragraphs of certain resolutions. There were also three procedural votes, including the perennial illegal attempt to exclude Israel from participation in the General Assembly by denying credentials to the Israeli U.N. delegation. The breakdown of voting coincidences with the U.S. and the Soviet Union on each of these topics is shown inTable IV.

Of these 140 votes taken on resolutions in the 44th General Assembly, the U.S. voted for 14, against 93, abstained on 31, and refused to participate on 2.

The Soviet Union voted in favor of 133, against 1, abstained on 4, and refused to participate on

2 . A list of these resolutions, their titles, and their respective categories appears in Appendix C blocs, much like the political parties in western democracies. These blocs are based on common geographical, cultural, religious, political, and ethnic char acteristics. Among the U.N. blocs are: the African Group, Arab Group ASEAN, Asian and Pacific Group, Eastern European Group, European Economic Community, Islamic Conference, Latin American Group, NATO Non-Aligned Movement, Nordic Group, Warsaw Pact, Weste r n European and Others Group. While there are other groups formally associated with the U.N like the Organization of African Unity, League of Arab States, and the Organization of American States, the thirteen listed above comprise the best breakdown for an alyzing bloc voting in the General Assembly. Membership in and overall voting coincidence by these thirteen major blocs is shown in Appendix A.

By far the most powerful bloc with 99 member states, the so-called Non Aligned Movement had a 98.90 percent aver age coincidence with the Soviet Union and only a 11.60 percent average coincidence with the U.S. On economic development and international regulatory issues, the voting of the Non-Aligned Movement as a group is even more skewed, with a 100 percent coincid ence with the Soviet Union and a zero percent coincidence with the U.S.

Even excluding votes on issues regarding the Middle East and Southern Africa (which together comprised over 43 percent of all resolutions voted on in the 44th General Assembly the aver age voting coincidence with the U.S Voting Blocs. In the General Assembly, typically, member states form 6 still is only 19.18 percent. The African Group, excluding votes pertaining to Southern Africa, has an average voting coincidence of 13.61 percent wi th the U.S.The Arab Group and the Islamic Conference have average voting coin cidences with the U.S. of 10.26 percent and 12.08 percent, respectively, when votes dealing with the Middle East are excluded.

Every year since 1982, a group of countries has tri ed to prevent Israel from participating in the General Assembly. This attempt comes in the form of a vote on whether to accept the credentials of the Israeli delegation.Thirty seven countries voted to deny Israeli credentials in the 44th General Assemb Sm a ll Thanks for U.S. Aid. The U.S. failed in the 44th General Assembly to get even those countries which receive substantial U.S. aid (except Israel to support U.S. positions in the U.N. Egyps the number two recipient of U.S dollars, receiving $2.3 billion i n fiscal 1989 had an overall voting coincidence with the U.S. of only 11.58 percent. Pakistan received $583 million from the U.S. in fiscal 1989 and had a 9.80 percent overall coincidence. India, to which the U.S. gave almost $163 million in fiscal 1989, had an abysmal 5.43 percent overall coincidence, second only to Angola in opposing the U.S. at the U.N.

The average voting coincidence with the U.S. of the top 50 recipients of U.S. bilateral aid was 15.06 percent.Their coincidence with the Soviet Union wa s 96.86 percent. These countries and their individual voting coincidences are shown inTable 111 ly CONCLUSION Since U.S. votes in the General Assembly generally reflect U.S. policy goals and interests, the overall voting performance of the majority of the U.N. member states demonstrates that the U.N. agenda is largely inimical to U.S. interests.The U.S. is almost always isolated on the issues which matter most those on which a vote is taken. Perhaps more important, the Soviet Union's positions are almost a lways endorsed by the majority at the U.N.

With an overall voting coincidence of only 17.15 percent, the U.S. continues to fare quite poorly at the U.N.

Holding Nations Accountable. George Bush should instruct Thomas Pick ering, U.S; Ambassador to the U.N . in New York, to advise U.N. member states that their performance in the General Assembly will have a bearing on their bilateral relationship with the U.S.This should be backed up by provid ing the records of voting performance at the U.N. to each U.S. e m bassy abroad and requiring those missions to inform the local government of the I I 2 The number of countries voting to deny Israeli credentials had been as high as 43 in 1983 and as low as 39 in 1987 3 "FY 1989 U.S. economic and Military Assistance Actua l Obligations in Agency for International Development Congressional Presentation, Fiscal Year 1991, Main Volume, pp. 239-243 I 7 record.The U.S. Ambassador then should advise the local government that continued poor performance will elicit appropriate resp o nses from Washington. While this by no means should be the only factor for determin ing aid and loans from the U.S it should play some role in that. Where pos sible, financial assistance should be used as leverage to encourage support for U.S. positions o n important issues at the U.N MarkAFranz Director, United Nations Assessment Project and Jay Kingham Fellow in International Regulatory Affairs Patrick Martin and Ben Kaminetzky of The Heritage Foundation assisted in the compilation of this report a STATIS TICAL DATA AND APPENDICES Contents Table I Table 11 Table 111 Table Iv Overall Voting Coincidences with the United States and U.S.S.R.

Overall Voting Coincidences with the United States in As cending Order.

Overall Voting Coincidences with the United States and U.S.S.R Top 50 U.S. Aid Recipients.

Voting Coincidences with the United States and U.S.S.R by Issue Category Appendix A Voting Coincidences with the United States and the Appendix B: Bloc Voting Coincidences on Select Issue Categories.

Appendix C: List of All Resolutions of the 44th General Assembly U.S.S.R. by Bloc.

Decided by Yes/No Vote, Broken Down by Issue Categories.

Appendix D: Key Issues: List and Summary.

Appendix E Key Issues: Votes by Nations Key to Bloc Abbreviations Af: African Group Ap: Asian and Pacific Group Ar: Arab Group As: Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN Ec: European Economic Community Ee: Eastern European Group Is: Islamic Confer e nce La: Latin American Group Na: North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO Nm: Non-Aligned Movement No: Nordic Group We: Western European and Others Group Wp: Warsaw Pact 9 TABLE I OVERALL VOTING COINCIDENCE WITH THE UNITED STATES AND U.S.S.R 8 6 7 4 17 13 31 25 13 11 12 13 45 2 12 12 12 10 11 12 10 12 12 10 11 13 38 12 14 18 18 11 13 3 7 16 14 6 11 10 37 100 89 100 94 90 96 76 76 88 101 89 99 68 15 93 100 94 98 91 97 103 106 100 104 92 94 63 99 87 102 76 99 98 45 87 84 88 100 101 104 77 8.00 6.74 7.00 4.26 18.89% 13.54 40.79% 32.89 14.77% 10.89% 13.48% 13.13 66.18 13.33% 12.90% 12.00% 12.77% 10.20% 12.09% 12.37 9.71 1 1.32 12.00 9.62 1 1.96 13.83 60.32 12.12% 16.09% 17.65 23.68 11.11% 13.27 6.67 8.05 19.05% 15.91 6.00 10.89 9.62 48.05 128 115 128 121 113 11 8 84 88 115 125 114 125 52 16 119 126 122 124 116 122 133 132 127 134 117 120 58 127 113 122 95 122 124 111 106 114 128 128 134 72 52 129 115 128 121 117 121 101 100 116 127 116 126 84 17 120 127 123 125 117 123 133 133 128 134 118 122 82 128 114 127 101 1 2 4 125 53 111 111 115 128 129 134 96 99.22 100.00 100.00 100.00 96.58% 97.52 83.17% 88.00 99.14% 98.43% 98.28% 99.21 61.90% 94.12% 99.17% 99.21 99.19 99.20% 99.15% 99.19 100.00 99.25% 99.22 100.00 99.15% 98.36% 70.73 99.22% 99.12% 96.06% 94.06% 98.39% 99.2 0 % 98.11 100.00 95.50% 99.13 100.00 99.22 100.00 75.00 10 10 20 14 12 11 12 5 7 18 29 48 8 10 10 47 10 24 17 13 12 12 12 12 17 14 31 5 12 9 8 34 62 44 13 36 11 13 10 11 9 95 75 84 93 95 49 46 96 85 78 70 83 85 103 67 104 73 81 96 105 97 105 90 83 89 67 92 1 04 102 100 80 71 69 91 59 97 91 101 102 92 10.53 26.67 16.67% 12.90 11 58 24.49 10.87 7.29 21.18 37.1 8 68.57 9.64 11.76 9.71 70.15 9.62 32.88% 20.99 13.54% 11.43 12.37 1 1.43 13.33 20.48 15.73 46.27 5.43 11.54 8.82% 8.00 42.50 87.32 63.77 14.29 61.02 1 1 . 34 14.29 9.90 10.78 9.78 119 86 106 121 120 57 55 124 107 87 44 110 107 134 48 129 84 99 121 130 124 131 112 103 114 69 117 129 126 125 83 27 53 119 54 121 115 126 130 118 121 95 109 122 122 62 56 124 112 102 84 111 108 134 82 130 95 104 123 131 125 132 1 1 4 107 116 87 117 131 127 126 103 84 84 120 76 124 117 128 130 118 98.35 90.53 97.25 99.18 98.36% 91 94 98.21 100.00 95.54 85.29 52.38% 99.10% 99.07 100.00 58.54 99.23 88.42 95.19 98.37% 99.24% 99.20% 99.24% 98.25% 96.26% 98.28% 79.31 100.00 98.47% 99.21 9 9 .21 80.58 32.14% 63.10% 99.1 7 71 .OS 97.58% 98.29% 98.44 100.00% 100.00 11 10 45 9 15 11 14 12 18 9 13 12 10 11 10 12 12 46 33 8 8 12 33 12 10 14 13 13 12 13 10 46 10 12 13 14 18 16 18 11 103 68 97 77 104 101 100 71 96 87 98 99 98 94 95 98 68 82 100 82 1 0 3 74 95 102 91 82 72 95 95 94 70 99 98 99 58 86 89 82 83 9.71 66.1 8 9.28 19.48% 10.58% 13.86% 12.00 25.35 9.38 14.94% 12.24% 10.10 1 1.22 10.64 12.63 12.24 67.65% 40.24 8.00 9.76 11.65 44.59 12.63 9.80 15.38% 15.85 18.06% 12.63% 13.68% 10.64 65.71 10.10 1 2.24% 13.13 24.14% 20.93 17.98 21.95 13.25 128 53 127 100 129 123 127 93 1 23 113 125 127 123 121 122 124 52 89 127 106 127 74 119 126 114 107 95 122 122 124 54 1 23 126 124 69 108 110 104 109 129 86 127 102 130 127 128 98 1 24 115 126 127 126 121 123 125 85 108 127 107 129 94 121 128 116 109 96 123 123 124 86 125 126 125 74 113 115 109 110 99.22% 61 63 100.00 98.04% 99.23% 96.85% 99.22 94.90 99.19 98.26% 99.21 100.00 97.62 100.00 99.19 99.20% 61.18 82.41 100.00 99.07 98.45 78.72 98.35% 98.44% 98.28% 98.17 98.96% 99.19% 99.19 100.00 62.79 9830 100.00 99.20% 93.24% 95.58 95.65 95.41 99.09 I I I i I I i I I I i I I 12 12 11 17 13 14 11 32 12 10 12 8 27 8 7 12 15 12 9 24 6 10 10 9 61 na 17 11 12 10 10 100 11 14 7 95 93 101 89 94 101 69 99 93 98 82 77 100 97 85 90 98 96 74 95 104' 103 99 79 na 93 100 93 101 98 100 102 88 94 94 12.63 11.83% 16.83% 14.61 14.89% 10.89 46.38 12.12% 10.75% 12.24 9.76 35.06 8.00% 7.22 14.12% 16.67% 12.24 9.38 32.43 6.32% 9.62% 9.71 9.09 77.22 na 18.28 1 1 .OO 12.90 9.90 10.20 7.00 10. 7 8 15.91 7.45% 8.51 122 119 1 23 115 121 125 69 126 118 124 104 87 126 124. 112 115 125 123 83 123 134 na 124 41 10 115 126 121 130 122 128 130 112 120 119 123 119 127 116 122 127 87 127 119 125 105 101 127 125 113 117 126 124 94 123 134 na 125 88 103 119 1 27 122 130 123 128 131 113 121 120 99.19 100.00 96.85% 99.1 4% 99.1 8 98.43 79.31 99.21 91 99.1 6 99.20% 99.05 86.14 99.21 99.20% 99.12% 98.29% 99.21 99.19 88.30 100.00 100.00 na 99.20% 46.59 9.71 96.64 99.21 99.18 100.00 99.19 100.00 99.24 99.12% 99.17 1 3 TABLE I1 OVERALL VOTING COINCIDENCES WITH THE UNITED STATES IN ASCENDING ORDER 4 5 6 6 3 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 7 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 8 10 10 10 10 8 8 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 94 92 100 95 45 89 100 100 97 96 94 100 100 100 100 87 94 102 99 97 96 96 104 104 104 104 83 103 103 103 103 82 82 92 102 101 101 99 99 98 98 4.26% 5.43% 6.00% 6.32% 6.67% 6.74 7.00% 7.00% 7.22% 7.29% 7.45% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.05% 8.51 8.82 9.09% 9.28% 9.38% 9.38% 9.62% 9.62% 9.62% 9.62% 9.64 9.71% 9.71 9.71 9.71 9.76% 9.76% 9.78 % 9.80% 9.90% 9.90 10.10% 10.10% 10.20% 10.20 121 117 128 123 52 115 128 128 124 124 120 128 125 127 126 111 119 126 124 127 123 123 134 134 129 134 110 133 134 128 na 106 104 118 126 126 130 127 123 124 122 121 117 128 123 53 115 128 128 125 124 121 129 1 2 6 127 127 111 120 127 125 127 124 124 134 134 130 134 111 133 134 129 107 105 118 128 128 130 127 125 125 123 na 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 98.1 1 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 99.20 100.00 99.17% 99.22% 99.21 100.00 99.21 100.00 99.17% 99.21% 99.20 100.00 9 9 .19 99.19 100.00% 100.00 99.23 100.00 99.10 100.00% 100.00 99.22 na 99.07 99.05 100.00 98.44% 98.44 100.00 100.00 98.40% 99.20% 99.19 14 10 11 10 10 10 11 11 5 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 11 12 12 12 11 12 12 10 11 11 12 12 12 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 95 104 94 94 93 102 102 46 101 101 101 100 99 98 106 97 105 105 104 95 103 103 85 93 92 100 100 100 91 99 99 98 98 98 98 98 97 97 95 95 95 10.53% 10.58% 10.64% 10.64% 10.75% 10.78% 10.78% 10.87% 10.89 10.89% 10.89% 1 1 .OO 11.11 1 1.22 1 1.32 1 1.34 1 1.4 3 11.43 11 54 11 58 11.65 11 65 11.76% 11.83 1 1.96 12.00% 12.00 12.00% 12.09% 12.12% 12.12% 12.24% 12.24% 12.24% 12.24% 12.24 12.37 12.37% 12.63 12.63% 12.63 119 129 121 124 118 130 130 55 125 128 125 126 122 123 132 121 130 131 129 120 127 127 107 119 11 7 126 127 127 116 127 126 125 124 126 124 125 122 124 122 119 122 121 130 121 124 119 130 131 56 127 129 127 127 124 1 26 133 124 131 132 131 122 129 129 108 119 118 127 128 128 117 128 127 126 125 126 1 25 1 26 123 125 123 121 123 98.35% 99.23 100.00% 100 . 00 99.16 100.00 99.24 98.21 98.43% 99.22% 98.43% 99.21 98.39% 97.62% 99.25% 97.58 99.24% 99.24% 98.47% 98.36% 98.45% 98.45% 99.07 100.00 99.15 99.21 99.22% 99.22% 99.15% 99.22% 99.21 99.21 99.20 100.00 99.20% 99.21 99.19% 99.20% 99.19% 98.35% 99.19 15 16 1 5 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 11 13 13 2 12 12 13 13 13 13 14 12 13 13 13 13 14 13 14 14 13 14 14 15 14 14 15 17 18 16 84 77 95 94 93 93 93 99 99 83 98 98 15 90 89 96 96 95 94 101 85 91 91 89 88 94 87 91 89 82 88 88 94 87 84 90 101 102 89 19.05% 19.48 12.63 12.7 7 % 12.90% 12.90% 12.90 13.13 13.13 13.25% 13.27% 13.27% 13.33 13.33 13.48 13.54% 13.54% 13.68 13.83 13.86 14.12 14.29% 14.29% 14.61 14.77% 14.89 14.94 15.38% 15.73 15.85% 15.91 15.91 15.96 16.09 16.67 16.67 16.83 17.65 17.98 106 100 122 122 119 121 121 125 124 109 124 123 16 112 114 118 121 122 120 123 112 119 115 115 115 121 113 114 114 107 114 112 119 113 106 115 123 122 110 111 102 123 1 23 1 20 122 122 126 1 25 110 125 124 17 114 116 121 123 123 1 22 127 113 120 117 116 116 122 115 116 116 109 115 113 1 2 1 114 109 117 127 127 115 95.50% 98.04 99.19 99.19% 99.17% 99.18% 99.21 99.20% 99.09% 99.20% 99.19% 94.12 98.25 98.28 97.52% 98.37 99.19 98.36% 96.85 99.12 99.17% 98.29% 99.14 99.14% 99.18 98.26 98.28% 98.28 98.17% 99.13% 99.12 98.35 99.12 97.25 98.29% 96 . 85% 96.06 95.65 99.1 8 16 TABLE 111 OVERALL VOTING COINCIDENCE WITH THE UNITED STATES AND U.S.S.R THE TOP 50 U.S. AID RECIPIENTS 95 49 102 74 95 73 89 92 96 70 98 91 83 84 94 91 104 88 99 96 95 95 85 90 93 103 98 93 94 84 94 94 100 104 77 96 97 1 1.58 24. 4 9 9.80 32.43 13.68 32.88 13.48 5.43 13.54 65.71 1 1.22 14.29 20.48 19.05 12.77% 14.29 11 54 15.91 12.12 9.38 12.63% 12.63% 14.12 13.33 10.75% 11.65 10.20% 12.90% 13.83% 16.67% 10.64% 15.96 12.00 9.62 19.48 7.29 11.34 120 57 126 83 122 84 114 117 121 54 12 3 119 103 106 122 115 129 112 126 123 122 122 112 112 118 127 122 121 120 106 121 119 127 129 100 124 121 122 62 128 94 123 95 116 117 123 86 126 120 107 111 123 117 131 113 127 124 123 123 113 114 119 129 123 122 122 109 121 121 128 130 102 1 24 124 98.36 % 91.94 98.44% 88.30 99.1 9 88.42 98.28 l00.00 98.37% 62.79 97.62% 99.17 96.26 95.50% 99.19% 98.29 98.47% 99.12 99.21 99.19% 99.19% 99.19% 99.12 98.25 99.16% 98.45 99.19% 99.18% 98.36 97.25% 00.00 98.35 99.22% 99.23% 98.04 00.00 97.58 2294687 682657 583043 563750 4941 18 350700 174683 162802 155751 152550 150233 127992 121301 1 18632 85045 80864 721 79 71 360 70359 69372 63770 54984 52282 50367 46578 461 00 36561 36045 35003 33981 32294 31 524 30647 29631 27699 27272 26750 V 18 102 98 105 95 101 98 101 98 9 7 94 127 125 131 123 127 125 129 126 127 121 96.06% 99.20% 99.24 100.00 98.43% 99.20% 99.22 99.21 100.00 99.1 7 21539 21058 20654 20631 20325 201 84 20000 1 9554 16584 161 00 15558 19 TABLE IV VOTING COINCIDENCES WITH THE UNITED STATES AND U.S.S.R.

BY CATE GORY 20 21 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 8 5 8 8 8 8 7 4 8 8 8 8 8 7 8 8 5 5 8 8 7 5 8 8 5 8 4 7 8 7 5 8 7 8 0 7 8 5 8 0.00 0.00 20.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00% 0.00 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 . 00 20.00% 20.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 20.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 20.00 0.00 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 10 11 6 11 11 11 11 10 7 11 11 11 11 11 10 11 11 6 6 11 11 10 6 11 10 6 11 5 10 11 10 6 11 10 11 0 10 11 8 11 11 10 11 8 11 11 11 11 10 7 11 11 11 11 11 10 11 11 7 7 11 11 10 7 11 10 6 11 5 10 11 10 7 11 10 11 0 10 11 8 11 11 100.00% 100.00 75.00 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 85.71 85.71 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 8 5.71 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 85.71 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 22 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 na 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 5 8 8 8 8 5 7 8 8 5 6 7 8 8 7 8 8 5 8 8 8 8 4 na 8 7 7 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 20.00 0.00 0.00% 0.00 0.00 16.67 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00% 0.00 40.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 25.00 na 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 11 6 11 11 11 11 6 10 11 11 6 7 10 11 11 10 11 11 5 11 11 na 1 1 4 0 11 10 10 11 11 11 10 10 10 10 11 6 11 11 11 11 7 10 11 11 6 8 10 11 11 10 11 11 7 11 11 na 11 5 8 11 10 10 11 11 11 10 10 10 10 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 85.71 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00 87.50 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 1 0 0.00 71.43 100.00 100.00 na 100.00 80.00 0.00 100.00 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00 100.00% 100.00 100.00 100.00 23 0 0 0 0 3 3 5 5 0 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 0 0 20 16 20 20 16 19 9 9 14 20 7 19 13 6 15 16 16 16 16 17 20 20 18 20 16 14 10 17 16 20 11 19 16 1 8 20 16 15 20 I VOTES 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 18.75% 15.79 55.56 55.56 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 92.31 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00% 0.00 0.00 5.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 60.00 0.00 6.25 20.00% 45.45 0.00 0.00 5.56 0.00 18.75 6.67 0.00 iGREES3 ii,WlUS fi 23 20 23 23 1 7 20 8 8 18 23 10 22 4 8 19 20 20 19 20 21 23 23 22 23 20 18 8 21 19 19 10 22 20. 20 23 17 18 23 VOf wruss 23 20 23 23 19 22 12 12 18 23 10 22 15 8 19 20 20 19 20 21 23 23 22 23 20 18 13 21 19 22 14 22 20 20 23 19 18 23 m goTEs 100.00% 100.00% 100.0091 89. 4 7 90.91 ox 66.67 66.67 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 26.67 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00 1 oo:oo 100.00 100.00 IOO.OO I 00.00 I 00.00 I 00.00 IOO.OO IOO.OO 61.54 IOO.OO IOO.OO 86.36% 71.43 IOO.OO I00~00 IOO.OO IOO.OO 89.47 I 00.00 24 0 0 9 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 4 5 12 0 1 0 13 0 9 4 2 0 0 0 2 4 3 5 0 1 0 0 9 12 11 0 9 1 20 14 17 15 16 16 20 10 15 20 13 10 13 14 18 19 13 20 12 18 18 20 15 20 15 16 10 10 18 20 20 20 13 13 13 17 10 17 17 0.00 64.29 0.00 0.00% 6.25 0.00 0.00 20.00 0.00 0.00 30.77% 50.00% 92.31 0.00 5.56 0.00 IOO.OO 0.00 75.00 22.22 11.11 0.00% 0.00 0.00 13.33 25.00% 30.00 50.00 0.00 5.00 0.00 0.00 69.23% 92.31 84;62 0.00 90.00 5.88 0.00 23 9 20 19 18 20 23 10 17 23 13 9 4 18 21 23 3 22 7 17 20 23 19 23 17 16 11 9 22 23 23 23 8 2 5 21 5 20 21 23 17 2 0 19 19 20 23 11 17 23 16 13 15 18 21 23 15 22 15 20 21 23 19 23 18 19 13 13 22 23 23 23 16 13 15 21 13 21 21 1 00.00 52.94 100.00 100.00 94.74 100.00 100.00 90.91 100.00% 100.00 81.25 69.23% 26.67 100.00 100.00 100.00 20.00 100.00 46.67 85.00 95.24 100.00 % 100.00% 100.00 94.44 84.21 84.62 69.23 100.00 100.00% 100.00 100.00 50.00 15.38 33.33 100.00 38.46% 95.24 100.00 I i 25 0 1 0 0 1 0 12 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 5 0 0 0 5 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 14 0 0 1 20 18 16 14 19 20 13 16 6 20 19 17 9 16 9 18 16 16 20 18 20 14 10 20 14 20 10 15 18 20 9 1 16 16 16 14 19 17 18 0.00 5.56 0.00 0.00% 5.26 0.00 92.31 9 0.00 33.33 0.00 15.7990 0.00 44.44 0.00 11.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 92.86 50.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 50.00 0.00 0.00 5.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 IOO.OO 0. 0 0 0.00 5.56 23 21 20 17 22 23 4 20 8 23 20 21 9 20 12 22 20 20 23 21 23 4 9 23 18 23 9 18 22 23 12 4 20 20 19 3 22 21 21 11 23 21 20 17 22 23 15 20 9 23 22 21 12 20 13 22 20 20 23 21 23 16 13 23 18 23 13 18 22 23 12 4 20 20 19 16 22 21 21 14 100.004 100.0 0 91 100.0091 100.0091 100.0091 100.0091 26.6791 100.0091 88.8991 100.00 90.91 9c 100.00 75.0096 100.00 92.31 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 25.00 69.23 100.00 100.00 100.00 69.23 IOO.OO IOO.OO 100.00 IOO.OO 100.00 100.00 IOO.OO IOO.OO 18.75 IOO. O O IOO.OO IOO.OO I 1 26 4 4 4 0 0 0 0 3 0 1 0 9 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 2 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 18 na 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 27 18 15 12 20 16 16 19 16 18 20 13 17 17 16 14 10 20 20 14 17 17 17 14 20 20 19 20 18 na 19 20 16 17 19 20 18 18 18 18 26.67% 22.22 26.67 0.00% 0.00 0. 0 0 0.00 15.79 0.00 5.56 0.00 69.23 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00 50.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 11.76 0.00 0.00 28.57 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 I 00.00 na 21.05 0.00 0.00 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.56 0.00 15 18 15 16 23 20 20 20 20 21 23 8 21 21 20 16 9 23 23 18 19 21 21 14 23 23 n a 23 2 0 19 23 20 21 21 23 22 21 21 21 18 16 23 20 20 22 20 21 23 16 21 21 20 16 13 23 23 18 20 21 21 17 23 23 na 23 19 19 22 23 20 21 21 23 22 21 21 21 85.71 83.33 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 90.91 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 50.00 100.001 100.00% 100.00 10 0 .00 69.23 100.00 100.00% 100.00 95.00 100.00 100.00 82.35 100.00 100.00 na 100.00 10.53 0.00 86.36 100.00 100.00 100.00 IOO.OO IOO.OO 100.00 100.00 100.00 IOO.OO% 3 2 3 3 5 4 12 10 4 3 3 4 14 1 4 4 4 4 4 3 2 3 4 3 3 4 14 3 4 5 4 3 4 1 0 5 4 31 30 32 32 24 27 23 22 21 32 31 26 25 5 29 32 24 32 24 31 29 32 30 30 28 28 23 28 21 31 20 31 28 14 16 24 22 9.68% 6.67% 9.38% 9.38 20.83 14.81 52.1 7 45.45 19.05 9.38 9.68 15.38 56.00% 20.00 13.79% 12.50% 16.67% 12.50 16.67 9.68 6.90% 9.38 13.33% 10.00% 10.71 14.29 60 . 87 10.71 19.05% 16.13 20.00 9.68 14.29 7.14 0.00 20.83 18.18 35 34 35 35 27 30 19 20 25 35 35 29 19 4 32 35 28 35 28 34 34 35 33 35 33 32 17 32 25 33 24 35 32 18 16 25 26 35 34 35 35 28 30 26 25 25 35 35 29 28 4 32 35 28 35 28 34 34 35 35 33 32 26 32 25 3 4 24 35 32 18 16 27 26 35 33 100.00% 100.00 1 00.00 96.43 100.00 73.08 80.00 100.00% 100.00 100.00 100.00 67.86 100.00% 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 65.38 100.00% 100.00 97.06 100.00 100.00% 10 0 .00 100.00 100.00 92.59 100.00 100.00 28 3 5 3 4 3 14 1 10 5 4 4 4 4 4 5 13 13 0 0 3 14 2 5 5 2 3 3 4 2 4 4 14 3 3 3 3 14 29 14 32 25 32 32 30 25 29 12 18 25 28 9 18 29 23 25 24 19 17 30 24 31 23 20 25 32 30 32 24 17 28 24 30 32 31 32 25 30 25 22 20.00 9. 3 8 12.50% 10.00 56.00 3.45 83.33 27.78 16.00% 14.29 44.44 22.22 13.79 21.74% 52.00% 54.17 0.00 0.00 10.00 58.33 6.45 21.74% 25.00 8.00 9.38 10.00 12.50 8.33 23.53 14.29 58.33 10.00 9.38 9.68% 9.38 56.00% 96.67% 56.00 18.18 35 25 35 35 35 19 32 4 21 29 32 5 21 32 26 20 18 23 17 35 18 34 26 23 28 35 33 35 27 20 32 18 34 35 34 35 19 0 19 26 35 26 35 35 35 28 32 11 22 29 32 7 21 32 27 28 27 23 17 35 27 34 27 24 28 35 33 35 27 20 32 27 34 35 34 35 28 33 28 26 1 00.0091 96.1591 100.0091 1 00.0091 100.0091 67.8691 1 00.00 36.36% 95.45 100.00~ 100.00 71.43 100.00 100.00 96.30 71.43 66.67 100.00% 100.00 100.00 66.67 100.00 96.30% 95.83 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 66.67 100.00% 100.00 100.00% 100.00 67.86 0.00 67.86 100.00 29 10 3 3 4 5 3 14 3 4 3 3 4 5 3 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 14 14 1 0 3 14 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 14 3 4 3 1 22 32 32 31 24 32 25 31 20 32 31 31 22 32 26 27 31 32 30 24 24 24 25 27 18 31 25 32 32 21 23 28 26 26 28 25 32 29 30 5 45.45 9.38% 9.38 12.90 20.83 9.38 56.00 9.68 20.00 9.38% 9.68 12.90 2 2.73 9.38 15.38 14.81 9.68% 9.38 13.33 16.67% 16.67 58.33 56.00 3.70 0.00 9.68 56.00 12.50 9.38 19.05% 17.39% 14.29% 15.38 15.38% 10.71 56.00 9.38 13.79 10.00 20.00 35 35 34 26 35 19 35 23 35 34 34 25 35 30 31 34 35 33 28 28 18 19 30 19 34 19 35 35 25 26 3 1 30 30 33 19 35 33 34 25 35 35 34 27 35 28 35 23 35 34 34 26 35 30 31 34 35 33 28 28 27 28 30 19 34 28 35 35 25 27 31 30 30 33 28 35 33 34 6 100.00 100.00 100.00 96.30 100.00 67.86 100.00 100.00 100.00% 100.00 100.00 96.15 100.00 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 1 0 0.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 66.67% 67.86 100.00 100.00 100.00 67.86 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 96.30 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 67.86 100.00% 100.00 100.00 83.33 30 5 18 5 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 10 4 1 4 2 12 3 1 4 4 4 3 4 1 3 3 3 14 na 4 3 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 18 22 24 3 2 30 30 31 24 22 32 26 32 26 29 22 24 32 27 22 23 30 32 28 27 30 30 32 24 na 20 30 25 32 32 32 32 21 31 16.67 22.73 12.50 9.38 10.00 13.33% 12.90% 16.67% 18.18 9.38 38.46 12.50 3.85 13.79 9.09 50.00 9.38% 3.70 18.18% 17.39% 13.33 9.38 14.29 3.70 10.00% 10 . 00 9.38 58.33 M 20.00 10.00 16.00 9.38% 9.38% 9.38 12.50% 19.05 9.68 21 25 28 35 34 33 34 28 26 35 24 35 29 32 25 20 35 31 26 27 33 35 32 31 35 na 35 18 3 24 34 29 35 35 35 35 25 35 22 26 28 35 34 33 34 28 26 35 29 35 29 32 25 27 31 26 27 33 35 32 31 35 n a 35 27 30 24 34 29 35 35 35 35 25 35 35 95.45 96.15 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 82.76 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 74.07 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 na 100.00 66.67 10.00 100.00% 1 00.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 31 4 4 4 1 8 5 10 7 8 6 7 8 13 0 7 7 7 5 6 8 7 8 7 7 7 7 13 8 8 8 8 6 8 0 7 7 8 26 23 26 21 31 27 27 27 31 28 30 31 17 0 30 31 30 27 27 30 30 31 30 30 28 30 17 31 31 31 28 25 30 0 30 27 31 25 i. * OT p!liw?~.El 15.38% 17.39% 15.38 4.76 25.81 18.52 37.04 25.93 25.81 21.43 23.33% 25.81 76.47 23.33% 22.58% 23.33 18.52 22.22% 26.67 23.33 25.81 23.33 23.33% 25.00% 23.33 76.47 25.81 25.81 25.81 28.57% 24.00% 26.67 23.33 25.93 25.81 12.00 39 33 39 34 43 3 8 37 40 43 40 42 43 18 0 42 43 42 39 37 41 43 43 42 43 38 42 20 43 43 43 38 35 41 0 42 39 43 38 qocs YlWR 39 33 39 34 43 38 39 40 43 40 42 43 24 0 42 43 42 39 37 41 43 43 42 43 38 42 25 43 43 43 38 35 41 0 42 39 43 38 100.00 100.00% 100.00 100.00 100.00% 1 00.00 94.87 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 75.00 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 IOO.OO I 00.00 80.00 IOO.OO IOO.OO IOO.OO I 00.00 IOO.OO IOO.OO l00.00 IOO.OO% IOO.OO I 00.00 39.EE.e?

W&S 100.00 32 6 7 9 7 8 7 7 5 4 0 3 8 8 16 7 8 7 13 7 8 7 8 8 8 7 7 8 7 8 2 6 5 4 8 11 13 8 11 5 7 30 22 29 31 30 30 27 15 0 24 31 28 19 30 31 30 17 30 24 30 31 31 31 30 30 31 30 19 23 29 28 25 26 14 18 31 15 26 23.33% 40.91 24.1 4 25.81 23.33% 23.33 18.52 26.67 12.50 25.81 28.57 84.21 23. 3 3% 25.81 23.33 76.47 23.33% 33.33 23.33% 25.81 25.81 25.81 23.33% 23.33 25.81 23.33 42.11 8.70 20.69 17.86% 16.00 30.77 78.57% 72.22 25.81 73.33 19.23 43 29 41 43 42 42 39 25 0 37 43 40 12 42 43 43 17 42 33 41 43 43 43 42 41 43 43 27 33 42 40 37 38 18 18 4 3 20 38 43 31 41 43 42 42 39 25 0 37 43 40 24 42 43 43 23 42 33 41 43 43 43 42 41 43 43 28 33 42 40 37 38 21 24 43 23 38 100.00 93.55 100.00 100.00% 100.00 100.00% 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00 50.00 100.00% 100.00 100.00 73.91 100.00% 100.00% 100. 0 0% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 96.43 100.00% 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 85.71 75.00 100.00 86.96 100.00 33 5 7 6 8 8 6 13 6 8 7 6 7 8 5 7 7 7 6 6 7 7 13 10 7 7 7 9 6 5 7 8 8 7 8 7 13 5 8 8 34 26 30 28 31 31 28 17 29 30 30 29 30 2 8 28 31 29 28 28 28 30 30 17 29 30 30 30 22 27 28 30 31 31 30 31 30 17 26 31 31 31 19.23 23.33 21.43 25.81 25.81 21 43 76.47 20.69% 26.67% 23.33 20.6996 23.33% 28.57 17.86 22.58% 24.14% 25.00% 21.43% 21 4 23.33 23.33 76.47 34.48% 23.33% 23.33% 23.33 40.91 2 2.22 17.86 23.33% 25.81 25.81 23.33% 25.81 23.33 76.47 19.23 25.81 25.81% 25.81 w/u GREE 38 43 40 43 43 40 19 42 41 42 41 42 40 40 43 41 40 40 40 43 42 19 39 42 42 42 29 39 40 42 43 43 42 43 43 19 38 43 42 42 38 43 40 43 43 40 25 42 41 42 41 42 40 40 43 4 1 40 40 40 43 42 25 41 42 42 42 31 39 40 42 43 43 42 43 43 24 38 43 42 42 100.00% 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 76.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 1 00.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 76.00 95.12 100.00% 100.00 100.00 9 3.55 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00% 100.00 100.00 79.17 100.00% 100.00 100.00 100.00 AGREES y#ss I 8 8 8 7 7 8 7 8 8 8 6 10 7 8 7 5 7 4 5 7 8 7 5 12 5 7 7 5 19 na 8 7 7 7 6' 4 6 8 3 31 29 25 29 30 30 31 29 31 28 15 30 31 30 28 27 25 27 29 31 3 0 27 19 26 30 30 25 21 30 29 29 29 27 26 29 31 26 na 25.81 27.59 28.00% 24.1 4 26.67% 23.33% 25.81 27.59% 25.81 21.43% 66.67% 23.33% 25.81 23.33 17.86 25.93 16.00% 18.52 24.14% 25.81 23.33 18.52 63.16 19.23 23.33% 23.33% 20.00% 90.48 na 26.67% 24.14% 24.14 % 24.14 1 5.38 20.69% 25.81 1 1.54 22.22 43 41 36 41 42 43 43 40 43 40 21 42 43 42 40 40 38 39 41 43 42 39 23 38 43 na 36 13 7 41 40 41 42 39 39 42 42 38 43 41 36 41 42 43 43 40 43 40 23 42 43 42 40 40 38 39 41 43 42 39 27 38 43 36 24 30 41 40 41 42 39 39 4 2 42 38 na 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 91.30 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 85.19 100.00% 100.00 na 100.00 54.17% 23.33 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00 8 35 APPENDIX A VOTING COINCIDENCES WITH THE UNITES STATES AND U.S.S.R.

BY BLOC 7 4 12 10 12 12 13 12 14 18 3 7 14 10 11 5 7 8 10 10 12 12 13 13 15 10 9 15 12 9 13 11 10 8 12 13 11 12 100 94 93 98 106 100 94 99 87 102 45 87 88 95 95 46 96 83 85 104 105 97 91 98 94 103 97 77 100 96 87 98 94 82 103 99 83 95 7.00 4.26 12.90% 10.20 1 1.32 12.00% 13.83% 12.12% 16.09% 17.65 6.67 8.05 15.91 10.53% 11.58% 10.87 7.29 9.64 11.76 9.62 11.43% 12.37% 14.29% 13.27% 15.96 9.71 9.28 1 9 .48% 12.00 9.38 14.94% 1 1.22 10.64 9.76 11.65% 13.13% 13.25% 12.63 128 121 119 124 132 127 120 127 113 122 52 111 114 119 120 55 124 110 107 129 130 124 115 123 119 128 127 100 127 123 113 123 121 106 127 124 109 122 128 121 120 125 133 128 122 128 114 1 2 7 53 111 115 121 122 56 124 111 108 130 131 125 117 124 121 129 127 102 128 124 115 126 121 107 129 125 110 123 100.00% 100.00 99.17% 99.20% 99.25% 99.22% 98.36% 99.22% 99.12% 96.06% 98.11 100.00 99.13% 98.35% 98.36% 98.21 100.00 99.10% 99.07 99.23% 99.24 99.20% 98.29 99.19 98.35% 99.22 100.00 98.04% 99.22% 99.19% 98.26% 97.62% 100.00 99.07% 98.45% 99.20% 99.09% 99.19 36 100 101 95 95 100 97 101 92 103 96 98 95 99 103 101 93 100 96 99 98 100 7.00 10.89% 10.53 1 1.58 8.00 1 1.34 9.90 9.78% 9.71 9.38 1 1.22 1 2.63% 10.10 1 1.65 10.89% 10.75 8.00 9.38% 9.09 10.20 128 125 119 120 125 121 1 26 118 128 123 123 119 123 127 125 118 126 123 124 122 128 127 121 122 126 124 128 118 129 124 126 121 125 129 127 119 127 124 125 123 100.0091 98.4391 98.35% 98.36% 99.21 97. 5 8 98.44 100.00 99.22% 99.19% 97.62% 98.35% 98.40% 98.45 98.43% 99.1 6 99.21 99.19 99.20% 99.19 37 8 11 12 12 12 11 11 11 18 5 12 9 8 36 11 10 11 9 11 14 10 12 12 12 10 13 13 10 18 12 13 14 12 8 12 9 11 10 10 7 100 101 89 100 97 92 99 101 85 92 104 102 100 59 97 101 102 92 104 101 99 95 98 95 102 82 95 99 82 103 89 94 99 1 00 85 99 100 101 98 100 8.00 10.89% 13.48% 12.00% 12.37% 11 36 11.11% 10.89 21.18 5.43 1 1.54 8.82% 8.00 61.02 1 1.34 9.90 10.78 9.78 10.58% 13.86% 10.10 12.63% 12.24 12.63 9.80 15.85 13. 6 8% 10.10 21.95 1 1.65 14.61 14.89 12.12 8.00 14.12 9.09 11 .00 9.90 10.20 7.00 128 125 114 126 122 117 122 128 107 117 129 126 125 54 121 126 130 118 129 123 127 122 124 119 1 26 107 122 1 23 104 127 115 121 126 126 112 124 126 130 122 128 129 127 116 127 123 118 124 129 112 117 131 127 126 76 124 128 1 30 118 130 127 127 123 125 121 128 109 123 125 109 129 116 122 127 127 113 125 127 130 123 128 99.22% 98.43 98.28 99.21 ok 99.19% 99.15% 98.39% 99.22 95.54 100.00 98.47% 99.21 99.21 71.05 97.58% 98.44 100.0 0 100.00 99.23% 96.85 100.00 99.19 99.20 98.35% 98.44% 98.1 7 99.19% 98.40% 95.41 98.45 99.14% 99.1 8 99.21 99.21 99.1 2 99.20% 99.21 100.00 99.19 100.00 38 68 77 70 67 73 80 69 68 68 70 69 66.18% 48.05 68.57% 70.15 32.88% 42.50% 63.77 66.18% 67.65 65.71 4 6 .38 52 72 44 48 84 83 53 53 52 54 69 AI 84 96 84 82 95 103 84 86 85 86 87 61.90 75.00 52.38% 58.54% 88.42% 80.58 63.10 61.63% 61.18 62.79 79.31 39 7 11 12 12 12 12 13 18 3 10 11 8 10 12 12 12 9 8 11 10 9 10 11 14 12 9 100 101 89 93 97 106 94 102 45 95 95 8 3 85 105 97 104 102 100 97 101 92 103 104 101 100 96 7.00 10.89% 13.48% 12.90 12.37 1 1.32 13.83 17.65 6.67 10.53 1 1.58 9.64 11.76% 11 43 12.37 1 1.54 8.82 8.00 1 1.34 9.90% 9.78% 9.71 10.58% 13.86 12.00 9.38 128 125 114 119 122 132 120 122 52 119 120 11 0 107 130 124 129 126 1 25 121 126 118 128 129 123 127 123 128 127 116 120 123 133 122 127 53 121 122 111 108 131 125 131 127 126 124 128 118 1 29 130 127 128 124 100.00 98.43% 98.28% 99.17 99.19% 99.25% 98.36% 96.06% 98.35 98.36 99.10% 99.07% 99.24% 99.20 98.47% 99.21 99.21 97.58% 98.44 100.00 99.22% 99.23 96.85 99.22% 99.19 98.11 I 40 8 12 12 10 10 12 12 17 11 10 8 9 24 6 9 10 7 103 95 102 99 103 95 101 101 93 100 96 74 95 99 98 90 96 88 99 15 94 91 76 98 84 100 75 84 93 41 1 1.65 12.63 9.80 10.10 11 65 1 2 .63% 16.83 10.89% 10.75 8.00 9.38 32.43 6.32 9.09 10.20 127 119 126 123 127 122 123 125 118 126 123 83 1 23 124 122 13.54% 118 14.77% 115 13.13 1 25 13.33% 16 12.77% 122 12.09% 116 23.68% 95 13.27% 124 19.05% 106 6.00% 128 26.67% 86 16.67% 106 129 121 128 125 129 123 127 127 119 127 124 94 1 23 125 123 117 121 116 1 26 17 123 117 101 125 111 128 109 122 95 98.45 98.35% 98.44% 98.40% 98.45 99.19 96.85 98.43% 99.16% 99.21 99.1 9 88.30 100.00 99.20% 99.19 96.58 97.52% 99.14 99.21 94.12% 99.19% 99.15 94.06% 99 . 20 95.50 100.00 90.53% 97.25% 49 81 96 105 90 83 91 98 100 91 72 95 58 86 89 98 98 93 93 24.49% 20.99 13.54% 11.43% 13.33 20.48 14.29% 12.24 8.00 15.38 18.06% 12.63 24.14% 20.93 17.98 12.24% 12.24 18.28 57 99 121 131 112 103 119 125 127 114 95 122 69 108 1 10 124 125 115 121 62 104 123 132 114 107 120 126 127 116 96 123 74 113 115 125 126 119 1 22 66.18% 60.32% 48.05 68.57 70.1 5 32.88% 46.27% 63.77 66.1 8 67.65% 44.59 65.71% 46.38% 32.43% 77.22 52 58 72 44 48 84 69 53 53 52 74 54 69 83 41 84 82 96 84 82 95 87 84 86 85 94 86 87 94 88 103 91 94 95.19% 98.37% 99.24% 98.25 96.26% 99.17% 99.21 100.00 98.28 98.96% 99.19% 93.24% 95.58% 95.65 99.20% 99.21 96.64 61 90 70.73% 75.00 52.38% 58.54 88.42% 79.31 96 63.10% 61.63 61.18 78.72 62.79 79.31 88.30 46.59 9.71 42 8 7 4 13 13 11 12 13 2 12 12 12 10 12 12 11 18 13 3 7 14 6 11 13 12 14 10 12 11 5 7 8 10 10 17 12 12 12 100 100 94 96 88 101 89 99 15 93 100 94 98 106 100 92 102 98 45 87 88 100 101 94 99 87 95 93 95 46 96 83 85 1 04 81 105 97 105 8.00 7.00% 4.26 13.54 14. 7 7% 10.89% 13.48% 13.13% 13.33% 12.90 12.00% 12.77% 10.20 1 1.32 12.00 1 1.96 17.65 13.27 6.67 8.05 15.91 6.00 10.89% 13.83% 12.12 16.09% 10.53% 12.90 1 1.58 10.87 7.29 9.64 11.76 9.62 20.99 11.43% 12.37 1 1.43 128 128 121 118 115 125 114 125 16 119 1 26 1 2 2 124 132 127 117 122 124 52 111 114 128 128 120 127 113 119 121 120 55 124 110 107' 129 99 130 124 131 117 i kVOES WiUSSR 129 128 121 121 116 127 116 126 17 120 127 123 125 133 128 118 127 125 53 111 115 128 129 122 128 114 121 122 122 56 124 111 108 130 104 131 125 132 117 99.22 I 00.00 IOO.OO 97.52% 99.14 98.43% 98.28% 99.21 94.12% 99.1 7% 99.21 99.19 99.20% 99.25% 99.22% 99.15% 96.06% 99.20% 98.11 100.00 99.13 100.00 99.22% 98.36% 99.22% 99.12% 98.35% 99.18% 98.36% 98.21 100.00 99.10% 99.07% 99.23% 95. 1 9% 99.24% 99.20% 99.24 100.00 I AaREES yqgS$R 43 12 9 8 13 11 13 10 11 9 13 15 10 9 14 12 18 9 15 11 13 11 10 12 8 8 12 12 10 14 12 10 13 18 11 12 12 11 17 13 11 104 102 100 91 97 91 101 1 02 92 98 94 103 97 101 100 71 96 77 104 87 98 94 98 100 82 103 95 1 02 91 95 99 99 86 83 103 95 93 101 89 101 99 OggqN i;Y.OT.ES 1 1.54 8.82 8.00 14.29% 1 1.34 14.29 9.90 1 0.78 9.78 13.27% 15.96 9.71 9.28 13.86% 12.00 25.35 9.38 19.48% 10.58% 14.94 1 1.22 10.64% 12.24 8.00 9.76 1 1.65 12.63 9.80 15.38% 12.63% 10.10% 13.1 3 20.93 13.25 1 1.65 12.63% 11.83 16.83 14.61 10.89% 12.12 129 126 125 119 121 115 126 130 118 123 119 128 127 123 127 93 123 100 129 113 123 121 124 127 106 127 119 126 114 122 123 1 24 108 109 127 122 119 123 115 125 126 yQ$Es y[ussR 131 127 126 120 124 1 17 128 130 118 124 121 129 127 127 128 98 124 102 130 115 126 121 125 127 107 129 121 128 116 123 125 125 113 110 129 123 119 127 116 127 127 98.47% 99.21 99.21 99.1 7 97.58% 98.29% 98.44 100.00 100.00 99.19 98.35% 99.22 100.00 96.85 99.22 94.90 99.19% 98 . 04% 99.23% 98.26% 97.62 100.00 99.20 100.00 99.07% 98.45% 98.35% 98.44% 98.28% 99.19% 98.40% 99.20% 95.58 99.09% 98.45% 99.19 100.00 96.85 99.14% 98.43% 99.21 44 10 12 8 8 7 15 12 9 6 9 11 12 10 10 7 11 14 7 8 1 q,o;z6 2 93 98 82 100 97 90 98 96 95 99 100 93 101 98 100 102 88 94 94 I. 9225 10.75% 12.24 9.76 8.00 7.22 16.67% 12.24 9.38 6.32 9.09 11 .OO 12.90 9.90 10.20 7.00 10.78 15.91 7.45% 8.51 il 60 118 124 104 126 124 115 125 123 123 124 126 121 130 122 128 130 112 120 119 24 119 125 105 127 125 117 126 124 123 125 127 122 130 123 128 131 113 121 1 20 3387 99.16% 99.20% 99.05 99.21 99.20 98.29 99.21 99.19 100.00 99.20% 99.21 99.18 100.00 99.19 100.00 99.24 99.12% 99.17% 99.17 45 76 76 68 63 77 78 70 67 73 67 80 69 68 71 68 82 74 70 69 77 74 79 na 40.79% 3 2.89% 66.18 60.32 48.05 37.1 8 68.57 70.15 32.88 46.27% 42.50% 63.77 66.18% 25.35 67.65 40.24 44.59 65.71 46.38 35.06 32.43% 77.22 84 88 52 58 72 87 44 48 69 83 53 53 93 52 89 74 54 69 87 83 41 84 101 100 84 82 96 102 84 82 95 87 103 84 86 98 85 108 94 86 87 101 94 88 103 83.17% 88.00% 61.90% 70.73% 75.00 85.29 52.38% 58.54 88.42 79.31 80.58 63.10% 61.63% 94.90% 61.18% 82.41 78.72 62.79 79.31 86.1 4 88.30 46.59 9.71 10 103 9.71 10 104 9.62 10 103 9.71 14 89 15.73 10 94 10.64 12 98 12.24 133 134 1 34 114 12 4 126 133 100.00% 134 100.00 134 100.00 116 98.28 124 100.00% 126 100.00 46 APPENDIX B BLOC VOTING COINCIDENCES ON SELECT ISSUE CATEGORIES 17 17 22 19 17 24 19 18 17 22 17 15 19 21 17 76.47 40.91 84.21 76.47 33.33 42.11% 72.22% 76.47% 76.47 40.91 76.47 66. 6 7% 63.16% 90.48 15.38 4.76 18.52 25.81 21.43 23.33 25.81 23.33% 22.58% 23.33 18.52 25.81 20 29 12 17 33 27 18 19 19 29 19 21 23 13 39 39 34 38 43 40 42 43 0 42 43 42 39 43 24 25 31 24 23 33 28 24 25 25 31 24 23 27 24 39 39 34 38 43 40 42 43 0 42 43 42 39 4 3 42 42 80.00 93.55 50.00 73.91 100.00 96.43 75.00% 76.00% 76.00 93.55 79.1 7 91.30% 85.19 54.17% 23.33 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00% 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 47 7 8 8 8 8 0 7 8 3 6 7 7 5 0 3 7 8 7 7 8 8 7 2 6 5 4 8 5 7 5 7 6 8 8 6 6 8 7 30 31 31 31 30 0 30 31 25 29 29 30 27 0 24 30 31 30 30 31 31 30 23 29 28 25 31 26 28 26 30 28 31 31 28 29 30 30 23.33 25.81 25.81 25.81 26.67% 23.33% 25.81 12.00 20.69 24.1 4% 23.33 18.52 12.50 23.33 25.81 23.33% 23.33% 25.81% 25 . 81 23.33 8.70 20.69 17.86 16.00 25.81 19.23 25.00 19.23 23.33 21 4 25.81 25.81 21.43 20.69% 26.67 23.33 38 42 43 43 43 41 0 42 43 38 42 41 42 39 0 37 42 43 42 41 43 43 42 33 42 40 37 43 38 40 38 43 40 43 43 40 42 41 42 38 42 43 43 43 41 0 42 43 38 42 41 4 2 39 0 37 42 43 42 41 43 43 42 33 42 40 37 43 38 40 38 43 40 43 43 40 42 41 42 100.00 100.00 1 00.00 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00% 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00% 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00% 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 1 00.00 100.00 100.00 100.00% 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00% 100.00 100.00 100.00% 100.00 100.00 48 7 8 5 7 6 6 7 7 7 7 6 5 7 7 5 8 8 7 7 8 7 8 8 6 7 8 7 5 4 5 8 7 5 5 5 7 7 7 6 4 30 28 28 31 28 28 30 30 30 30 27 28 30 30 26 31 31 25 29 30 30 31 29 28 30 31 3 0 28 25 27 31 30 27 26 25 29 29 29 27 26 29 23.33% 28.57 17.86 22.58% 21.43% 21 4 23.33% 23.33% 23.33 23.33% 22.22 17.86 23.33 23.33 19.23 25.81 25.81 28.00% 24.14% 26.67 23.33 25.81 27.59% 21.43% 23.33% 25.81 23.33 17.86% 16.00% 18.52 25.81 23.33 18.52 19 . 23 20.00 24.14% 24.14 24.14 22.22 15.38 20.69 42 40 40 43 40 40 42 42 42 42 39 40 42 42 38 42 43 36 41 42 43 43 40 40 42 43 42 40 38 39 43 42 39 38 36 40 41 42 39 39 42 42 40 40 43 40 40 42 42 42 42 39 40 42 42 38 42 43 36 41 42 43 43 40 40 42 43 42 40 38 39 43 42 39 38 36 40 41 42 39 39 42 100.00 100.00 1 00.00 100.00% 100.00 100.00% 100.00 1 00.00 100.00% 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00% 100.0 0 % 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 49 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0- 0 0 0 0 7 8 7 7 8 8 8 8 2 7 8 8 8 8 8 7 8 8 7 8 8 5 7 8 8 7 8 7 8 3 8 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0 . 00% 0.00 0.00 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00% 0.00 0.00 10 11 9 10 11 11 11 11 2 10 11 11 11 11 11 10 11 11 10 11 11 5 10 11 11 10 11 10 11 4 11 10 11 9 10 11 11 11 11 2 10 11 11 11 11 11 10 11 11 10 11 11 5 10 11 11 10 11 10 11 4 11 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00% 100.00 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 1 00.00% 100.00 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 7 8 3 7 8 8 7 7 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 8 7 8 8 8 8 8 7 4 8 8 8 7 8 8 8 7 8 8 5 7 8 8 7 s 51 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.0 0 0.00 0.00 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00% 0.00 0.00 iGREE.3 J 11 10 11 4 10 11 11 9 10 10 11 11 11 10 10 10 8 11 10 11 11 11 11 11 10 7 11 11 11 10 11 11 11 10 11 10 6 10 11 11 10 11 10 11 4 10 11 11 9 10 10 11 11 11 10 10 10 8 11 10 11 11 11 11 11 10 7 11 11 11 10 11 11 11 10 11 10 6 10 11 11 10 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00% 100.00 100.00% 100.00 100.00% 100.00 100.00 100.00% 100. 0 0 100.00% 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00 100.00% 100.00 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00% 100.00 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00% 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 8 8 5 8 8 8 7 8 8 5 7 8 7 8 8 8 7 7 8 8 8 7 7 7 a 7 0.00 0.00 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 a*fifis I 11 11 11 6 11 11 11 10 11 11 6 10 11 10 11 11 11 11 10 10 11 11 11 10 10 10 11 11 11 6 11 11 11 10 11 11 6 10 11 10 11 11 11 11 10 10 11 11 11 10 10 10 10 10 100.00 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00% 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00% 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 100.00 100.00 100.00% 100.00% 1 0 0.00% 100.00 52 8 9 9 9 13 2 9 7 8 10 9 9 9 6 5 8 7 6 7 8 11 8 6 8 8 9 8 7 7 9 9 13 8 9 5 6 20 5 6 7 66 74 66 71 31 66 67 64 68 73 67 72 71 68 65 69 60 71 72 70 69 64 66 64 72 63 70 67 71 65 70 69 67 68 64 46 68 67 66 13.64 12.16% 13.64% 18.31 6.45 13.64% 10.45% 12.50 14.71% 12.33 13.43 12.50 8.45% 7.35 12.31 10.14% 10.00 9.86 11.11 15.71 1 1.59 9.38 12.12% 12.50% 12.50% 12.70% 10.00 12.68% 13.85% 18.57 11 59 13.43 7.35 9.38 43.48 7.35 8.96 10.61 10.,45 88 97 88 89 34 87 88 87 90 95 91 94 92 90 86 91 83 93 94 89 93 88 88 87 93 84 91 88 92 88 89 90 89 91 88 51 92 89 87 89 98 90 93 35 89 90 88 91 96 92 96 93 91 89 93 83 94 95 93 94 89 91 88 95 86 93 90 94 89 93 92 90 92 89 62 92 90 88 98.8896 98.98% 97.78% 95.70% 97.1 4 97.75% 97.78% 98.86% 98.90% 98.96 98.91 97.92% 98.92% 98.90 96.63 97.85 100.00 98.94% 98.95 95.70% 98.94% 98.88% 96.70% 98.86% 97.89% 97.67% 97.85% 97.78 97.87% 98.88% 95.70% 97.83% 98.89% 98.91 98.88 82.26 100.00 98.89% 98.86 53 68 69 66 67 68 65 69 60 71 64 66 63 67 71 69 67 68 64 67 66 68 5. 8 8 1 1.59 13.64% 10.45 7.35 12.31 10.14 10.00 9.86% 9.38 12.12 12.70% 10.45 12.68 1 1.59 13.43 7.35% 9.38 8.96 10.61 5.88 93 90 87 88 90 86 91 83 93 88 88 84 88 92 90 89 91 88 89 87 93 FAST 93 92 89 90 91 89 93 83 94 89 91 86 90 94 92 90 92 89 90 88 93 100 . 00 97.83 97.75 97.78% 98.90 96.63 97.85 100.00 98.94 98.88 96.70% 97.67% 97.78% 97.87% 97.83 98.89% 98.91 98.88% 98.89 98.86 100.00 54 13 14 2 7 13 10 11 5 7 8 9 10 12 12 13 13 14 10 9 13 12 9 12 11 10 8 12 12 11 12 11 14 11 10 8 7 13 9 6 13 7 82 27 67 73 78 75 31 76 69 67 84 85 82 e74 84 75 83 81 71 83 80 78 82 74 68 83 81 71 79 77 82 81 76 68 77 73 79 75 70 76 76 17.07 7.41 10.45% 17.81 12.82% 14.67% 16.13 9.21 1 1.59 13.43% 1 1.90 14.12% 14.63% 17.57 15.48% 18.67% 12.05 11.11% 18.31 14.46 1 1.25 15.38 1 3 .41 13.51 1 1.76 14.46 14.81 15.49% 15.19% 14.29% 17.07% 13.58% 13.16 1 1.76 9.09 17.81 1 1.39 8.00 18.57 9.21 10.53 1 03 32 88 96 99 97 38 101 92 86 107 107 105 94 106 97 105 107 92 106 103 101 103 98 88 104 103 93 102 99 103 102 97 88 101 96 102 100 91 9 9 98 105 33 88 97 101 99 39 101 93 87 108 108 106 96 107 99 106 107 93 107 104 102 106 98 89 106 104 94 103 99 105 104 98 89 102 97 103 100 92 100 99 98.10 96.97 100.00 98.97% 98.02% 97.98 97.44 100.00 98.92% 98.85% 99.07% 99.07% 99.06 97.92% 99.07% 97.98 % 99.06 100.00 98.92% 99.07% 99.04% 99.02 97.1 7 100.00 98.88 98.11% 99.04 98.94% 99.03 100.00 98.10% 98.08 98.98% 98.88 99.02% 98.97 99.03 100.00 98.91 99.00% 98.99 55 Appendix C List of All Resolutions of the 44th General Assembly Decided by Yes/No Vote B roken Down byTopics Economic Development and International Regulation Issues 11 votes Res.No. Vote Title/Description Y-N-Abstain 44/24 137-1-0 African Alternative Framework to Structural Adjustment Programmes for Socio-Economic Recovery and Transformation 44/26 138-2-6 Law of the sea 44/30 126- 1-2& Progressive development of the principles and norms of international law relating to the new international economic order 44/50 127-2-2 1 Questions relating to information 44/56 13 1-1-23 World social situation 441170 13 1-1-23 Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States 441205 139-1-0 Towards a durable solution of external debt problep 441214 144-0-5 Specific action related to the particular needs and problems of land-locked developing countries 44/215 118- 2 -2 Economic measures as a means of political and economic coercion against developing countries 44/218 146-0-2 Commodities 1 The U.S. vote is indicated by underline 56 441232 4411 1 44/27A 44/27c 44/27c 44127D 44/27E 44127F 441276 44127H 441271 441271 44/ 2 7I 44j271 44/27K 44127L 147-1-0 Trends in the transfer of resources to and from the developing countries and their impact on the economic growth and sustained development of those countries Southern African Issues: 24 votes 149-0-2 129-4-2 1 118-11-22 53- 411-4 1 135-3- 15 140-4-1 1 114-2-18 145-0-u 139-2- 14 106-fl-26 72-3-20 s-45-26 53-G-38 15 1-2-3 127-1-23 Death sentence passed on a South African patriot.

Policies of apartheid of the Government of South Africa International solidarity with the liberation struggle in South Africa.

Comprehensive and mandatory sanctions against the racist regime of South Africa 2nd Operative Paragraph of Draft Resolution C.

Imposition, co-ordination and strict monitoring of measures against racist South Africa.

International financial pressure on the apartheid economy of South Africa.

Relations between South Africa and Israel.

Policies of apartheid of the Government of South Africa Programme of work of the Special Committee against apartheid.

Oil embargo against South Africa.

Military collaboration with South Africa.

Motion to take no action on a draft amendment to 441271.

Motion for Division of 1st Operative Paragraph 1st Operative Paragraph of Draft Resolution I Concerted international action for the elimination of apartheid Support for the work of the Commission against Apartheid in Sports 57 44/69 44/69 44/69 44/69 44/6 9 44/84 44/85 441168 44/18 1 P.V. 44n 44/7 44/40A 44/40A 44/40B 44/40C 124-1-27 115-fi-19 113-16-20 117-8-25 120-fi-15 125-1Q- 17 Status of the International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid 5th Preambular Paragraph 6t h Operative Paragraph of Draft Resolution II 7th Operative Paragraph of Draft Resolution II 10th Operative Paragraph of Draft Resolution II Activities of foreign economic and other interests which are impeding the implementation of the Declaration on the G r anting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples in Namibia and in all other Territories under colonial domination and efforts to eliminate colonialism apartheid and racial discrimination in southern Africa 142-2- 10 Implementation of the Declarat i on on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples by the specialized agencies and the international institutions associated with the United Nations. I 150-0-2 International assistance for the economic rehabilitation of Angola 154-0-1 Sp ecial assistance to front-line States Middle Eastern Issues: 37 votes 95-37- 15 Vote to table motion on denying the credentials of the Israeli delegation 14Q-2-6 The uprising intifadah of the Palestinian people.

M-2-0 Co-operation between the United Nation s and the League of Arab States 109-18-3 1 The situation in the Middle East 63-s-14 10th Operative Paragraph of Draft Resolution A 84-2-49 The Situation in the Middle East 147-2-8 The situation in the Middle East 58 4414 1A 4414 1B 4414 1c 44/42 44147A 13 3-3-21 133-3-20 136-3- 17 15 1-3- 1 m-0- 1 Question of Palestine.

Question of Palestine.

Question of Palestine Question of Palestine.

United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East Assistance to Palestine refugees 44147D M -0-1 Offers by Member States of grants and scholarships for higher education, including vocational training, for Palestine refugees 44147E 140-2- 1 Palestine refugees in the Palestinian territory occupied by Israel since 1967 44147F 121-2(1-3 Resumption o f the ration distribution to Palestine refugees.

Return of population and refugees displaced since 1967 44147G 126-2-19 44147H 441471 441475 125-2-2 1 146-2-1 147-2- 1 Revenues derived from Palestine refugee properties.

Protection of Palestine refugees.

University of Jerusalem Al-Quds" for Palestine Refugees 44147K 146-2-1 Protection of Palestinian students and educational institutions and safeguarding of the security of the facilities of the U.N. Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugee Near East i n the occupied Palestine territory.

Report of the Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Population of the Occupied Territories 44148A 107-2-4 1 6th Operative Paragraph of Draft Resolution A. 44148A 44148B 81-2 1-43 149-1-2 Report of the Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Population of the Occupied Territories 144-1-1 1st Operative Paragraph of Draft Resolution B. 44148B 59 44148C 44148D 44148E 44148F 441486 4411 2 1 441121 441121 441121 441121 441121 441174 44/235 441104 441105 146-1-3 145-2-2 150-1-2 148-1-3 150-2-1 104-2-43 10 1-a-2 1 84-22-33 102-a-22 9 1-23-28 78-a-37 146-2-8 146-2-1 Report of the Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Population of the Occupied Territories.

Report of the Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Population of the Occupied Territories Report of the Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Pr actices Affecting the Human Rights of the Population of the Occupied Territories.

Report of the Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Population of the Occupied Territories.

Report of the Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Population of the Occupied Territories.

Israeli nuclear 'armament 6th Preambular Paragraph 10th Preambular Paragraph 2nd Operative Paragraph 6th Operative Paragraph 7th Operative Paragraph.

Living conditions of the Palestinian people in the occupied Palestinian territory.

Assistance to the Palestinian people Disarmament Issues: 44 votes m-0-3 Implementation of General Assembly resolution 43/62 concerning th e signature and ratification of Additional Protocol I of theTreaty for the Prohibition of Weapons in Latin America (Treaty of Tlatelolco 136-3-13 Cessation of all nuclear-test explosions 60 441106 441107 441109 441110 4411 11 4411 12 4411 12 4411 12 44111 2 44/112 4411 12 441113A 4411 13B 4411 14A 4411 14B 441116A 4411 16B 441116E 127-2-22 145-2-6 m-3-22 13 1-0-a 15 1-0-2 153-1-0 139-1-13 137-1-13 136-1-13 139-1 13 139-1- 13 147-0-4 137-4- 10 1 16-u- 19 122-0-15 124-2-26 a-0-6 1 m-0-13 Amendment of theTreat y Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space, and under Water.

Urgent need for a comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty Establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the region of South Asia.

Conclusion of effective international arrangements on the strengthening of the security of non-nuclear-weapon States against the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons.

Conclusion of effective international arrangements to assure non-nuclear-weapon States against the use of nuclear weapons.

Prevention of an arms race in outer space 1 lth Preambular Paragraph 18 t h Pr eambular Paragraph 1st Operative Paragraph 3rd Operative Paragraph 8th Operative Paragraph.

Implementation of the Declaration on the Denuclearization of Africa.

Implementation of the Declaration on the Denuclearization of Africa.

Reduction of military budgets.

Military Budgets.

General and complete disarmament. Prohibition of the development, production, stockpiling, and use of radiological weapons.

Bilateral nuclear-arms negotiations Objective information on military matters 61 4411 16G 441116H 4411165 4411 16K 441116M 441116N 4411 16N 441116P 4411 16R 4411168 4411 17A 4411 17c 4411 17D 4411 17F 4411 18A 441118B 129-1-25 147-1-6 153-0-1 134-0-18 154 -1-0 m-0-12 141-0-6 13 1 -0-le m-0-4 119-1-3 1 144-0-J,Q 134-n-4 Implementation of General Assembly resolutions in the field of disarmament.

General and complete disarmament. Prohibition of the production of fissionable material for weapons purposes.

Conversion of military resources.

Bilateral nuclear-arms negotiations.

Naval armaments and disarmament.

International arms transfers.

Amendments to Draft Resolution N Defensive security concepts and policies.

Prohibition of the dumping of radioactive wastes.

Conventional disarmament on a regional scale.

Review and implementation of the Concluding Document of the Twelfth Special Session of the General Assembly World Disarmament Campaign.

Review and implementation of the Concluding Document of the Twelfth Special Session of the General Assembly Convention on the Prohibition of the Use of Nuclear Weapons 136-u-5 Nuclear-arms freeze 153-1-1 United Nations regional centres for peace and disarmament in Africa and Asia and the United Nations Regional Centre fo r Peace, Disarmament, and Develop ment in Latin America and the Caribbean 137-3-14 Scientific and technological developments and their impact on international security 154-0-1 Scientific and technological developments and their impact on international secu r ity Science and technology for disarmament 62 4411 19A 4411 19A 441119B 4411 19D 441119E 4411 19F 441120 441123 4419 44/18 44120 44/22 4413 1 44/32 44/43 154-0-1 137-0-12 129-12-7 Review of the implementation of the recommendations and decisions adopted b y the General Assembly at its tenth special session Comprehensive programme of disarmament 1st Operative Paragraph of Draft Resolution A Review 'of the implementation of the recommendations and decisions adopted by the General Assembly at its tenth special session. Non-use of nuclear weapons and prevention of nuclear war 138-8-19 Report of the Conference on Disarmament 138-11-6 Cessation of the nuclear-arms race and nuclear disarmament and prevention of nuclear war 151-0-4 South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Tr e aty 137-4-14 Implementation of the Declaration of the Indian Ocean as a Zone of Peace 149-0-5 Education for disarmament Other Issues: 22 votes 128-1-a Question of the Comorian island of Mayotte 139-0-14 Return or restitution of cultural property to the co u ntries of origin 146-1-2 Zone of peace and co-operation of the South Atlantic m- 17- 12 The situation in Kampuchea 131-0-a Peaceful settlement of disputes between States 133-5-14 Draft Code of Crimes against the Peace and Security of Mankind 9 1-2-4 1 Jud g ment of the International Court of Justice of 27 June 1986 concerning military and paramilitary activities in and against Nicaragua: need for immediate compliance 63 44/63 129-1-25 Alternative approaches and ways and means within the United Nations system for improving the effective enjoy ment of human rights and fundamental freedoms 44/79 123 -fi- 16 Importance of the universal realization of the right of peoples to self-determination and of the speedy granting of independence to colonial countries and pe o ples.for the effective guarantee and observance of human rights 125-dQ-2 1 Use of mercenaries as a means to violate human rights and to impede the exercise of the right of people to self determination 44181 44/83 441100 150-0-3 Information from Non-Self-G overning Territories transmitted under Article 73 e of the Charter of the United Nations.

Programme of Activities in Observance of the Thirtieth Anniversary of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples 137-2- 14 Impl ementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples 441101 142-2-8 441102 441126 143-2-7 128-1-24 Dissemination of information on decolonization.

Review of the implementation of the Declaration on the Strengthening of International Security.

Elaboration of a second optional protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights aiming at the abolition of the death penalty 441128 59-E-48 Indivisibility and interdependence of economic, social cultural, civil and political rights 4 4 1130 124-0-a 1 13-23 11 Respect for the principles of national sovereignty and non-interference in the internal affairs of States in their electoral processes 441147 84-2-411 151-2-2 Situation of human rights in Chile. 441166 441167 Enlargement of the Com m ission on Human Rights and the further promotion of human rights and fundamental freedoms 44/217 82-2-47 Trade embargo against Nicaragua 64 441240 75-2Q-40 Effects of the military intervention by the United States of America in Panama on the situation in C entral America Issues onWhich the U.S. Did Not Participate: 2 votes 441124A 114-0-7 Question of Antarctica 441124B 101-0-8 Question of Antarctica 140 total resolution votes for the 44th General Assembly Note: Does not include votes on decisions 65 Appendi x D Key Issues: List and Definitions The U.S. Department of State each year identifies key issues on the U.N. agenda. Key issues are those which the U.S. government takes up with U.N. member countries not only at the U.N but also in their capitals. For the purposes of this report, The Heritage Foundations United Nations Assessment Project has chosen the ten most important of these key issues. Appendix E shows each countrys votes on these ten key issues and shows the total agreement, disagreement and voting coincidence with the U.S. on the key issues.

The following is a list of the ten key issues for the 44th General Assembly as determined by the United Nations Assessment Project 1) The procedural vote on Israeli credentials is the annual attempt to exclude I srael from participation in the General Assembly 2) Resolution 44/22 The Situation in Kampuchea, calls for the withdrawal of all foreign forces from Cambodia, also known as Kampuchea 3) Resolution 44/40A The Situation in the Middle East: Palestine and Int e rnational Peace Conference, determines that the U.S.-Israeli strategic cooperation agreement has encouraged Israeli aggressive policies, and reaffirms the call for an international peace conference 4) Resolution 44/43 International Court of Justice Judgem e nt re Nicaragua is the Nicaraguan-sponsored resolution that calls on the U.S. to comply with the International Court of Justice (ICJ) decision which purports to make U.N. General Assembly resolutions customary international law, and thus legally binding 5 ) Resolution 44/50 The Questions Relating to Information calls for the establishment of a new world information and communication order. The United States opposes resolutions containing elements which might be cited to just

restrictions on the free flow o f information and freedom of the press 6) Resolution 44/105 The Cessation of All Nuclear Test Explosions urges depository powers of the Limited Test BanTreaty (LTBT) to halt all nuclear test explosions.This perennial Mexican initiative is in direct confli c t with U.S. policy on nuclear testing and deterrence 7) Resolution 44/117D Nuclear Arms Freeze undermines fundamental U.S. defense policy such as deterrence and flexible response by calling for the U.S. and U.S.S.R. to agree to an immediate nuclear arms f r eeze 8) Resolution 44/120 Indian Ocean Zone of Peace reiterates decision to convene a conference on the Indian 0cean.The United States opposes a conference addressing the military presence of non-regional powers in the region 9) Resolution 44/167 The Enla r gement of the Commission on Human Rights was a resolution the United States was prepared to support only if expansion was directly linked with making the commission more effective.The final text eliminated this policy connection which led the U.S. to vote against it 10) Resolution 44/240 Military Intervention in Panama strongly deplores U.S intervention in Panama, and demands the immediate withdrawal of all U.S. armed forces 66d t-

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