The Heritage Foundation

Asian Backgrounder #63

May 27, 1987

May 27, 1987 | Asian Backgrounder on

The U.S. and Asia: A Statistical Handbook, 1987 Edition

(Archived document, may contain errors)

No. 63 May 27, 1987

THE U.S AND'ASM' A STATISTICAL HANDBOOK 1987 EDITION

INTRODUCTION U.S. trade with Western Europe last year totalled $155.9 billion. By contrast, trade with Asia exceeded $220.9 billion. OftotalU.S. trade, Europe accounted for 25.8 - percent, while Asia claimed 36.2 percent. These numbers make an undeniable point: the cenid@`,of gravity of U.S. economic ties is shifting toward Asia. As it does, political and diploati.p trends likely will follow. The dtoftmiddynamism of the region's free-market countries makeg them an increasingly,, itant market for U.S. exports, and few areas of the world offer such a wide range-'o'f;, 4n vestment opportunities. As these countries develop, however, many potential dangers exist under the surface. Communist Vietnam and North Korea pose military threats to their neighbors, while elsewhere domestic political tension can lead to violence. Even the South Pacific Islands are not immune from political upheaval--two weeks ago the government of Fiji was overthrown by a coup. That is why this Handbook provides information on military, political and social factors, as well as- economic developments. Nearly all Asian countries have been included in this new edition, which undates the statistical data published last year in The Heritage Foundation's "The US. and the Pacific Rim". In expanding the scope of this study,

information has been included on fifteen additional countries: North Korea, Nepal, Bhutan, the Maldives, Vietnam, Cambodia, Uos, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, Fiji, the Solomon Islands, Western Samoa, Macau, and Mongolia. The entry on each country has been expanded to include literacy, life expectancy, currency, U.S. foreign assistance, the name and population of the capital city, and expanded coverage of economic growth rates and Consumer Price Index increases. The many sources used in con@pihng this Handbook include: the Far Eastern Economic Review's Yearbook, the International Institute of Strategi Studies' The Military Balance, the International Monetary Fund's International Financial Statistics Yearbook d Direction of Trade S atistics Yearbook, the International Trade Administration's Foreign Economic Trends, the U.S. Bureau of Census' f the U.S. F Highlights o Qo sand Import TrAde and the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency's World Factbook and Handbook of Economic Statistics The U.S. Department of Commerce and the Intemational.Trade, Administration were especially helpful in locating sources. As much as possible, 1986 end of the year statistics were used. Population estimates are from mid-year, and most per capita Gross National Product figures are from 1985.

In the Handbook, GDP stands for Gross Domestic Product, which is a measure of the productive capacity within the national boundaries of a given country.

GNP is Gross National Product, a measure of the productive capacity that is under the countrol of the country. Thus, overseas operations count in the second, but not the first, category. Growth is defined as "real" growth, (the percentage increase in the GNP minus the percentage increase in inflation) and may not correspond exactly with the nominal GNP.

CPI stands for Consumer Price Index and indicates the increase in the cost of living for average consumers.

Thomas J. Timmons Research Associate

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THE ASIA/PACIFIC REGION

M,ongo ia

Pakist 13 People's Republic Japan of China

2 India 3 4 Taiwan

5 Viet The 7 Nam U@n % Sri Philippines Lanka 10 a Papua The 9 New Maldives 0uinea Do 0 ----- ---- Ir@d@esia a c3 a 15

a I 'Western L-----,a I --- Samoa 03 0 Vanuatu Australia Viii

New Zealand

1) Nepal 2) Bhutan 3) Bangladesh; 4) Burma 5) Thailand 6) Laos 7) Cambodia 8) Malaysia 9) Singapore 10) Brunei 11) Macau 12) Hong Kong 13) North Korea _14) South Korea 15) Solomon Islandsad

lop,

AUSTRALIA

LAND: 2,966,200 square miles Cultivated: 2.5% Forest: 5.4% Pasture: 61A Resources: bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, silver, uranium, nickel, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, oil

POPULATION: 15,793,000 Annual Population Growth: 1.0% Projected Population in 2000: 17,200,000 Life Expectancy: 75 Literacy: 98.5% Ethnic Divisions: Caucasian: 99%, Asian and Aboriginal: 1% Religions: Anglican: 26.1%, Catholic: 26.0%, other Christian: 24.3%

Workforce: 6,800,000 Commerce and Services: 63A Manufacturing: 17A Agriculture and Fishing: 8A Construction: 7A Government and Public Authorities: 5A Students: Primary: 1.8m Secondary: 1.3m Tertiary: 1.2m

ECONOMY: Economic System: free enterprise Currency: Australian dollar (100 cents), 1 US$= 1.5 A$ Major Industries: mining, iron and steel, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, textiles, aircraft, ships, chemicals Major Agricultural Products: wheat, barley, oats, corn, hay, lamb, meat, sugar, dairy products, wine, fruit, vegetables, sugar Major Imports: machinery, manufactures, transportation equipment, chemicals, petroleum, metal goods, textiles and clothing Major Exports: wheat, coal, wool, iron ore, metal manufactures, meat, dairy products, petroleum, machinery Per Capita GNP (1985): US$ 10,892 Economic Statistics (Billions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 GNP 147.72 159.67 154.61 154.60 169.39 153.29 167.4 GDP Growth 1.6% 3.5% 0.1% 0.7% 6.9% 4.2% 3.0% CPI Rise 10.1% 9.7% 11.1% 10.1% 4.0% 6.7% 7.8% Exports 22.031 21.796 22.077 20.651 23.875 22.611 22.8 to US 2.782 2.707 2.552 2.442 2.899 3.068 2.872 Imports 20.335 23.763 24.073 19.420 23.423 23.499 27.3 from US 4.093 5.242 4.534 3.954 4.793 5.440 5.551

Australia is the 15th largest U.S. trading partner.

POLITICAL Official Name of Country: COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA Capital: Canberra, pop. 222,000 (1984) Type of Government: Federal Parliamentary State Type of Chief of State: British Monarch Name of Chief of State: Queen Elizabeth II Name of Head of Government: Prime Minister Robert Hawke Foreign Minister: William Hayden 1985 Freedom House Index (1 is highest, 7 is lowest) Political Freedom: 1 Civil Liberties: 1 Status of Freedom: Free 1985 Voting with U.S. at U.N.: 60.2% FY1986 U.S. Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: none Military: none

MILITARY: 1986/7 Military Budget: US$ 4.628 billion Increase Over 1985/6: 4.8% Expenditure as Percentage of GNP: 2.9% Percent of Government Spending: 9.9%

Total Regular Forces: 70,456 Reserves: 26,122 Army: 32,116 Navy: 15,553 Airforce: 22,787 Combat Aircraft: 129 Naval Vessels: 6 Attack Submarines, 3 Destroyers, 10 Frigates, 21 Large Patrol Craft, 2 Minehunters

Security Alliance with U.S.: ANZUS (without New Zealand).

U.S. Military Installations: U.S. Navy has access to Cockburn Sound Naval facilities, joint Australian-U.S. communication/ intelligence facilities at Northwest Cape, Nurrungar and Pine.Gap.

INVESTMENT 1985 U.S. Direct Investment: US$ 8,564,000,000 1985 Australian Direct Investment in the U.S.: US$ 2,660,000,000

TOURISM 1986 Tourist Arrivals: 1,142,000 Visas to U.S.: 147,744 U.S. Residents in Australia: 64,307 Residents in U.S.: 1,362

BANGLADESH

LAND: 55,813 square miles Cultivated: 59.7% Forest: 14.8% Pasture: 5.4% Resources: natural gas, uranium, offshore oil

POPULATION: 104,205,000 Annual Population Growth: 2.7% Projected Population in 2000: 144,700,000 Life Expectancy: 53 Literacy: 29% Ethnic Divisions: Bengali: 98%, Bihari and tribal groups: 2% Religions: Muslim: 83%, Hindu: 16%, Buddhist, Christian, other: 1%

Workforce: 31,000,000 Commerce and Services: 16.4% Manufacturing: 9.8% Agriculture and Fishing: 60.3% Construction: 3.1% Government and Public Authorities: 10.4% Students: Primary: 8.92m Secondary: 2.49m Tertiary: .47m

ECONOMY: Economic System: free enterprise Currency: Taka (100 poisha), 1 US$ = 30.5 Taka Major Industries: jute manufactures, food processing, cotton textiles Major Agricultural Products: jute, rice, tea Major Imports: capital equipment, foodgrains, petroleum, raw cotton, fertilizer, manufactured products Major Exports: raw and manufactured jute, leather, tea Per Capita GNP (1986): US$ 150. Economic Statistics (Billions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 GDP 11.18 11.75 11.01 11.53 13.48 12.83 na GDP Growth 1.3% 6.8% 0.8% 3.6% 4.2% 3.1% 4.82% CPI Rise 13.4% 16.2% 12.5% 9.4% 10.5% 10.7% 9.94% Exports 0.790 0.791 0.768 0.724 0.931 0.998 0.78 to US 0.100 0.105 0.088 0.109 0.159 0.227 0.264 Imports 2.610 2.651 2.418 2.291 2.692 2.692 3.1 from US 0.292 0.158 0.227 0.190 0.303 0.219 0.165

Bangladesh is a minor U.S. trading partner.

POLITICAL Official Name of Country: PEOPLE"S REPUBLIC OF BANGLADESH Capital: Dhaka, pop. 3,500,000 (1984) Type of Government: Republic Type of Chief of State: President Name of Chief of State: Hossain Mohamad Ershad Name of Head of Government: same Foreign Minister: Humayun Rasheed Chowdhury

1985 Freedom House Index (I is highest, 7 is lowest) Political Freedom: 5 Civil Liberties: 5 Status of Freedom: Partly Free 1985 Voting with U.S. at U.N.: 16.1% FY1986 U.S. Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: US$ 181,828,000 Military: US$ 272,000

MILITARY 1985/6 Military Budget: US$ 167,502,000 Increase Over 1984/5: -38.72% Expentiture as Percentage of GNP: 1.7% Percent of Goverment Spending: 19.83%

Total Regular Forces: 91,300 Reserves: 30,000 Army: 81,800 Navy: 6,500 Airforce: 3,000 Combat Aircraft: 30 Naval Vessels: 3 Frigates, 4 Fast-Attack Craft (gun), 14 Fast-Attack Craft (patrol), 4 Fast-Attack Craft (torpedo), 6 Large Patrol Craft.

Security Alliance with U.S.: none U.S. Military Installations: none

INVESTMENT 1985 U.S. Direct Investment: US$ 10,000,000 1985 Bangladeshi Direct Investment in the U.S.: US$ 0

TOURISM 1985 Tourist Arrivals: 142,000 Visas to U.S.: 3,013 U.S. Residents in Bangladesh: 820 Residents in U.S.: 1,146

BHUTAN

LAND: 17,800 square miles Cultivated: 8.8% Forest: 68.7% Pasture: 1.9% Resources: timber, hydroelectric power

POPULATION: 1,446,000 Annual Population Growth: 2% Projected Population in 2000: 1,900,000 Life Expectancy: 46 Literacy: 5% Ethnic Divisions: Bhote: 60%, Nepalese: 25%, Tribal groups: 15% Religions: Lamaistic Buddism: 75%, Hinduism: 25%

Workforce: 650,000 Commerce and Services: 3.6% Manufacturing: 0.7% Agriculture and Fishing: 93A Construction: na Government and Public Authorities: 2A Students: Primary: 49,485 Secondary: 2,967 Tertiary: na

ECONOMY: Economic System: free enterprise Currency: Ngultrum (100 chetrum), 1 US$ = 12.78 Ngultrum (1985) Major Industries: cement, wood products, chemical products, mining, distilling, food processing, handicrafts Major Agricultural Products: maize, rice, oranges, potatoes, wheat Major Imports: aircraft, fuel, rice, motor vehicles, textiles, machinery Major Exports: cement, talc powder, agricultural products, sawn timber, potatoes Per Capita GNP (1985): US$ 140. Economic Statistics (Millions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 GDP 100. 113. 120. 120. 130. 155.6 na GNP Growth* na 6.4% 6.4% 6.4% 6.4% 6.4% na CPI Rise na na na na 8.4% 10A na Exports na na 17.70 14.04# 15.6# 15.1# na to US na na na na na na na Imports na na 54.86 39.40# 80.4# 69.4# na from US na na na na na na na

Average growth during the period Merchandise trade, not total

Bhutan is not a U.S. trading partner.

POLITICAL Official Name of Country: KINGDOM OF BHUTAN Capital: Thimphu, pop. 15,000 (1982) Type of Government: Monarchy Type of Chief of State: King Name of Chief of State: Jigme Singye Wangchuck Name of Head of Government: same Foreign Minister: Lyonpo Dawa Tsering

1985 Freedom House Index (l is highest, 7 is lowest) Political Freedom: 5 Civil Liberties: 6 Status of Freedom: Partly Free 1985 Voting with U.S. at U.N.: 13.9%

FY1986 U.S. Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: US$ 526,000 Military: none

MILITARY 1986 Military Budget: not available Increase Over 1985: not available Expenditure as Percentage of GNP: not available Percent of Government Spending: not available

Total Regular Forces: not available Reserves: na Army: na Navy: 0 Airforce: na

Combat Aircraft: not available Naval Vessels: 0

Security Alliance with U.S.: none U.S. Military Installations: none

INVESTMENT 1985 U.S. Direct Investment: na 1985 Bhutanese Direct Investment in the U.S.: na

TOURISM 1985 Tourist Arrivals: 1,892 Visas to U.S.: 55 U.S. Residents in Bhutan: na Residents in U.S.: na

BRUNEI

LAND: 2,226 square miles Cultivated: 1% Forest: 85% Pasture: 1% Resources: oil, natural gas, timber

POPULATION: 240,000 Annual Population Growth: 3.7% Projected Population in 2000: 300,000 Life Expectancy: 71 Literacy: 45% Ethnic Divisions: Malay: 64%, Chinese: 20%, other: 16% Religions: Muslim: 60%, Christian: 8%, Buddhist and local: 32%

Workforce: 90,000 Commerce and Services: 25A Manufacturing: 4A Agriculture and Fishing: 5A construction: 19A Government and Public Authoiities: 47A Students: Primary: 34,373 Secondary: 18,565 Tertiary: 1,192

ECONOMY: Economic System: free enterprise Currency: Brunei dollar (100 cents), 1 US$ = 2.16 B$ Major Industries: crude petroleum, liquefied natural gas, construction Major Agricultural Products: rice, pepper, timber Major Imports: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, chemicals Major Exports: crude petroleum, petroleum products, liquified natural gas Per Capita GNP (1985): US$ 16,486.

Economic Statistics (Billions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 GDP 5.29 4.63 4.09 4.16 3.89 3.97 na GNP Growth na na 11.7% 3A 2.0% -10A -10A CPI Rise na 9.1% 6.4% .3% 3.1% 4.0% na Exports 4.588 4.001 3.785 3.366 3.183 2.583 na to US 0.293 0.343 0.219 0.019 0.011 0.002 0.064 Imports 0.573 0.589 0.731 0.724 0.621 0.749 na from US 0.070 0.045 0.079 0.058 0.034 0.051 0.202

Brunei is a minor U.S. trading partner.

POLITICAL Official Name of Country: STATE OF BRUNEI DARUSSALAM Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan, pop. 56,300 (1986) Type of Government: Sultanate Type of Chief of State: Sultan Name of Chief of State: Sir Hassanal Bolkia Name of Head of Government: same Foreign Minister: Prince Mohamed Bolkia 1985 Freedom House Index (I is highest, 7 is lowest) Political Freedom: 6 Civil Liberties: 5 Status of Freedom: Partly Free 1985 Voting with U.S. at U.N.: 15.3% FY1986 U.S. Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: none Military: none

MILITARY i984 Military Budget: US$ 304,721,000 Increase Over 1983: 17A Expenditure as Percentage of GNP: 4.1% Percent of Government Spending: 41.3%

Total Regular Forces: 4,050 Reserves: 0 Army: 3,380 Navy: 470 Airforce: 200

Combat Aircraft: none Naval Vessels: 3 Fast-Attack Craft (missile), 6 Patrol Craft.

Security Alliance with U.S.: none U.S. Military Installations: none

INVESTMENT 1985 U.S. Direct Investment: US$ 3,000,000 1985 Bruneian Direct Investment in the U.S.: less than US$ 500,000

TOURISM 1984 Tourist Arrivals: 6,000 Visas to U.S.: 420 U.S. Residents in Brunei: 130 Residents in U.S.: 16

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BURMA

LAND: 261,149 square miles Cultivated: 12.2% Forest: 47.6% Pasture: 3.3% Resources: oil, copper, asbestos, marble, limestone, teak

POPULATION: 37,651,000 Annual Population Growth: 2.0% Projected Population in 2000: 48,200,000 Life Expectancy: 58 Literacy: 78% Ethnic Divisions: Burmese: 72%, Karen: 7%, Shan: 6%, Indian: 6%, Chinese: 3%, Kachin: 2%, Chin: 2%, other: 2% Religions: Buddhist: 85%, Christian and indigenous beliefs: 15%

Workforce: 15,100,000 Commerce and Services: 19.1% Manufacturing: 8.5% Agriculture and Fishing: 64.9% Construction: 1.7% Government and Public Authorities: 3.8% Students: Primary: 5.02m Secondary: 1.02m Tertiary: 266,665

ECONOMY: Economic System: socialist Currency: Kyat, 1 US$ = 6.78 Kyat Major Industries: agricultural processing, textiles and footwear, wood and wood processing, petroleum refining, copper, tin Major Agricultural Products: rice, cotton, pulses, sugarcanef beans, peanuts, teak and hardwoods Major Imports: machinery and transportation equipment, building materials, oil equipment, consumer goods, capital goods Major Exports: teak, rice, pulses, beans, base metals, ores, gems Per Capita GNP (1986): US$ 190. Economic Statistics (Billions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 GDP 5.713 5.800 6.020 6.054 6.175 6.371 6.96 GDP Growth 7.9% 6.4% 5.7% 4.8% 6.6% 3.2% 6.3% CPI Rise 0.6% 0.3% 5.3% 5.7% 4.8% 6.8% 7A Exports 0.415 0.446 0.502 0.557 0.525 0.501 0.389 to US 0.009 0.016 0.018 0.012 0.015 0.015 0.015 Imports 0.785 0.823 0.894 0.724 0.622 0.646 0.594 from US 0.029 0.034 0.034 0.015 0.016 0.010 0.016

Burma is a minor U.S. trading partner.

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POLITICAL Official Name of Country: SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF THE UNION OF BURMA Capital: Rangoon, pop. 2,458,700 (1983) Type of Government: Constitutional Dictatorship Type of Chief of State: President Name of Chief of State: U San Yu Name of Head of Government: Party Chairman Ne Win Foreign Minister: Ye Goung

1985 Freedom House Index (I is highest, 7 is lowest) Political Freedom: 7 Civil Liberties: 7 Status of Freedom: Not Free 1985 Voting with U.S. at U.N.: 17.1%

FY 1986 U.S. Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: US$ 15,965,000 Military: US$ 263,000

MILITARY 1986/7 Military Budget: US$ 247,518,000 Increase Over 1985/6: 8.4% Expentiture as Percentage of GNP: 3.0% Percent of Government Spending: 21.4%

Total Regular Forces: 186,000 Reserves: 0 Army: 170,000 Navy: 7,000 Airforce: 4,000 Combat Aircraft: 22 Naval Vessels: 4 Corvettes, 30 Gunboats, 36 River Patrol Craft

Security Alliance with U.S.: none U.S. Military Installations: none

INVESTMENT 1985 U.S. Direct Investment: not available 1985 Burmese Direct Investment in the U.S.: not available

TOURISM 1985 Tourist Arrivals: 36,335 Visas to U.S.: 344 U.S. Residents in Burma: 24 Residents in U.S.: 990

CAMBODIA

LAND: 69,900 square miles Cultivated: 11% Forest: 74% Pasture: 3% Resources: timber, gemstones, iron ore, manganese, phosphates

POPULATION: 6,388,000 Annual Population Growth: 2.2% Projected Population in 2000: 8,500,000 Life Expectancy: 43 Literacy: 48% Ethnic Divisions: Khmer: 90%, Chinese: 5%, other: 5% Religions: Theravada Buddism: 95%, other: 5%

Workforce: 2,740,000 Commerce and Services: na Manufacturing: na Agriculture and Fishing: 80A Construction: na Government and Public Authorities: na

Students: Primary: 1.8m Secondary: 300,000 Tertiary: 10,000

ECONOMY:' Economic System: socialist Currency: Riel, 1 US$ = 30 Riel (1985) Major Industries: textiles, cement, fishing, wood and wood products Major Agricultural Products: rice, rubber, corn Major Imports: fuel, consumer goods, raw materials, fertilizer, international food aid, Soviet bloc economic assistance Major Exports: rubber, rice, pepper, timber, resin, corn Per Capita GNP: na

Economic Statistics (Millions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 GDP na na na na 630. na na GDP Growth na na na na na na na CPI Rise na na na na na na na Exports na na na 2.55 4.4 3.21 na to US 0. 1. 0. 0. 0. 0.4 0.5 Imports na na na 54.4 47.9 27.6 na from US 26. 12. 2. 2. 1. 0. 0.2

Cambodia is a very minor U.S. trading partner.

POLITICAL Official Name of Country: PEOPLE"S REPUBLIC OF KAMPUCHEA Capital: Phnom Penh, pop. 200,000 (1984) Type of Government: Communist State Type of Chief of State: President Name of Chief of State: Heng Samrin Name of Head of Government: Prime Minister Hun Sen Foreign Minister: same

1985 Freedom House Index (1 is highest, 7 lowest). Political Freedom: 7 Civil Liberties: 7 Status of Freedom: Not Free 1985 Voting with U.S. at U.N.: 21.4% (The U.N. recognizes the Coalition Government of Democratic Cambodia (CGDK) led by Prince Norodom Sihanouk, Son Sann and Khieu Samphan, as the legitimate goverment of Cambodia, not the Heng Samrin government)

FY1986 US Foreign Assistance (Actual obligations) Economic: US$ 4,901,000 (to the CGDK) Military: none

MILITARY 1986 Military Budget: not available Increase Over 1985: not available Expenditure as Percentage of GNP: not available Percent of Government Spending: not available

Total Regular Forces: 35,000 Reserves: na Army: 35,000 Navy: na Airforce: na Combat Aircraft: 19 Naval Vessels: na

Security Alliance with U.S.: none U.S. Military Installations: none Soviet Military Installations: The Soviets are expanding and upgrading Kompong Som and Ream naval bases.

INVESTMENT 1985 U.S. Direct Investment: na 1985 Cambodian Direct Investment in the U.S.: na

TOURISM 1986 Tourist Arrivals: na Visas to U.S.: 43 U.S. Residents in Cambodia: na i Residents in U.S.: na CHINA, PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF

LAND: 3,691,521 square miles Cultivated: 10.1% Forest: 12.5% Pasture: 33.3% Resources: coal, iron, petroleum, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, uranium, hydroelectric potential

POPULATION: 1,045,537,000 Annual Population Growth: .8% Projected Population in 2000: 1,190,000,000 Life Expectancy: 68 Literacy: over 75% Ethnic Divisions: Han Chinese: 93.3%, other nationalities: 6.7% Religions: officially athiest, important elements include Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Muslim, Christian

Workforce: 498,700,000 Commerce and Services: 12.2% Manufacturing: 16.7% Agriculture and Fishing: 62.5% Construction: 4.2% Government and Public Authorities: 1.6% Students: Primary: 133.7m Secondary: 51.7m Tertiary: 1.73m

ECONOMY: Economic System: socialist Currency: Yuan, 1 US$ = 3.7 Yuan Major Industries':' iron, steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles, light industrial products, petroleum Major Agricultural Products: rice, wheat, other grains, oilseed, cotton Major Imports: grain, chemical fertilizer, steel, industrial raw materials, machinery, equipment Major Exports: manufactured goods, agricultural products, oil, minerals Per Capita GNP (1985): US$ 220. Economic Statistics (Billions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 GNP 228.0 239.1 259.0 282.5 316.4 354.3 na GNP Growth 6.1% 4.9% 8.3% 9.1% 12.0% 12.3% 7.4% CPI Rise 7.4% 2.5% 2.0% 2.0% 2.7% 7.7% 7.5% Exports 18.139 21.476 21.865 22.096 24.824 27.329 30.9 to US 1.164 2.062 2.502 2.477 3.381 4.224 5.241 Imports 19.505 21.631 18.920 21.313 25.953 42.534 42.9 from US 3.755 3.603 2.912 2.173 3.004 3.856 3.106

China ib the 16th largest U.S. trading partner.

POLITICAL Official Name of Country: PEOPLE"S REPUBLIC OF CHINA capital: Beijing, pop. 9,200,000 (1986) Type of Government: Communist State Type of Chief of State: President Name of Chief of State: Li Xiannian Name of Head of Government: Politburo member Deng Xiaoping Foreign Minister: Wu Xueqian

1985 Freedom House Index (l is highest, 7 is lowest) Political Freedom: 6 Civil Liberties: 6 Status of Freedom: Not Free 1985 Voting with U.S. at U.N.: 15.9%

FY1986 U.S. Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: none Military: none

MILITARY 1986 Military Budget: US$ 6.252 billion Increase Over 1985: -1.6% Expentiture as Percentage of GNP: 1.75% Percent of Government Spending: not available

Total Regular Forces: 2,950,000 Reserves: 5,377,000 Army: 2,110,000 Navy: 350,000 Airforce: 490,000 Combat Aircraft: 5,300 Naval Vessels: 2 Ballistic Missile Submarines, 3 Cruise Missile Submarines, 112 Attack Submarines, 15 Destroyers, 31 Frigates,14 Patrol Escorts, 81 Large Patrol Craft, 100 Coastal/River Patrol Craft, 232 Fast-Attack Craft (missile), 355 Fast-Attack Craft (gun), 190 Fast-Attack Craft (torpedo), 33 Miriesweepers.

Security Alliance with U.S.: none U.S. Military Installations: none

INVESTMENT 1985 U.S. Direct Investment: US$ 242,000,000 1985 PRC Direct Investment in the U.S.: US$ 7,000,000

TOURISM 1985 Tourist Arrivals: 17,800,000 Visas to U.S.: 30,126 U.S. Residents in the PRC: 2,177 Residents in U.S.: 24,787

FIJI

LAND: 7,056 square miles Cultivated: 15% Forest: 70% Pasture: 5% Resources: timber, fish, gold, copper

POPULATION: 715,000 Annual Population Growth: 2.0% Projected Population in 2000: 800,000 Life Expectancy: 72 Literacy: 80% Ethnic Divisions: Indian: 48%, Fijian: 46%, other: 6% Religions: Christian: 49%, Hindu: 40%, Muslim, others: 11%

Workforce: 225,000 Commerce and services: 12.4% Manufacturing: 6.3% Agriculture and Fishing: 50%+ Construction: 2.6% Government and Public Authorities: 11.1%

Students: Primary: 127,286 Secondary: 41,505 Tertiary: 3,900

ECONOMY: Economic System: free enterprise Currency: Fiji dollar (100 cents), 1 US$ = 1.12 F$ Major Industries: sugar refining, tourism, gold, lumber, small industries Major Agricultural Products: sugar, copra, ginger, rice Major Imports: manufactured goods, machinery, foodstuffs, fuel Major Exports: sugar, copra Per Capita GNP (1985): US$ 1,431.

Economic Statistics (Billions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 GNP 1.236 1.254 1.212 1.139 1.246 1.201 na GDP Growth -1.7% 6.0% -1.1% -4.4% 9.4% -3.%* 6.4%* CPI Rise 14.5% 11.2% 7.0% 6.7% 5.3% 4.4% 2A Exports 0.358 0.311 0.283 0.239 0.255 0.229 0.32 to US 0.037 0.031 0.027 0.019 0.025 0.011 na Imports 0.559 0.631 0.509 0.484 0.449 0.439 0.45 from US 0.037 0.044 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.017 na *GNP, not GDP

Fiji is a minor U.S. trading partner.

POLITICAL Official Name of Country: FIJI Capital: Suva, pop. 65,000 (1983) Type of Government: Parliamentary Democracy within the Commonwealth Type of Chief of State: British Monarch Name of Chief of State: Queen Elizabeth II Name of Head of Government: Prime Minister Timoci Bavadra Foreign Minister: Krishna Datt (Note: on May, 14 1987, Bavadra's elected government was overthrown by a military coup led by Lt. Col. Sitiveni Rabuka.)

1985 Freedom House Index (1 is highest, 7 lowest) Political Freedom: 2 Civil Liberties: 2 Status of Freedom: Free 1985 Voting with U.S. at U.N.: 26.0%

FY1986 US Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: US$ 3,217,000 Military: US$ 368,000

MILITARY 1986 Military Budget: US$ 14,360,000 Increase Over 1985: 4.0% Expentiture as Percentage of GNP: 1.14% Percent of Government Spending: 3.5%

Total Regular Forces: 2,670 Reserves: 5,000 Army: 2,500 Navy: 170 Airforce: 0 Combat Aircraft: none Naval Vessels: 3 Minesweepers

Security Alliance with U.S.: none U.S. Military Installations: none

INVESTMENT 1985 U.S. Direct Investment: not available 1985 Fijian Direct Investment in the U.S.: not available

TOURISM 1986 Tourist Arrivals: 266,218 Visas to U.S.: 3,231 U.S. Residents in Fiji: 850 Residents in U.S.: na

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HONG KONG

LAND: 404 square miles Cultivated: 9.1% Forest: 11.9% Pasture: 45.6% Resources: none

POPULATION: 5,533,000 Annual Population Growth: .9% Projected Population in 2000: 6,700,000 Life Expectancy: 76 Literacy: 75% Ethnic Divisions: Chinese: 98%, other: 2% Religions: local religions: 90%, Christian: 10%

Workforce: 2,714,00 Commerce and Services: 36.2% Manufacturing: 34A Agriculture and Fishing: 1.6% Construction: 7.4% Government and Public Authorities: 17.4% Students: Primary: 538,928 Secondary: 533,322 Tertiary: 57,947

ECONOMY: Economic System: free enterprise Currency: Hong Kong dollar (100 cents), 1 US$ = 7.77 HK$ Major Industries: textiles and clothing, tourism, electronics-, plastics, toys, watches Major Agricultural Products: small amounts of rice and vegetables Major Imports: raw materials and semi-manufactured goods, consumer goods, capital goods, foodstuffs, fuel Major Exports: many re-exports; clothing and textiles, electronics, footwear, light metal manufactures Per Capita GNP (1986): US$ 6,790.

Economic Statistics (Billions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 GNP 22.3 24.6 30.4 28.2 31.85 34.1 37.25 GNP Growth na 9.4% 2.4% 5.2% 6A 0.6% 8.7% CPI Rise 15.1% 13.8% 10.6% 9.9% 8.5% 3.4% 3.6% Exports 19.724 21.796 20.996 21.953 28.318 30.185 35.452 to US 5.029 5.757 5.895 6.824 8.899 8.994 9.474 Imports 22.403 24.694 23.544 24.011 28.563 29.705 35.379 from US 2.686 2.635 2.452 2.563 3.062 2.786 3.030

Hong Kong is the 10th largest U.S. trading partner.

POLITICAL official Name of Country: BRITISH CROWN COLONY OF HONG KONG Capital: Victoria Type of Government: British Dependent Territory, scheduled to revert to Chinese control in 1997. Type of Chief of State: British Monarch Name of Chief of State: Queen Elizabeth II Name of Head of Government: Sir David Wilson Foreign minister: under auspices of Britain

1985 Freedom House Index (1 is highest, 7 is lowest) Political Freedom: 4 Civil Liberties: 2 Status of Freedom: Partly Free 1985 Voting with U.S. at U.N.: not a member

FY1986 U.S. Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: none Military: none

MILITARY

The majority of military requirements are provided by Great Britain

1987 Military Budget: US$ 208,000,000 Increase Over 1986: 9.9% Expenditure as Percentage of GNP: 0.6% Percent of Government Spending: 3.8%

Total Regular Forces: 8,945 (combined British, Gurkha and Chinese) Reserves: na Army: 8,017 Navy: 650 Airforce: 278 Combat Aircraft: none Naval Vessels: 5 Patrol Craft, plus 12 Patrol Boats in local service.

Security Alliance with U.S.: none U.S. Military Installations: none

INVESTMENT 1985 U.S. Direct Investment: US$ 3,124,000,000 1985 Hong Kong Direct Investment in the U.S.: US$ 618,000,000

TOURISM 1985 Tourist Arrivals: 3,400,000 Visas to U.S.: na U.S. Residents in Hong Kong: 14,025 Residents in U.S.: 5,171

- 22

INDIA

LAND: 1,269,420 square miles Cultivated: 52.3 Forest: 11.1% Pasture: 4.5% Resources: coal, iron ore, manganese, bauxite, chromite

POPULATION: 783,940,000 Annual Population Growth: 2.1% Projected Population in 2000: 1,017,000,000 Life Expectancy: 53 Literacy: 36% Ethnic Divisions: Indo-Aryan: 72%, Dravidan: 25%, Mongoloid and other: 3% Religions: Hindu: 83.5%, Muslim: 11.0%, Christian: 2.6%, Sikh: 2%, Buddhist: 0.7%, other: 0.2%

Workforce: 283,400,000 Commerce and Services: 12.3% Manufacturing: 11.1% Agriculture and Fishing: 64.4% Construction: 1.8% Government and Public Authorities: 8.9% Students: Primary: 121.5m Secondary: 29.3m Tertiary: 6.2m

ECONOMY: Economic System: free enterprise Currency: Rupee (100 paise), 1 US$ = 13 Rs. Major Industries: textiles, food processing, steel, machinery, transportation equipment, cement, jute manufactures Major Agricultural Products: rice, cereals, pulses, oilseed, cotton, jute, sugarcane, tobacco, tea, coffee Major Imports: machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum, edibli oils, fertilizer Major Exports: engineering goods, textiles, clothing, tea Per Capita GNP (1986): US$ 203.

Economic Statistics (Billions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 GNP 95.0 99.02 114.55 126.20 136.93 165.80 167.5 GDP Growth 6.6% 5.8% 3.6% 7.6% 3.6% 4A 4.2% CPI Rise 11.4% 13.0% 7.9% 11.9% 8.3% 5.1% 8.9% Exports 8.441 6.827 9.655 9.907 10.616 9.822 na to US 1.210 1.325 1.522 2.334 2.737 2.478 2.465 Imports 14.822 14.400 17.450 16.400 17.697 17.640 na from US 1.689 1.748 1.599 1.828 1.570 1.642 1.536

India is the 25th largest U.S. trading partner.

POLITICAL Official Name of Country: REPUBLIC OF INDIA Capital: New Dehli, pop. 5,200,000 (Dehli metro. area, 1980) Type of Government: Federal Republic Type of Chief of State: President Name of Chief of State: Zail Singh Name of Head of Government: Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi Foreign Minister: Narain Dutt Tiwari

1985 Freedom House Index (1 is highest, 7 is lowest) Political Freedom: 2 Civil Liberties: 3 Status of Freedom: Free 1985 Voting with U.S. at U.N.: 8.9%

FY1986 US Foreign Assistance (Actual obligations) Economic: US$ 189,789,000 Military: US$ 309,000

MILITARY 1986 Military Budget: US$ 6.95 billion Increase Over 1985: 9.8% Expenditure as Percentage of GNP: 3.5% Percent of Government Spending: 20.2%

Total Regular Forces: 1,260,000 Reserves: 200,00 Army: 1,100,000 Navy: 47,000 Airforce: 113,000 Comabt Aircraft: 753 Naval Vessels: 8 Attack Submarines, 1 Aircraft Carrier, 3 Destroyers, 23 Frigates, 4 Corvettes, 14 Fast-Attack Craft (missile), 9 Patrol Craft, 18 Minehunters.

Security Alliance with U.S.: none U.S. Military Installations: none

INVESTMENT 1985 U.S. Direct Investment: US$ 466,000,000 1985 Indian Direct Investment in the U.S.: US$ 18,000,000

TOURISM 1985 Tourist Arrivals: 836,908 Visas to U.S.: 75,677 U.S. Residents in India: 3,960 Residents in U.S.: 26,026

- 24

INDONESIA

LAND: 741,101 square miles Cultivated: 11% Forest: 64% Pasture: 6.3% Resources: oil, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper

POPULATION: 176,764,000 Annual Population Growth: 2.1% Projected Population in 2000: 219,900,000 Life Expectancy: 55 Literacy: 62% Ethnic Divisions: Javanese: 45.0%, Sundanese: 14%, Madurese: 7.5% Malay: 7.5%, other: 26.0% Religions: Muslim: 88%, Protestant: 6%, Catholic: 3%, Hindu: 2%, other: 1%

Workforce: 65,700,000 Commerce and Services: 18.2% Manufacturing: 10.4% Agriculture and Fishing: 54.7% Construction: 3.7% Government and Public Authorities: 12.3% Students: Primary: 29.27m Secondary: 8.04m Tertiary: 1.02m

ECONOMY: Economic System: free enterprise Currency: Rupee (100 paise), I US$ = 14.5 Rs major Industries: petroleum, textiles, mining, cement, chemical fertilizer, timber Major Agricultural Products: rice, cassava, rubber, copra Major Imports: rice, wheat flour, cereals, textiles, chemicals, iron and steel products, machinery, transport equipment Major Exports: petroleum, liquified natural gas, timber, rubber, coffee, tin, palm oil, tea, copper Per Capita GNP (1985): US$ 540.

Economic Statistics (Billions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 GDP 72.482 85.518 90.159 81.052 83.741 87.616 na GDP Growth 9.9% 7.9% 2.2% 4.2% 6.5% 1.6% 1.9% CPI Rise 18.5% 12.2% 9.5% 11.8% 10.5% 4.7% 6.04% Exports 21.909 23.810 22.329 21.146 21.881 18.330 17.5 to US 5.539 6.413 4.509 5.657 5.867 4.933 3.675 Imports 10.837 13.270 16.859 16.351 13.880 9.321 13.5 from US 1.545 1.302 2.025 1.466 1.216 0.795 0.946

Indonesia is the 23rd largest U.S. trading partner.

POLITICAL 3fficial Name of Country: REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA Capital: Jakarta, pop. 5,500,000 (1981) Type of Government: Republic Type of Chief of State: President Name of Chief of State: Suharto Name of Head of Government: same Foreign Minister: Mochtar Kusamaatmadja

1985 Freedom House Index (I is highest, 7 lowest) Political Freedom: 5 Civil Liberties : 6 Status of Freedom: Partly Free 1985 Voting with U.S. at U.N.: 14.3%

FY1986 US Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: US$ 98,435,000 Military: IUS$ 21,054,000

MILITARY 1986 Military Budget:.US$ 2.048 billion Increase over 1985: -13.3% Expenditure as Percentage of GNP: 2.44% Percent of Government Spending: 11.7%

Total Regular Forces: 281,000 Reserves: 800,000 Army: 216,000 Navy: 38,000 Airforce: 27,000 Combat Aircraft: 64 Naval Vessels: 2 Attack Submarines, 13 Frigates, 4 Fast-Attack Craft (missile), 2 Fast-Attack Craft (torpedo), 2 Fast-Attack Craft (patrol), 31 Patrol Vessels, 2 Minesweepers.

Security Alliance with U.S.: none U.S. Military Installations: none

INVESTMENT 1985 U.S. Direct Investment: US$ 4,087,000,000 1985 Indonesian Direct Investment in the U.S.: IUS$ 15,000,000

TOURISM 1985 Tourist Arrivals: 749,351 Visas to U.S.: 21,573 U.S. Residents in Indonesia: 10,172 Residents in U.S.: 1,269

JAPAN

LAND: 147,470 square miles Cultivated: 12.6% Forest: 66.9% Pasture: 1.6% Resources: negligible mineral resources, fish

POPULATION: 121,402,000 Annual Population Growth: .6% Projected Population in 2000: 128,100,00 Life Expectancy: 77 Literacy: 99% Ethnic Divisions: Japanese: 99.4%, other (mostly Korean): .6% Religions: Shinto and Buddhist: 84%, Christian: .8%, other: 15.2%

Workforce: 58,100,000 Commerce and Services: 53.1% Manufacturing: 25% Agriculture and Fishing: 8.5% Construction: 9.1% Government and Public Authorities: na Students: Primary: 10.7m Secondary: 6.1m Tertiary: 5.3m

ECONOMY: Economic System: free enterprise Currency: Yen, I US$ = 158 Yen Major Industries: machinery, autos, metallurgy, engineering, electrical and electronics industries, textiles, chemicals Major Agricultural Products: rice, sugar, vegetables, fruits, fish Major Imports: fuel, manufactures, foodstuffs, machinery, wood, coal Major Exports: machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, metals, chemicals, textiles Per Capita GDP (1986): US$ 12,200

Economic Statistics (Billions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 GDP 1058.9 1164.4 1082.7 1181.2 1257.1 1331.5 1983.7* GDP Growth 4.3% 3.7% 3.1% 3.2% 5.1% 4.5% 2.5% CPI Rise 8.0% 4.9% 2.6% 1.8% 2.3% 2.0% 0.6% Exports 130.435 151.500 138.443 146.982 169.748 177.189 209.2 to US 32.972 39.904 39.931 43.559 60.371 72.380 85.456 Imports 141.284 142.868 131.566 126.520 136.142 130.516 126.4 from US 20.790 21.823 20.966 21.894 23.575 22.630 26.881 *GNP, not GDP

Japan is the 2nd largest U.S. trading partner. POLITICAL Official Name of Country: JAPAN Capital: Tokyo, pop. 8,300,000 (1982) Type of Government: Constitutional Monarchy Type of Chief of State: Emperor Name of Chief of State: Hirohito Name of Head of Government: Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone Foreign Minister: Tadashi Kuranari

1985 Freedom House Index (1 is highest, 7 is lowest) .Political Freedom: 1 Civil Liberties: 1 Status of Freedom: Free 1985 Voting with U.S. at U.N.: 66.3%

FY1986 U.S. Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: none Military: none

MILITARY 1986/7 Military Budget: US$ 22.5 billion (at current exchange rates) Increase over 1985/6: 5.2% Expenditure as Percentage of GNP: 1.004% Percent of Government Spending: 6.2%

Total Regular Forces: 243,000 Reserves: 43,600 Army: 155,000 Navy: 44,000 Airforce: 44,000 Combat Aircraft: 433 Naval Vessels: 15 Attack Submarines, 34 Destroyers, 34 Frigates, 5 Fast-Attack Craft (torpedo), 11 Patrol Craft, 49 Mine Counter-measure Vessels.

Security Alliance with U.S.: Mutual cooperation and security treaties 1951, 1960. U.S. Military Installations: Yokosuka, Yokohama, Atsugi, Sasebo, Futenma, Iwakuni, Okinowa, Misawa.

INVESTMENT 1985 U.S. Direct Investment: US$ 9,095,000,000 1985 Japanese Direct Investment in the U.S.: US$ 19,116,000,000

TOURISM 1985 Tourist Arrivals: 2,300,000 Visas to U.S.: 1,115,578 U.S. Residents in Japan: 26,091 Residents in U.S.: 4,086

- 28

KIRIBATI

LAND: 266 square miles Cultivated: na Forest: na Pasture: na Resources: copra, fish

POPULATION: 63,000 Annual Population Growth: 1.3% Projected Population in 2000: na Life Expectancy: na Literacy: 90% Ethnic Divisions: Micronesian: 100% Religions: Catholic: 50%, Protestant: 50%

Workforce: na Commerce and Services: na Manufacturing: na Agriculture and Fishing: na Construction: na Government and Public Authorities: na Students: Primary: na Secondary: na Tertiary: na

ECONOMY: Economic System: free enterprise Currency: Australian dollar, (100 cents), 1 US$ = 1.5 AS'$ Major Industries: fishing Major Agricultural Products: copra, subsistence vegetables, fishing Major Imports: foodstuffs, fuel, transportation equipment Major Exports: copra, fishing licenses Per Capita GNP (1984): US$ 417.

Economic Statistics (Millions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 GDP na na na na 25. na na GDP Growth na na na na na na na CPI Rise na na na na na na na Exports 4.0 2.0 2.0 4. 11. 4. na to US 0. 0. 0. 0. 0 0. na Imports 23.3 11.03 23. 20. 21: 18 na from US 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. na

Kiribati is not a U.S. trading partner.

POLITICAL official Name of Country: REPUBLIC OF KIRIBATI Capital: Tarawa, pop. 22,150 (1980) Type of Government: Republic Type of Chief of State: President Name of Chief of State: Ieremia T. Tabai Name of Head of Government: same Foreign Minister: same

1985 Freedom House Index (1 is highest, 7 is lowest) Political Freedom: 1 Civil Liberties: 2 Status of Freedom: Free 1985 Voting with U.S. at U.N.: not a member FY1986 U.S. Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: US$ 200,000 Military: none

MILITARY

Kiribati has no military forces

Security Alliance with U.S.: none U.S. Military Installations: none

INVESTMENT 1985 U.S. Direct Investment: na 1985 Kiribati Direct Investment in the U.S.: na

TOURISM 1985 Tourist Arrivals: na Visas to U.S.: na U.S. Residents in Kiribati: none Residents in U.S.: na

- 30

KOREA, NORTH

LAND: 47,077 square miles Cultivated: 18% Forest: 74% Pasture: 4% Resources: coal, lead, tungsten, zinc, graphite, magnesite, iron

POPULATION: 20,543,000 Annual Population Growth: 2.3% Projected Populati6n in 2000: 27,300,000 Life Expectancy: 65 Literacy: 95% (est.) Ethnic Divisions: Korean: 100% Religions: religious activity almost nonexistant

Workforce: 10,300,000 Commerce and Services: na Manufacturing: 50% Agriculture and Fishing: 35% Construction: na Government and Public Authorities: 15% Students: Primary: 2.5m Secondary: 2.5m Tertiary: 100,000

ECONOMY: Economic System: socialist Currency: Won (100 jon), 1 US$ = 2.18 Won (7/86) Major Industries: machine building, electrical power, chemicals, mining, metallurgy, textiles, food processing Major Agricultural Products: corn, rice, vegetables Major Imports: petroleum, machinery and equipment, coking coal, grain Major Exports: minerals, metallurgical products, agricultural products, manufactures. Per Capita GNP (1985): US$ 956. Economic Statistics (Billions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 GDP na na 17.64 18.16 18.9 19.7 20.3 GDP Growth na 9.8% 3.7% 0.9% 2.7% 4A 3.8% CPI Rise na na na na na na na Exports na na na na 1.59 na na to US# 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. Imports na na -na na 1.36 na na from US# 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.

#Trade between the U.S. and North Korea is illegal without U.S. government permission

North Korea is not a U.S. trading partner.

31 r-

POLITICAL Official Name of Country: DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE"S REPUBLIC OF KOREA Capital: Pyongyang, pop. 1,283,000 (1981) Type of Government: Communist State, one-man rule Type of Chief of State: President Name of Chief of State: Kim Il-Sung Name of Head of Government: same Foreign Minister: Kim Yong Nam

1985 Freedom House Index (1 is highest, 7 lowest) Political Freedom: 7 Civil Liberties: 7 Status of Freedom: Not Free 1985 Voting with U.S. at U.N.: Not a member of the U.N.

FY1986 U.ddS. Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: none Military: none

MILITARY 1986 Military Budget: US$ 4.277 billion Increase over 1985: 1.9% Expentiture as Percentage of GNP: 23.8% Percent of Government Spending: 31%

Total Regular Forces: 840,000 Reserves: 540,000+ Army: 750,000 Navy: 35,000 Airforce: 55,000 Combat Aircraft: 854 Naval Vessels: 25 Attack Submarines, 2 Frigates, 32 Fast-Attack Craft (missile), 136 Fast-Attack Craft (torpedo), 167 Fast-Attack Craft (gun), 65 Patrol Craft.

Security Alliance with U.S.: none U.S. Military Installations: none

INVESTMENT 1985 U.S. Direct Investment: none 1985 North Korean Direct Investment in the U.S.: none

TOURISM 1985 Tourist Arrivals: none Visas to U.S.: none U.S.Residents in North Korea: none Residents in U.S.: none

KOREA, SOUTH

LAND: 38,211 square miles Cultivated: 22% Forest: 66% Pasture: 12% Resources: coal, tungsten, graphite, iron ore, limestone, graphite

POPULATION: 43,285,000 Annual Population Growth: 1.5% Projected Population in 2000: 52,000,000 Life Expectancy: 66 Literacy: 93% Ethnic Divisions: Korean: 100% Religions: Confucianism, Buddhism: 68%, Christian: 28%, other: 4%

Workforce'* 15,500,00 Commerce and Services: 42% Manufacturing: 22.5% Agriculture and Fishing: 23.9% Construction: na Government and Public Authorities: 5.4% Students: Primary: 5.2m Secondary: 4.9m Tertiary: 1.3m

ECONOMY: Economic System: free enterprise Currency: Won, I US$ = 860 won Major Industries: textiles and clothing, food processing, chemicals, steel, electronics,.ship building Major Agricultural Products: rice, barley, vegetables, legumes Major Imports: machinery, oil, steel, transportation equipment, textiles, organic chemicals, grains Major Exports: textiles and clothing, electrical machinery, footwear, steel, ships, fish Per Capita GNP (1985): US$ 2,020.

Economic Statistics (Billions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 GNP 61.8 65.9 69.6 76.0 82.0 86.2 95. GDP Growth -3.0% 6.9% 5.5% 9.5% 7.9% 5.4% 11.4% CPI Rise 28.7% 21.3% 7.3% 3.4% 2.3% 2.5% 1.7% Exports 17.505 21.271 21.827 24.471 29.259 28.908 33.2 to US 4.433 5.474 6.011 7.657 10.027 10.712 13.497 Imports 22.289 26.155 24.250 26.196 30.628 30.128 29.4 from US 4.685 5.116 5.529 5.925 5.982 5.956 6.354

South Korea is the 7th largest U.S. trading partner.

POLITICAL Official Name of Country: REPUBLIC OF KOREA Capital: Seoul, pop. 9,304,300 (1980) Type of Government: Republic, with strong executive Type of Chief of State: President Name of Chief of State: Chun Doo Hwan Name of Head of Government: Prime Minister Lho Shin Young Foreign Minister: Choi Kwang Soo

1985 Freedom House Index (1 is highest, 7 is lowest) Political Freedom: 4 Civil Liberties: 5 Status of Freedom: Partly Free 1985 Voting with U.S. at U.N.: Not a voting member

FY1986 U.S. Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: none Military: US$ 164,511,000

MILITARY 1986 Military Expenditure: US$ 4.854 billion Increase over 1985: 10.3% Expenditure as Percentage of GNP: 5.3% Percent of Government Spending: 30.6

Total Regular Forces: 601,000 Reserves: 4,822,000 Army: 520,000 Navy: 25,000 Airforce: 33,000

Combat Aircraft: 480 Naval Vessels: 9 Destroyers, 6 Frigates, 5 Corvettes, 11 Fast-Attack Craft (missile), 136 Patrol Craft, 1 Minesweeper.

Security Alliance with U.S.: Mutual Cooperation and Security, 1954 U.S. Military Installations: Kunsan, Songtan, Uijong-Bu, Tongduchon-ni

INVESTMENT 1985 U.S. Direct Investment: US$ 757,000,000 1985 South Korean Direct Investment in the U.S.: US$ -78,000,000

TOURISM 1985 Tourist Arrivals: 1,400,000 Visas to U.S.: 45,985 U.S. Residents in South Korea: 9,529 Residents in U.S.: 35,235

LAOS

LAND: 91,428 square miles Cultivated: 3% Forest: 40% Pasture: na Resources: tin, timber, gypsum, hydroelectric power

POPULATION: 3,679,000 Annual Population Growth: 2% Projected Population in 2000: 4,900,000 Life Expectancy: 44 Literacy: 85% Ethnic Divisions: Lao: 48%, Kha: 25%, Tribal Thai: 13%, Meo, Yao and other: 13% Religions: Buddhist: 50%, Animist and other: 50%

Workforce: 1,850,000 Commerce and Services: 15% Manufacturing: 5% Agriculture and Fishing: 70% Construction: na Government and Public Authorities: na

Students: Primary: 525,000 Secondary: 89,865 Tertiary: 1,344

ECONOMY: Economic System: socialist Currency: Kip, 1 US$ = 35 Kip Major Industries: tin mining, timber, coffee, electric power Major Agricultural Products: rice, corn, vegetables, tobacco, cotton Major Imports: rice and other foodstuffs, petroleum products, machinery, transportation equipment Major Exports: electric power, forest products, tin, coffee, Per Capita GNP (1985): US$ 159.

Economic Statistics (Millions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 GDP na na 475.7 534.2 530.* 600. na GDP Growth na na na na na 8.2% na CPI Rise na na na na 22-65% 22-65% na Exports 23.327 16.914 25.697 25.615 12.642 18.899 na to US 0.910 1.001 1.456 2.546 2.001 0.455 0.3 Imports 123.401 84.796 87.467 93.197 49.525 63.566 na from US 0.220 0.330 0.440 0.110 0.110 0.220 0.1 estimates

Laos is a very minor U.S. trading partner.

35 -

POLITICAL official Name of Country: LAO PEOPLE'S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC Capital: Vientiane, pop. 200,000 (1978) Type of Government: Communist State -Type of Chief of State: President Name of Chief of State: Phoumi Vongvichit (acting) Name of Head of Government: Prime Minister Kaysone Phomvihan Foreign Minister: Phoun Sipaseuth

1985 Freedom House Index (I is highest, 7 is lowest) Political Freedom: 7 Civil Liberties: 7 Status of Freedom: Not Free 1985 Voting with U.S. at U.N.: 5.9%

FY1986 U.S. Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: none military: none

MILITARY 1986 Military Expenditure: na Increase over 1985: na Expenditure as Percentage of GNP: na Percent of Government Spending: na

Total Regular Forces: 53,000 Reserves: na Army: 50,000 Navy: 1,000 Airforce: 2,000 Combat Aircraft: 24 Naval Vessels: 20 river Patrol Craft

Security Alliance with U.S.: none U.S. Military Installations: none

INVESTMENT 1985 U.S. Direct Investment: na 1985 Laotian Direct Investment in the U.S.: US$ -3,000,000

TOURISM 1985 Tourist Arrivals: na Visas to U.S.: 212 U.S. Residents in Laos: 7 Residents in U.S.: na MACAU

LAND: 6.17 square miles Cultivated: 2% Forest: 4% Pasture: 0% Resources: none

POPULATION: 404,000 Annual Population Growth: 2.8% Projected Population in 2000: 500,000 Life Expectancy: 68 Literacy: over 90% Ethnic Divisions: Chinese: 98%, Portugese: 2% Religions: mainly Buddhist, Catholic: 4%

Workforce: 190,000 Commerce and Services: 34A Manufacturing: 45A Agriculture and Fishing: 6A Construction: 8A Government and Public Authorities: 7A

Students: Primary: 31,468 Secondary: 12,641 Tertiary: 4,172

ECONOMY: Economic System: free enterprise Currency: Pataca, 1 US$ = 8.05 Pataca Major Industries: gambling, textiles, toys, plastic products, furniture Major Agricultural Products: rice, vegetables Major Imports: foodstuffs Major Exports: textiles and clothing Per Capita GNP (1985): US$ 2,514.

Economic Statistics (Millions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 GNP 640. na na 788.1 979.8 1,030. 1137.7 GNP Growth na na na na na 2.5% 6.5% CPI Rise na na na na 11.1% 2.07% 1.7% Exports 540.28 700.42 720.84 755.04 910.59 988.27" na to US 122.6 166.8 217.7 246.4 339.0 370.1 444.5 Imports 543.87 716.10 713.29 724.16 793.32 791.29 na from US 2.4 1.0 13.6 0.6 1.7 1.2 2.7

Macau is a minor U.S. trading partner.

- 37

POLITICAL Official Name of Country: MACAU Capital: Lisbon (Portugal), pop. 812,400 (1981) Type of Government: Chinese Territory under Portugese Administration Type of Chief of State: Governor Name of Chief of State: Joaquim Pinto Machado Name of Head of Government: same Foreign Minister: Portugal is responsible for foreign affairs

1985 Freedom House Index (1 is highest, 7 is lowest) Political Freedom: 3 Civil Liberties: 4 Status of Freedom: Partly Free 1985 Voting with U.S. at U.N.: Not a member

1986 U.S. Foreign Assistance (Actual obligations) Economic: none military: none

MILITARY

Defense is the responsibility of Portugal

1985 Military Expenditure: US$ 24,900,000 Increase over 1984: 144% Expentiture as Percentage of GNP: 2.42% Percent of Government Spending: 8.3%

Total Regular Forces: na Reserves: na Army: na Navy: na Airforce: na

Aircraft: not available Naval Vessels: not available

Security Alliance with U.S.: none U.S. Military Installations: none

INVESTMENT 1985 U.S. Direct Investment: not available 1985 Macau Direct Investment in the U.S.: not available

TOURISM 1986 Tourist Arrivals: 4.6 million Visas to U.S.: na U.S. Residents in Macau: na Residents in U.S.: na

38

MALAYSIA

LAND: 127,316 square miles Cultivated: 14.3% Forest: 70% Pasture: 1% Resources: tin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron, palm oil, rubber

POPULATION: 15,820,000 Annual Population Growth: 2.3% Projected Population in 2000: 20,700,000 Life Expectancy: 67 Literacy:72% Ethnic Divisions: Malay: 50%, Chinese: 36%, Indian: 10%, other: 4% Religions: Muslim, Buddhist, Hindu, other

Workforce: 5,917,100 Commerce and Services: 23.1% Manufacturing: 14.6% Agriculture and Fishing: 34.3% Construction: 6.6% Government and Public Authorities: 14.9% Students: Primary: 2.19m Secondary: 1.29m Tertiary: 43,258

ECONOMY: Economic System: free enterprise currency: Ringgit (Malaysian dollar), 1 US$ = 2.59 M$ Major Industries: rubber and palm oil processing and manufacturing, tin mining, logging, petroleum production Major Agricultural Products: natural rubber, palm oil, rice, coconut, pepper Major Imports: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, crude petroleum, food Major Exports: natural rubber, palm oil, tin, timber, petroleum, light manufactures Per Capita GNP (1985): US$ 1,574.

Economic Statistics (Billions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 GDP 24.59 25.09 26.84 30.11 33.97 31.41 25.4* GDP Growth 7.8% 7.1% 5.6% 5.9% 7.3% -1.5% 1A CPI Rise 6.7% 9.7% 5.8% 3.7% 3.9% .3% 1.5% Exports 12.960 11.773 12.044 14.128 16.563 15.408 14. to US 2.688 2.272 1.959 2.205 2.825 2.399 2.534 Imports 10.821 11.581 12.409 13.241 14.057 12.301 10.3 from US 1.337 1.537 1.736 1.684 1.856 1.539 1.730 *GNP, not GDP

Malaysia is the 24th largest U.S. trading partner.

POLITICAL Official Name of Country: MALAYSIA Capital: Kuala Lumpur, pop. 1,081,000 (1980) Type of Government: Federal Constitutional Monarchy Type of Chief of State: King, elected by hereditary Sultans Name of Chief of State: Tuanka Mahmood Iskandar Al-Haj ibini al-Marhum Sultan Ismail Name of Head of Government: Prime Minister Dr. Mahathir Mohamad Foreign Minister: Datuk Rais Yatim

1985 Freedom House Index (1 is highest, 7 is lowest) Political Freedom: 3 Civil Liberties: 5 Status of Freedom: Partly Free 1985 Voting with U.S. at U.N.: 16.3%

FY1986 U.S. Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: none Military: US$ 2,384,000

MILITARY 1986 Military Expenditure: US$ 1.788 billion Increase over 1985: 1.3% Expenditure as Percentage of GNP: 4.56% Percent of Government Spending: 16.3%

Total Regular Forces: 110,000 Reserves: 93,200 Army: 90,000 Navy: 9,000 Airforce: 11,000 Combat Aircraft: 61 Naval Vessels: 4 Frigates, 12 Fast-Attack Craft (missile), 6 Fast-Attack Craft (gun), 21 Large Patrol Craft, 4 Minehunters.

Security Alliance with U.S.: none U.S. Military Installations: none

INVESTMENT 1985 U.S. Direct Investment: US$ 1,217,000,000 1985 Malaysian Direct Investment in the U.S.: US$ 23,000,000

TOURISM 1986 Tourist Arrivals: 3,230,000 Visas to U.S.: 21,112 U.S. Residents in Malaysia: 2,526 Residents in U.S.: 939

MALDIVES

LAND: 115 square miles Cultivated: 5.7% Forest: 3.3% Pasture: 0% Resources: fish, coconuts, shells

POPULATION: 178,000 Annual Population Growth: 3% Projected Population in 2000: 300,000 Life Expectancy: 52 Literacy: 85% Ethnic Divisions: Sinhalese, Dravidan, Arab Religions: Sunni Muslim

Workforce: 90,000 Commerce and Services: na Manufacturing: na Agriculture and Fishing: na Construction: na Government and Public Authorities: 4.8%

Students: Primary, Secondary: 45,726 Tertiary: 0

ECONOMY: Economic System: free enterprise Currency: Rufiyaa, 1 US$ = 7 Rf. (1985) Major Industries: fish processing, tourism Major Agricultural Products: coconuts, fruit, millet Major Imports: food, manufactured goods, petroleum products, capital goods Major Exports: fish, shells, apparel and clothing products Per Capita GNP (1985): US$ 531.

Economic Statistics (Millions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 GDP 42.46 49.8 60.21 66.1 76.17 95.8 na GDP Growth na 8.2% 9.1% 5.8% 4.% 14.4% na CPI Rise 23.8% 23.7% 22.0% na na na na Exports 7.90 10.40 13.00 13.10 13.70 23.80 na to US 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. na Imports 20.10 38.00 66.40 66.30 71.80 70.50 na from US 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. na

The Maldives are not a U.S. trading partner.

POLITICAL Official Name of Country: REPUBLIC OF MALDIVES Capital: Male, pop. 37,700 (1984) Type of Government: Republic Type of Chief of State: President Name of Chief of State: Maumoon Abdul Gayoom Name of Head of Government: same Foreign minister: Fathulla Jameel

1985 Freedom House Index (1 is highest, 7 is lowest) Political Freedom: 5 Civil Liberties: 5 Status of Freedom: Partly Free 1985 Voting with U.S. at U.N.: 12.5%

FY1986 U.S. Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: US$ 700,000 Military: US$ 31,000

MILITARY 1985 Military Expenditure: US$ 2,700,00 Increase over 1984: not available Expenditure as Percentage of GNP: 2.9% Percent of Government Spending: 9A

Total Regular Forces: na Reserves: na Army: na Navy: na Airforce: na Aircraft: not available Naval Vessels: not available

Security Alliance with U.S.: none U.S. Military Installations: none

INVESTMENT 1985 U.S. Direct Investment: not available 1985 Maldive Direct Investment in the U.S.: not available

TOURISM 1985 Tourist Arrivals: 114,554 Visas to U.S.: 10 U.S. Residents in Maldives: na Residents in U.S.: na

MONGOLIA

LAND: 604,247 square miles Cultivated: 0.7% Forest: 10.2% Pasture: 78.8% Resources: coal, tungsten, copper, molybdenum, gold, tin

POPULATION: 1,950,000 Annual Population Growth: 2.7% Projected Population in 2000: 2,800,000 Life Expectancy: 62 Literacy: na Ethnic Divisions: Khalkaia Mongols: 75%, other Mongols: 8%, Kazakhs: 5% Religions: officially atheist, Lama Buddhism, local religions persist

Workforce: 377,000 Commerce and Services: 24.6% Manufacturing: 23.% Agriculture and Fishing: 10.8% Construction: 7.4% Government and Public Authorities: 34.2% Students: Primary: na Secondary: na Tertiary: na

ECONOMY: Economic System: socialist Currency: Tugrik (100 mongo), 1US$ = 3.55 Tugrik Major Industries: cement, knitwear, footwear, meat, coal, textiles, chemicals Major Agricultural Products: grain Major Imports: petroleum products, trucks, fertilizer, paper, cloth Major Exports: timber, wool, meat Per Capita GNP: US$ 750. (1976)

Economic Statistics (Millions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 GDP 1200.(1976) na na na 1900. 2123. na GDP Growth na na na na na na na CPI Rise na na na na na na na Exports* 365. na 523. 568. 624. na na to US na na na 1. 2. 4. 1. Imports* 496. na 736. 864. 898. na na from US na na na 0. 0.- .05 .1 *merchandise trade

Mongolia is a very minor U.S. trading partner.

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POLITICAL Official Name of Country: MONGOLIAN PEOPLE,S REPUBLIC Capital: Ulan Bator, pop. 435,400 (1983) Type of Government: Communist State Type of Chief of State: General Secretary Name of Chief of State: Jambyn Batmonh Name of Head of Government: Premier Dumaagiyn Sodnom Foreign Minister: Mangalyn Dugersuren

1985 Freedom House Index (1 is highest, 7 is lowest) Political Freedom: 7 Civil Liberties: 7 Status of Freedom: Not Free 1985 Voting with U.S. at U.N.: 9.9%

FY1986 U.S. Foreign Assistance Actual Obligations) Economic: none Military: none

MILITARY 1985 Military Budget: US$ 233,'348,000 Increase over 1984: 11.7% Expenditure as Percentage of GNP: not available Percent of Government Spending: 13.5

Total Regular Forces: 25,500 Reserves: 200,000 Army: 22,000 Navy: 0 Airforce: 3,500 Combat Aircraft: 17 Naval Vessels: 0

Security Alliance with U.S.: none U.S. Military Installations: none

INVESTMENT 1985 U.S. Direct Investment: not available 1985 Mongolian Direct investment in the U.S.: not available

TOURISM 1985 Tourist Arrivals: 10,000 Visas to U.S.: na U.S. Residents in Mongolia:-na Residents in U.S.: na

NEPAL

LAND: 56,136 square miles Cultivated: 18% Forest: 29% Pasture: 13.4% Resources: quartz, water, timber, hydroelectric potential

POPULATION: 17,422,000 Annual Population Growth: 2.5% Projected Population in 2000: 24,600,000 Life Expectancy: 46 Literacy: 20% Ethnic Divisions: Newars, Indians, Tibetans, Gurung, Magars, others Religions: officially Hindu, with Buddhist, Muslim and Christian groups

workforce: 7,740,00 Commerce and Services: 1.7% Manufacturing: 0.5% Agriculture and Fishing: 71.2% Construction: 0.03% Government and Public Authorities: 0.1% Students: Primary: 1.82m Secondary: 501,063 Tertiary: 55,555

ECONOMY: Economic System: free enterprise Currency: Rupee (100 paisa), 1 US$ = 23.56 Rs Major Industries: oilseed mills, match, cigarette and brick factories Major Agricultural Products: rice, jute, corn, wheat, oilseeds Major Imports: manufactured consumer goods, fuel, construction materials, fertilizers, food products Major Exports: rice and other food products, jute, timber, manufactured goods Per Capita GNP (1986): US$ 160.

Economic Statistics (Billions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 GDP 1.945 2.068 2.166 2.221 2.121 2.3* 2.5* GDP Growth -2.3% 8.3% 3.8% -3.0% 7.8% 2.8% 4.2% CPI Rise 14.7% 11.1% 11.7% 12.4% 2.8% 17.4% 15A Exports 0.063 0.094 0.069 0.083 0.091 0.135 0.140 to US 0.012 0.007 0.006 0.006 0.008 0.052 0.037 Imports 0.218 0.213 0.247 0.257 0.252 0.285 0.44 from US 0.006 0.002

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