The Heritage Foundation

Backgrounder #590 on Russia

July 2, 1987

July 2, 1987 | Backgrounder on Russia

New Measures Needed to Fight Anti-U.S. Spying


(Archived document, may contain errors)

I July 2, 1987 c NEW MEASURES NE EDED TO FIGHT ANTI-US. SPYING c INIRODUCIION Devastating security breaches at American diplomatic installations abroad have highlighted once again the unrelenting threat of Soviet espionage. Coupled with the threat itself has been near criminal neglect by top United States diplomatic rofficials of even the most routine security precautions.

These events abroad, however, should not divert attention from one blunt fact the major components of Soviet espionage targeted against the U.S. are located in the U.S. --at Soviet and Soviet bloc diplomatic and United Nations Missions,'within the United Nations Secretariat, at commercial offices and news bureaus, and among the thousands of Soviet and Soviet bloc visitors who come to the United States each year.

Among the most important covers for Soviet and Soviet bloc espionage is U.N.

Headquarters in Manhattan. Examples On May 20, 1978, two Soviet employees of the U.N. Secretariat, Valdik Enger and Rudolph Chernyayev, and one employee of the Soviet Mission to the U.N., Vladimir Zmyakin, were expelled from the U.S. on charges of trying t o buy information about American submarine defenses On April 21, 1983, two "diplomats" at the Soviet U.N. Mission, Aleksandr Mikheyev and Oleg Konstantinov, along with a Washington-based Soviet "diplomat were expelled from the U.S. on charges of espionage . All were trying to obtain secret information about US. weapons technology. On August 23, 1986, Gennadiy Zakharov, a KGB operative working as a science officer in the U.N. Secretariat, was arrested for purchasing classified documents on robotics, computer s , and artificial intelligence from an undercover informant A 1986 Senate Intelligence Committee Report1 identified Vladimir Kolesnikov, Special Assistant to U.N. Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar, as a China expert for the KGB, the Soviet intellig ence and security service Previous Senate reports2 identified other U.N. posts as "traditional" KGB jobs. These include the-post of External Relations Director of the U.N. Department of Public Information.

The abundant evidence reveals how much Moscow uses the U.N. Secretariat for hard-target espionage (buying or stealing classified government documents for acquiring sensitive scientific and technical information, and for furthering Soviet disinformation and propaganda themes. These activities, however, ar e only part of the problem. Other documented cases of Soviet bloc espionage in the U.S include agents as diverse as a California-based Polish trade official engaged in procuring top-secret information on U.S. nuclear weapons and a West German auto mechanic arrested in Florida for buying U.S. Army documents for sale- to-East Germany.

It is now clear, moreover, that the Soviets have been just as active at such U.N. specialized agencies as the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna and the United Nations Environment Program in Nairobi. This problem appeared so serious that the CIA investigated it, and, in a still classified report, details the use of such agencies by the Sowets for large-scale scientific and technical espionage.

The Reagan Administration , working with bipartisan majorities in Congress, has begun the critical job of rebuilding U.S. defenses against this, multifaceted espionage threat. Major initiatives taken since 1981 include reductions in Soviet personnel at Soviet diplomatic installati o ns, the imposition of travel restrictions on Soviet ,and Eastern bloc diplomats in the U.S., the creation of an Office of Foreign Missions OFM) within the State Department to coordinate security programs, and increased funding and training for FBI counter intelligence agents. This combination of. legislative and executive action is paying dividends. Says a senior FBI official We've hurt them."

They have not, however, been hurt enough. If the U.S. is more effectively to counter espionage inside the U.S., ste ps are needed. Among them 1) Sftreadhi. a Ilumbef of OFM Regulations, such as the travel restrictions that currently apply to most Soviet bloc nations 1 Meeting the Espionage Challen e: A Review of United States Counterintelligence and Security Washington , D.C U.S. Government Printing Ofice, 1986 p. 23 2. See, for example Soviet Presence in the U.N. Secretariat Report of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, S. RPT. 99-52, United States Senate (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Programs," R e port 99-252 of the Seect f Committee on Intelligence of the United States Senate office, 1985 2I 2) Extedng the reach of such OFM regulations as "closed area" restrictions 3 Increasing presfllre for strict enforcement by the U.N. of the U.N.3 own 4) Tight e ning mveillance of non-Soviet bloc targets, especially the People's regulations on Soviet and bloc personnel in the U.N. Secretariat Republic of China, and non-diplomatic Soviet bloc personnel, such as trade and press representatives; and installations I L 5) Fhpadhg the OFM authority to coordinate U.S. policy toward diplomatic Though these steps cannot fully insure the U.S. against damage caused by U.S.-and U.N.-based espionage, they will enhance the odds in favor of U.S counterintelligence An October 198 6 Report of the Senate Intelligence Committee. states Among intelligence services, those of the Soviet Umon represent by far the most intelligence threat in terms of size, ability and intent to act against U.S interests."3 Soviet espiona e in the U.S. (and Canada) is planned and conducted by the components of the KGB, and by the GRU, the Soviet military intelligence agency.

Then respective responsibilities are described in a report on foreign espionage in the U.S., recently transmitted to Congress by Ronald Reagan. It says Within the First Department o B the First Chief Directorate of the KGB, by other operational strategic. military intelligence four operational components or KR Scientific and Technical X While the tasks of the first three KGB "lines" are c lear, the fourth, Line N a small group involved in the comprises what the presidential report identifies operations of illegals, that is, intelligence officers and agents infiltrated into a foreign country under false circumstances for intelligence purpos e s."5 An example of a successful "illegal" operation is the case of Karl Koecher, a U.S. citizen of Czech origin who "emigrated to the U.S. in the 1960s and worked for the CIA as a translator in the 1970s--before being uncovered as a Czech "illegal" dispat c hed to the U.S. to penetrate American intelligence agencies. 1 3. 1986 Select Committee Report, OD p. 17 4 A Report on Foreign Espionage in the United States, United States Department of State (Washington, D.C U.S. Government Printing Office, 1987 p. 4 5. Ihid, p. 5 3Dangermi East Germans and Cubans. The Soviets are aided in their espionage activities by the foreign intelligence services of their Warsaw Pact allies and by the Cuban intelligence service, the Direccion General de Inteligencia General Directo r ate of Intelligence generally known as the DGI. The capabilities of these services vary the East German service (Mfs), which has run several successful operations involving Vlegals and the Cuban DGI, whose '"usefulness to the KGB cannot be underrated."6 P a rticularly dangerous, explains the presidential report, are Since the KGB plays a major role in operations of most of these services, the Soviets have been able to develop particular areas of specialization. Example Romanian spies in the U.S., explains th e report tend to concentrate on gathering Focus" is on "a broad variety of S&T [scientific and technical others. Observes Jeffrey Richelson, a professor of government at Amegcan University The relaoonship between the Soviet intelligence and securitjl servi c es and those of the Warsaw Pact tio on^ and Cuba vary with the particular service, the Bulgarians and the Cubans being the most and the Romanians the least tightly tied."8 Despite this uneven cooperation and the inevitable friction between the Soviets and these subordinate services, significant information collected by Soviet bloc intelligence officers almost certainly is shared with Moscow. The Polish intelligence officers, for example, who supervised James Harper, the California-based engineer who provid e d the Poles with classified documents pertaining to U.S strategic nuclear forces, received personal letters of commendation from Yuri Andropov, who then was KGB boss olitical and economic informabon while the U.S.-based East Germans' "central Some Soviet b loc espionage services cooperate with Moscow more closely than Spies at U.N. Headquarters American counterintelligence against U.S.-based Soviet and Soviet bloc espionage is made particularly 'tough by the fact that these countries use for espionage tasks their nationals in the U.S who are not attached to embassies or diplomatic missions.

By far the largest such permanent concentration of Soviet and Soviet bloc intelligence officers is at the U.N. Secretariat in Manhattan, where 265 Soviets and 33 Soviet b loc nationals are currently employed. The Senate Intelligence Committee confirms that between 30 and 40 percent of these ostensible "international civil servants" are in fact officers of the KGB, GRU, or their Soviet bloc equivalents; all are subject to c o optation and 'kpot" use by bloc services. As the current Director of Central Intelligence, William Webster, stated in a speech when he was FBI,.Director 6. Harry Rositzke, IkKGE (Garden City, New York Doubleday and Company, 1981), p. 225 7. 1987 State Dep a rtment Report, Q&A., pp. 10, 11 8. Jeffrey Richelson, Sm&mNdk (Cambridge Massachusetts: Ballinger Publishing Company, 1986), p. 212 4-the U.N. is indeed a rat warren of intelligence operatives and needs to be severely c~nstrained The value of U.N. Headqua r ters in New York to the Soviet bloc goes far beyond using its U.N. employees for intelligence collection. Numerous studies indicate that, through a series of bureaucratic maneuvers, with the acquiescence of top U.N. officials, Moscow virtually now control s entire segments of the U.N bureaucracy.lO This allows the Kremlin, for example, frequently to include Soviet dishformation and propaganda themes in U.N. publications and activities, giving such themes 1egitimacy.they could never enjoy if datelined Moscow . It is for this reason that the ."non-militarization -of- space" was a major atheme- of the U.N.3 1986 International Year of Peace program; this theme is at the core of Moscow's worldwide propaganda effort to derail the Reagan Administration's Strategic D e fense Initiative. The U.N.3 International Year of Peace program was run by a Pole.ll Recruiting Third World Citizens. The U.N. community itself is a prime intelligence target for the Soviet bloc. With its thousands of accredited diplomats representing vir t ually every country, the U.N. offers an ideal setting to .identify and recruit Third World citizens, many of whom will return home to assume high positions in their national bureaucracies or governments. Many already have access to sensitive information. E ven Western diplomats are targets. Example Norwegian diplomat Arne Treholt, who served as a high-ranking offiaal of the Norwegian U.N. Mission, was arrested in 1984 and identified as a longtime Soviet agent. U.S. officials confirm that a significant numbe r of non-Soviet bloc U.N employees are Soviet a ents or agents of influence. A top Soviet official boasted to when he defected to the U.S. in 1978, that the U.N. "is our best watch-tower in the West."l Arkady Shevchenko, a f ormer Soviet citizen who was U. N . Under-Secretary General Non-Diplomatic Covers The Soviets and their bloc allies make espionage use of other permanent non diplomatic establishments in the U.S. All the Warsaw Pact countries, for example have trade or commercial offices in the U.S., not o nly in major cities like New York and San Francisco, but also in Charlotte, North Carolina and Columbus, Ohio and other regional centers. Most Soviet bloc nations also have established so-called news bureaus in the U.S.; these routinely are used for espio n age purposes, as the 9. Remarks b William H. Webster, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation; before the Society of Former Speu J Agents Annual Convention, Boston Massachusetts, September 29, 1986, p. 8 10. See, for example, Juliana Geran Pdon Moscow's U.N. Outpost Heritage Foundation Badqpwh No. 307, November 22, 1983, and Charles M. Lichenstein By Breaking the Rules Moscow Keeps A Tight Grip on the U.N Heritage Foundation Badqpwh No. 526, July 23, 1986 11. For an excellent overview of Soviet dishforma t ion techni ues, see Richard H. Shultz and Roy Godson, Pe m bashington, D.C Pergamon-Brassey 1984 12 Arkady Shevchenko New York: Alfred A. Kuopf, 1985 p. 237 5while serving as interpreter for a Soviet scientist visiting the laboratory of a U.S. company. Th e KGB account states that the scientist was aware of his interpreter's intelligence function and actively assisted him in that role."14 Effective U.S. counterintelligence is thus extremely difficult begauje e&r r national from the Soviet bloc in the U.S. f o r whatever apparent reason;?+as'.well'as2 the thousands of bloc visitors-to the U.S must be considered a potential agent. A cursory examination of the numbers involved (see Appendix as well as the Jrange of possible intelligence activities, from tradition a l scientific military political,l and economic to disinformation and "active measures make the job seem nearly I impossible. I I i NON4OV" INTELLIGENCE !SERVICES HOSI" TO THE US private While the Soviet and Eastern bloc services represent by far the most d erious intelligence threat to the U.S the activities of other hostile services in the U.S cannot be ignored. Two threats are of primary importanceiv?the*intelligenceI activities of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the espionage effor$ of other hos t ile countries, including non-Warsaw Pact Communist states and states supporting terrorism. I I Countering PRC espionage in the U.S. is difficult. The reasons: 1 g4od relations and expanding economic and military cooperation between the U.S: and PRC have m a de Washington reluctant to raise sensitive intelligence issues; 2) the U.S. seems to know very little about PRC intelligence, not even, it appears how many intelligence services Beijing maintaia; and 3.) the. huge PRC presence in the I U.S. give PRC perso n nel excellent opportunities for espionage I Chinese Espionage Explains an FBI official The PRC is working,on: the-,50 year plan Meaning: The Chinese have built their espionage apparatus .in th5 U.S slowly. This apparatus focuses, according to the Senate r e port, "primarily on 13. See "Expulsions of Soviet Officials, 1986 Foreign Affairs Note, United States Departme+ of State (Washington, D.C U.S. Government Printing Office, January 1983, pp. 4-11. 1 14. 1986 Senate Select Committee Report pp. 26-27 6I I obt a ining] advanced technology not approved for release so as to further PRC military and economic modemzation in the 1990's and beyond Though the PRC does not engage in the systematic subversion and disinformation characteristic of the Soviets, continues the report, the PRC intelligence threat continues to be. 1 significant and justifies alerting American citizens to the current risks."fi I Within the context of the valuable U.S.-PRC strategic relationship Washington must do more to monitor and restrict PRC- e spionage Generally, the activities of the intelligence services of. such nations as Vietnam Libya, and Afghanistan- pose. only .a-relatively-small-long-term- threat-to- US. /national security. For one thing, their known involvement with terrorism makes th e U.S especially vigilant in monitoring their activities in America. For another, North Korea, Iran, and several other hostile countries are not allowed to have diplomatic relations with the U.S. In addition, they have relatively few diplomats at their U.N .

Missions and in the U.N. Secretariat. And most of these countries lack sophisticated foreign intelligence services and do not conduct large-scale r traditional intelligence collection operations 1 z vb v 1 Most of these countries, moreover spend a large part of their intelligence resources simply monitoring the activities of their U.S.-based'emigres I I REQPROQTY CONSIDERATIONS I Washington's policy toward diplomatic installations in the U.S. is based generally on the principle of reciprocity. This means that the U.S. will extend to the U.S.-based diplomats of a particular country the same treatment and conditions that apply to U.S. diplomats in that country. With respect to most countries; full reciprocity is in force. Example: because the USSR places2st r ingent..itravelf restrictions on American diplomats in Moscow, Washington places similar restrictions on Soviet diplomats in the U.S. I In terms of U.S. counterintelligence capabilities, the generally sound pcblicy of reciprocity is flawed. First, it is n o t feasible to compare the privileges and 1 immunities granted American diplomats in Soviet bloc countries, especially the USSR, with those granted bloc personnel in the U.S America is an open society committed to freedom of information and. movement. The S oviet bloc makes good use of the inherent nature of U.S. society, by collecting huge amounts of information from "open" sources16 and by playing on instinctive U.S. resistadce to the imposition of restrictions on free movement. In the USSR, by contrast ev e n if there were no restrictions on the movement of U.S. personnel, all such moypnent would be known and reported to the Kremlin, due to the constant surveill'ce' and I 15. Ihid, p. 19 16. Intelligence professionals and scholars estimate that between 70 an d 90 ercent of all *ormation example Remarks by William Webster before the Standing Committee on Law and Nation4 Security of the MA Federation Bureau of Investigation, Washington, D.C December 1, 1985, p. 7 gathered by the Soviet intelligence services in t h e U.S. comes from open, pu g lic sources. See, for 7 I I I harassment that all foreigners suffer there. The situation, in short, is inherektly unequal and asymmetrical Flawed Rezipmdty. The second major flaw in the policy of reciproci~ is that U.N. Headqu a rters is in New York City; there is no equivalent facility anywhere in the Soviet bloc. This gives the Soviets the ability to place some 450 "diplomats in the U.S. who otherwise would not be there. U.S. intelligence enjoys no reciprocal opportunity. In fa c t, while there are major U.N. offices in Rome, Vienna, Geneva Nairobi, Paris, and other large cities, there are none in any Soviet bloc nation A case 'can be made--that. reciprocity-helps-to-ensure acceptable-status ,and working conditions for U.S. diplom a ts in the Soviet bloc countries and also-;offers the U.S. intelligence collection opportunities abroad. But concerns for U.S. 11 diplomats overseas must not deter Washington from imposing and implementing whatever restrictions on Soviet bloc personnel are necessary tocdeter espion

ge in the U.S. This is especially necessary in light of the tremendous damage done to U.S. national security by U.S.-based Soviet spies, and in light of the inherently i I umeciprocal situation as it affects intelligence collecti on oppo i&S i A f The Congress in 1982 established the Office of Foreign Missions with$ the State Department. This was one of the most important recent U.S. anti-espionage initiatives. The OFM has statutory authority to "assist agencies of Federal, State a nd municipal government with regard to ascertaining and according benefits privileges, and immunities to which a foreign mission may be entitled."l7 By placing U.N. Missions under OFM authority, Congress and the Reagan Administration openly admited the pr o blems caused by U.N.-based espionage. I I i i I a In 1985, the Roth/Hyde Amendment to the Foreign Missions Act expanded OFMs authority by making all restrictions that apply to diplomatic missions I of particular countries applicable also to that country's nationals in the U.N.

Secretariat. The Amendment's intent was to curtail the espionage activities of U.N.

The most important OFM anti-espionage regulations restrict the travel Jof foreign diplomats and nationals-in the U.S. These are now imposed, on the basis of reciprocity, on nationals of 15 countries.18 The. tightest cover all Soviet pationals in the U.S;, with the strange exception of certain trade officials. Restricted I Soviets who now want to travel beyond a 25-mile radius of their base city must m +e their arrangements through the OFM Travel Service Bureau. OFM reserves. the. right .to employees, primarily those from the Soviet bloc. I 5 17. Section 203(c Foreign Missions Title II of the State Department Basic Authorities Act As Added b$ the Nation a l Inte P 'gene Commumty Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence cited in Com ilation of Intellipznce Laws and Related Laws and Executive Orders of of the House of Representatives (G-45-8820 U.S. Government Printing Office,~.Washington, D.C 1985 18. Af a nistan, B lorussia, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, German DemocraticiRepublic, Iran, k f? ya, Mongo& North Korea, Poland, USSR, Ukraine, Vietnam. I 8I deny travel permission and insists that travel requests be filed 48 hours in advance to permi t checking with the FBI on the backgrounds of those wishing to travel.

Since the Soviets "close" parts of the USSR to Americans, the U.S. reciprocally closes" certain American cities and areas to Soviet travel I I Violating the Roth/H+ Law. There are, howe ver, serious inconsistenhies in the application of these restrictions. These inconsistencies are particularly siwcant since the State Department has acknowledged ublicly that- most Soviet bloc I of the Roth/Hyde Amendment, for example, Soviet U.N. employe e s travel to "closed areas" in the U.S As--for Moscow's -Soviet- bloc-allies the- U&-regulations are less restrictive and coherent than those imposed on the Soviets. Though all Polikh Bulgarian, Czech, and East German personnel in the U.S except certain 1 c ommercial and trade officials) must book travel through OFM, they can trayel to closed areas" and beyond the 25-mile radius of their base. They can do so, because Washington insists on honoring what has become an asymmetrical reciprocity with the KGB, are subject .to no restrictions at all. Although the Cubans at the U.N. are under the 25-mile restriction, members of their Interest Section in I Washington can travel anywhere they desire in the U.S These restrictions distressingly, apply only to travel by c o mmercial carrier; any national of any lof Moscow's Warsaw Pact allies in New York or Washington, can'get into- their cars and drive where they want--to the submarine construction facility at Groton Connecticut, or to the Navy base at Newport News, Virgini a , for example. 1 Lack of FBI Manpower. Not only does the U.S. apply its restrictions I inconsistently, but Soviet bloc personnel probably violate the restrictions. Eyen if all of the FBI's 9,220 agents were detailed to counterintelligence, the Bureau woul d still not have the manpower to ensure that the roughly 1 lO,OOO~-.nationals~?of*~cominunist countries in the U.S. at any given time do not violate the restrictions.lg "liis is despite completion of the FBI's five-year agent expansion program and incre;as e d training and expertise in counterintelligence techniques. Even with a one to, one ratio, tight surveillance would be impossible; a single FBI agent cannot keep tabs on a potential spy some counterintelligence officials still are skeptical of the. effica c y of travel '1 restrictions in curtailing espionage, particularly in light of their inconsistent i application Says one official These guys will .always find a way to go about their business despite these inconveniences." Yet, combining tighter travel res t rict!ons with espionage more effectively. No actions have done as much to wound'tlik'S~viSt intelligence apparatus in the U.S. as Ronald Reagan's expulsion last September of 25 Soviets from the Soviet U.N. Mission and October's expulsion of 60 Soviyts fro m intelligence services use their travel privileges P or intelligence activities. In +alation b:~i I .I k? What is worse, Hungarian and Romanian officials, who cooperate' extepsively I I I Though they now have some means of monitoring hostile intelligence. officers strict limits on the numbers of potential hostile agents may deter-Soyiet..blop their Washington Embassy and San Francisco consulate I I 19. Figure cited in Remarks by William H. Webster, footnote 9, above 9In the U.N. expulsion, the entire KGB a n d GRU leadership was sent hack to Russia, along with the ablest professional intelligence officers In the Wash+gton case, the Soviet technicians manning their techmcal collection apparatus were expelled along with the leadership cadre. Moscow's offices in . New York City and Washington, moreover, now will be subject to mandatory ceilings on the nunjber of Soviets allowed at them--170 in New York (down from 275) and 251 in Wyhington and San Francisco (down from roughly 320 I I Paying a Heavy Rice for the U.N. No such actions can be taken wid respect to the U.N. Secretariat, where 265 Soviets currently are employed. Although the U.S. does- deny visas. to--known -intelligence-officers-from. time to-time; the- Soviets are entitled to send their citizens to serve a t the Secretariat. This is one o$ the heavy rices that the U.S. pays for hosting the U.N. Moscow, however, is not Moscow have any right to house its international civil servants-in-a compound protected by diplomatic immUnity--as it currently does I entitl e B to use these individuals to control entire components of the U.N., nor does 4 r J,..zq,j!.

The U.S. can and should take steps to eliminate the manifol'd~~So~et-ab~~es"'of the U.N. The U.S. also can take measures better to protect its own secrets/ to en sure that individuals with access to classified information are not security lisks and to alert all such individuals to the dangers of espionage. The most sedous damage to U.S. national security has been from those already willingly working with hostile s ervices. At last there are signs that Washington is taking more.seriously the existing components of a "good defense."

An encourag ing example of tl$s is the FBI's Development of Defense Counterintelligence Awareness program, or qECA which alerts employees of U.S. defense contractors to the dangers of espionage 2 Perhaps most important, Washington can try to turn the'large hostile dr e sence in the U.S. to American advantage by operations to penetrate. the hostile sefvices and known arenas of Soviet activity. The secret defection+!'ixi~place of-Arkady Shevchenko three years before it was made public, allowed him to keep his 1 typ U.N. j o b for that period In that time, the U.S. learned much about Moscows systematic use of the U.N as cover for espionage. There is reason to believe that the U.S has had similar success with other Soviet bloc intelligence officers, 1 particularly during the e a rly 1980s, when there was widespread disaffection in parts I of Eastern Europe j I Authority for the FBI and other intelligence agencies to pursue offensive counterintelligence op ortunities within the constraints of U.S. foreign policy 1 concerns. The hu g e oreign presence in the U.S. presents obvious opportunities for I organizations Placing all Warsaw Pact and Cuban diplomats in the U.S. or at &e U.N under the tight restrictions now applied to Soviet diplomats-and officials. This could trigger reciprocal restrictions on U.S. diplomats in Soviet bloc countries.

Nonetheless, the burden of proof must be on those officials who would justify the absence of meaningful- restrictions- by-citing -the-value of- intelligence collected in those countries. Given the h uge amounts of intelligence collected by. bloc spies in the U.S., this is a heavy burden Limiting the number of hostile country nationals-allowed-in the U.S and requiring the Office of Foreign Missions to report to Congress. every six months on the number s of those officials restrictions applied to foreign nationals. Currently, the State Department's Bureau of European and Canadian Affairs shares with OFM responsibility for the ,travel of Soviets Requiring U.S.-based officials of mainland China to use the OFM Travel Service Bureau to book all travel in the U.S. This would allow the FBI to\{ track their movement. I I involved in issuing entry visas for the U.S. Often, the FBI is advised that $siting delegations from Soviet bloc and other hostile nations are.'c o~g~topthe..U.S only days before the visit. This makes monitoring nearly impossible Insisting that the U.N. end its abuse of "secondment whereby the Soviets have gained control of key units of the U.N. Secretariat. The U.N. should :adopt a rule limiting t o 50 percent the number of nationals at the U.N. which a country can have "seconded with a waiver for small states who use "secondment" legit%ately.

This would cripple Moscow's ability to rotate intelligence. officers in and out, of the U.N. Secretariat Re quiring that the top 3,000 professional-.posts at the U.N. Secrktariat be subject 'to five-year rotation. This would prevent nationals of the same country or incumbent in that job. This would loosen the Soviets' hold on key 'posihoS e Secretariat. If the U .N. fails to adopt these measures, the U.S. should coGider denying entry visas to "replacement" nationals of countries with more than 50 penetrating hostile services. So do the .headquarters .in .the U.S. of mternatibnal I 1 I i r..r I Granting the OFM pr i mary-responsibility for enforcing all travel I I I Coordinating more closely the work of the numerous federal agedcies I I I group of countries as the current occupant of a given post from. replaen8 ,the percent of their U.N. personnel on secondment I I P r ohibiting by law 'the housing of foreign nationals lacking full' diplomatic privileges and immunities in compounds protected by such immunity Most ISoviet bloc countries and China house their nationals from the U.N. Secretariat in/ their 11 I easier, it m a kes a mockery of the separation of diplomats and "international servants Thomas E.L. Dewey Policy Analyst and civil Charles M. Lichenstein Senior Fellow I 12 COUNTRIES Visitors" includes full time students, East-West Exchange Participants and as well as m e mbers of official visiting delegations PERMANENT PRESENCE OFFICIAL VISITORS tourists I 1344 5000 i I 84 1000 USSR Bulgaria Czechoslovakia Poland Cuba 127 Iran 16 144 N/A I East Germany 90 853 I Hungary Romania 72 N/A N/A Afghanistan 11 N/A Libya 9 Nicarag ua 43 N/A North Korea 16 People's Republic of China 1500 Vietnam 29 110 6000 i 300 N/A i i 1 I I N/A i N,A;l:c' N/A b:x-;:z P iby e 25000 N/A I I I 13 I

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