The Heritage Foundation

Asian Backgrounder #50

August 29, 1986

August 29, 1986 | Asian Backgrounder on

The U.S. and the Pacific Rim: A Statistical Handbook (compliled by)

(Archived document, may contain errors)

No. 50 August 29,, 1986

THE U.S. AND THE PACIFIC RIM: A STATISTICAL HANDBOOK

INTRODUCTION Ronald Reagan calls the 21st century the Pacific Era.' A great many Americans agree. They point to the remarkable economic progress posted by most of the region's countries, which range from the U.S. and Canada in North America to Japan, South Korea, Australia, the Republic of China on Taiwan, and a score of others in Asia.

Last year the market economies of North America and the Asia/Pacific traded $372 billion in goods and services, 25 percent more than the trade generated within the European Economic Community (EEC). By the year 2000, the gross national product (GNP) of the Western Pacific countries will be 25 percent of the world total.

For its part, the U.S. already has begun shifting economic, political*- and security priorities from Western Europe to the Pacific. U.S. trade with Asia totaled $187 billion in 1985, 25 percent greater than its trade with the EEC. U.S. business investments in the region will reach $33 billion this year, with $9 billion invested in Japan alone, while Asian investment in the U.S. is $23 billion. 2

Reagan has focused considerable personal attention on the Pacific. He has visited Japan, South Korea, the People's Republic of China, as well as the South Pacific. Cabinet members and their top

1. "Th'e Next Century Will Be the Century of the Pacific," U.S. Department of State Bulletin, 84, 2082 (January 1984), p. 18.

2. U.S. Department of Commerce, News Bureau of Economic Analysis, June 25, 1986.

aides routinely visit Asian nations and rank Asian matters as top priorities in their policy Agendas. The Asia-Pacific region is vital to U.S. security. It is an area of intense competition between Washington, Moscow, Beijing, and Tokyo. The Soviet Union apparently has concluded that its future may depend in great part on the development of its Par Eastern provinces. This may underlie the USSR's persistent 'military buildup in the region. China and Japan, meanwhile, are powers of immense potential military strength.

A strong U.S. presence in the Asia-Pacific region and a firm commitment-to its development contribute'directly to regional peace, stability, and prosperity. This is highly important to all Pacific Basin states, particularly those market-oriented nations whose economies permit easy exchange of goods and services and whose political idealsare similar to those of the U.S.

The rapid economic growth of the market-oriented nations of the Pacific has undermined the credibility of communist ideology and socialist economic systems in the region--and elsewhere. Nowhere has the superiority of thd capitalist incentive and production system been more apparent than in the sharp differences between the stagnant socialist economies of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia, on the one hand, and the dynamic capitalist economies of Japan, Hong Kong,, Singapore, the Republic of China, and South Korea, on the other. Even the recent .economic surge by the People's Republic of China testifies to capitalism's advantages.

The Pacific Rim's dynamism has compelled governments, scholars, and businessmen to deal with the prospects of an emerging Pacific economic community. The form the community will eventually take is uncertain, and many obstacles to its realization remain, including cultural differences, conflicting national interests, variations in standards of living,, and even the difficulty of identifying which countries should belong. Nonetheless, there is no zero-sum game in the Pacific: all nations can profit from free trade, investment opportunities, and improved life styles.

The following profiles summarize the key statistics for nearly every Asia/Pacific nation. North Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia,; Laos and the small South Pacific island nations are omitted because data on economic conditions are insufficient.

Rebecca Brocard Research Assistant AUSTRALIA

LM: 2,,954,,615 square miles Cultivated: 19.4% Forest: 5.3% Pasture: 25.8% Resources: bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, silver, uranium, nickel

POPULATION: 15.8 million Annual Population Growth: .8% Projected Population in the Year 2000: 17.2 million Ethnic Division: European 97%, Aborigine 1%, Asian .6% Religion: Anglican 36%, Catholic 33% Workforce: 7.13 million ' Commerce, Services: 62.7% Manufacturing: 17.5% Agriculture and Fishing: 6.0% Construction: 7.1% Government and Public Authorities: 4.9% Students: Primary 1.75 million, Secondary 1.26.million,, Tertiary 1.03 million

ECONOMY Gross Domestic Product (in billions of U.S. dollars) 1980: 149.2 1981: 152.3 1982: 141.6 1983: 161.3 1984: 145.0 1985: 151.6 1985 Gross Domestic Product Growth: 4.6% 1985 Consumer Price Index Increase: 8% Agriculture as a percentage of GDP: 6.5% Industry as a percentage of GDP: 35% 1985 Per Capita Income: $8,913 (in U.S. dollars) Major Industries: mining, manufacturing, transportation

FOREIGN TRADE (in billions of U.S. dollars): Imports Exports 1980: 18.4 1980: 17.9 1981: 23.7 1981: 2.1.7 1982: 24.1 1982: 21.3 1983: 16.4 1983: 16.8 1984: 20.3 1984: 20.8 1985: 20.7 1985: 22.0 Majot Imports: consumer goods, transportation equipment, capital goods, industrial supplies Major Exports: livestock, meat, wool, wheat, energy, and mineral resources

POLITICAL Freedom House Index, Cl is the highest, 7 is lowest] Political Freedom: 1 Civil Liberties: 1 Status of Freedom: Free 1985 Voting with the U.S. at the U.N.: 60.2% Official name of country: COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA Type of Government: federal democracy Type of Chief of State: British monarch Name of Chief of State: Queen Elizabeth II Name of Read of Government: Prime Minister Robert Hawks Foreign Minister: William Hayden

MILITARY 1985 Military Expenditure: $4.836 billion (in U.S. dollars) Military Expenditure as percentage of GDP: 3.1% Total Regular Forces: 70,731 Army: 32,029 Air Force: 22,677 with 138 combat aircraft Navy: 16,025 ships: 6 subs,3 destroyers.10 frigates,23 patrol craft Security Alliance with U.S.: ANZUS,, The Manila Pact or Five Power Defense Arrangement U.S. Military Installations: airbase in Northern Australia, naval refueling facilities in Western Australia,, Northwest Cape,communications facility, Nurrungar and Pine Gap satellite monitoring stations

U.S.-AUSTRALIA RELATIONS

Australia is the 14th largest U.S. trading partner.

TRADE'.(in millions of U.S. dollars) U.S. Imports from Australia U.S. Exports to Australia 19,80: 21782 1980: 41088 1981: 21707 1981: 5j179 1982: 21552 1982: 41481 1983: 20442 1983: 31916 1984: 21899 1984: 41705 1985: 31069 1985: 51441

INVESTMENT U.S. Direct Investment, 1985: $8,564 million (in U.S. dollars) Major Categories.: mining,, petroleum, trade, financial services, chemicals, machinery, food products .Major U.S. Companies investing in Australia: Beatrice Foods, General Motors, Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical Corp.,, Westinghouse Electric, Mobile oil Corp. Major Australian Companies investing in U.S.: BHP, Monier, Boral, Burns Philip and Co. Ltd, Pacific Dunlop

TOURIS Visas to U.S.: 147,744 Visas from U.S.: 205,000 U.S. Residents in Australia: 64,307 Residents in U.S.: 1,362

BANGLADESH

LAND: 55,384 square miles Cultivated: 59.9% Forest: 14.6% Pasture: 5.5% Resources:.natural gas

POPULATION: 101.5 million Annual Population Growth: 2.8% Projected Population in the Year 2000: 146.2 million Ethnic Division: Bengali 98%. tribals, non-Bengali Muslims Religion: Muslim 83%. Hindu 16%. Christian and Others 1% Workforce:-29.1 million Commerce, Services: 28.6% Manufacturing: 7.5% Agriculture and Fishing: 58.6% Construction: 1.1% Government and Public Authorities: 4.2% Students: Primary 8.92 million, Secondary 2.48 million, Tertiary 47,000

ECONOMY Gross National Product (in billions of U.S. dollars) 1980: 12.1 1981: 12.7 1982: 11.8 1983: 12.7 1984: 12.6 1985: 13.1 19'85 Gross National Product Growth: 4.6% 1985 Consumer Price Index Increase:.9.7% Agriculture as a percentage of GNP: 48% Industry as a percentage of GNP: 9% 1985 Per Capita Income: $135 (in U.S. dollars) Major Industries: juts goods, textiles, fertilizer, sugar, tea, leather, pharmaceuticals

FOREIGN TRADE (in billions of U.S. dollars) Imports Exports 1980: 1.9 1980: .749 1981: 1.9 1981: .725 1982: 2.5 1982: .627 1983: 2.4 1983: .680 1984: 2.3 1984: .786 1985: 2.7 1985: .939 Major imports: capital goods, petroleum, food grains, chemicals, vegetable oil, yarn, fertilizer Major Exports: jute, seafood, naphtha, leather, tea

POLITICA Freedom House Index, Cl is the highest, 7 is the lowest] Political Freedom: 5 Civil Liberties: 5 Status of Freedom: Partly Free 1985 Voting with the U.S. at the U.N.: 16.1% official name of country: PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF BANGLADESH Type of Government: martial'law Type of Chief of State: martial law administrators Name of Chief of State: Lt.-General Hossain Mohammad Ershad Name of Head.of Government: same Foreign Minister: Humayun Rashid Chowdhury, Foreign Affairs advisor

MILITARY 1985 Military Expenditure: $273.359 million.(in U.S. dollars) Military Expenditure as'percentage of GNP: 2.14; Total Regular Forces: 91,300 Reserves: 30,000 Army: 81f800 Air Force: 3,000 with 23 combat aircraft Navy: 6j500 ships: 3 frigates, 15 patrol craft Security Alliance with U.S.: no U.S. Military Installations: none

U.S.-BANGLADESH RELATIONS

Bangladesh is a minor U.S. trading partner.

TRADE (in millions of U.S. dollars) U.S. Imports from Bangladesh U.S. Exports to Bangladesh 1980: 100 1980: 292.3 1981: 104 1981: 226.7 1982: 88 1982: 157.7 1983: 110 1983: 190 1984: 159 1984: 303 1985: 227 1985: 219

INVESTMENT U.S. Direct Investment, 1985: N.A. Major U.S. Companies in Bangladesh: Squibb, IBM, British/American Tobacco, Bfizies, major Categories: labor intensive industries Major Bangladesh Companies investing in U.S.: None

TOURISM Visas to U.S.: 3j013 Visas from U.S.: 11367 U.S. Residents in Bangladesh: 820 Residents in U.S..: 11146

BRUNEI

LAND: 2,231 square miles Cultivated: 1% Forest: 85% Pasture: 1% Resources: oil, natural gas, timber

POPULATION: 200,000 Annual Population Growth: 2.4% Projected Population in the Year 2000: 300,000 Ethnic Division: Malay 55%, Chinese 26%, tribal groups 12%, Europeans 7% Religion: Moslem Workforce:-70,000 Commerce, Services: 23.3% Manufacturing: 9.7% Agriculture and Fishing: 5% Constructio:n: 18.5% Government and Public Authorities: @7.4% Students: Primary' 40,000, Secondary 18,000, Tertiary none

ECONOMY Gross Domestic Product (in billions of U.S. dollars) 1980: 5.29 1981: 4.63 1982: 4.09 1983: 4.16 1984: 3-.89 1985: 3.97 1985 Gross Domestic Product Growth: 2% 1983 Consumer Price Index Increase: 3.1 Agriculture as a percentage of GDP: .06% Industry as a percentage of GDP: 81.2% 1985 Per Capita Income: $21-,,600 (in U.S. dollars) Major Industries: oil production, natural gas production, some timber

FOREIGN TRADE (in billions of U.S. dollars) Imports Exports 1980: .559 1980: 4.4 1981: .602 1981: 4.1 1982: .748 1982: 3.8 1983: .734 1983: 3.4 1984: .634 1984: 3.2 1985: .628 1985: 2.9 Major Imports: machinery and transportation equipment, manufactured goods, foodstuffs, chemicals Major Exports: crude petroleum, petroleum products

POLITICAL Freedom House Index, [1 is the highest, 7 is the lowest] Pblitical Freedom: 6 Civil Liberties: 5 Status of Freedom: Partly Free 1985 Voting with the U.S. at the U.N.: 15.3% official name of country: STATE of BRUNEI DARUSSAIAM Type of Government: sultanate Type of Chief of State: Sultan Name of Chief of State: Sultan Sir Hassanal Bolkiah Name of Head of Government: same Foreign Minister: Prince Mohamed Bolkiah

MILIZUX 1985 Military Expenditure: $300.509 million (in U.S. dollars) Military Expenditure as percentage of GNP: 7% Total Regular Forces: 4,050 Army: 3,400 Air Force: 200 with 6 combat aircraft Navy: 450 ships: 3 patrol craft Security Alliance with U.S.: no U.S. Military Installations: none

U.S.-BRUNEI RELATIONS

Brunei is a minor U.S. trading partner.

TRADE .(in millions of U.S. dollars) U.S. Imports from Brunei U.S. Exports to Brunei .1980: 292.8 1980: 70 1981: 342.7 1981: 44 1982: 218.9 1982: 78 1983: 20.0 1983: 58 1984: 11.0 1984: 34 1983: 2.0 1985: 51

.TOURIS Visas to U.S.: 420 Visas from U.S.: NA U.S. Residents in Brunei: 130 Residents in U.S.: 16

BURMA

LMR: 260,,230 square miles Cultivated: 12.2% Forest: 47.5% Pasture: .1% Resources: timber, rice, minerals, marine products

POPULATION: 36.9 million Annual Population Growth: 2.2% Projected Population in the Year 2000: 51.6 million Ethnic Division: Burmese 58%, Shans 12%,, Karens 11%,, Kichins, Mons Religion: Buddhist 85%, Christian, Moslem, Hindu Workforce:-14.8 million Commerce, Services: 15.2% Manufacturing: N/A Agriculture and Fishing: 64.8% Construction: 1.6% Government and Public Authorities: 3.8% Students: Primary 4.9 million, Secondary 993,000, Tertiary 257,897

ECONOMY Gross National Product (in billions of U.S. dollars) 1980: 5.7 1981: 5.7 1982: 5.9 1983: 5.8 1984: 6.2 1985: 6.6 1985 Gross National Product Growth: 6.6% 1985 Consumer Price Index Increase: 5.2% Agriculture as a percentage of GNP: 45% Industry as a percentage of GNP: 12.7% 1985 Per Capita Income: $172 (in U.S. dollars) Major Industries: rice, cotton, sugar, textiles, fertilizer, cement, plywood, tin

FOREIGN TRADE (in millions of U.S. dollars) Imports Exports 1980:' 546 1980: 350 1981: 580 1981: 419 1982: 692 1982: 426 1983: 811 1983: 374 1984: 650 1984: 427 1985: 672 1985: 434 Major Imports: consumer goods, intermediate and capitol goods Major Exports: agricultural products, livestock and fisheries, forest products, minerals and gems

POLITICAL Freedom House Index, Cl is the highest, 7 is the lowest] Political Freedom: 7 Civil Liberties: 7 Status of Freedom: Not Free 1985 Voting with the U.S. at the U.N.: 17.1% Official name of country: SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF THE UNION OF BURMA Type of Government: socialist republic Type of Chief of State: President Name of Chief of State: U San Yu Name of Head of Government: Ne Win Foreign Minister: U Chit Hlaing

MILITARY 1985 Military Expenditure: $245.379 million (in U.S. dollars) Military Expenditure as percentage of GNP: 3.9% Total Regular Forces: 186,000 Army: 170,000 Air Force: 9,000 with 22 patrol aircraft Navy: 7,000 ships: 4 corvettes, 36 gunboats, 46 patrol craft security Alliance with U.S.: no U.S. Military Installations: none

U.S.-BURMA RELATIONS

Burma is a minor U.S. trading partner.

TRADE (in millions of U.S. dollars) U.S. Imports from Burma U.S. Exports to Burma 1980: 9 1980: 29 1981: 16 1981: 34 1982: 17 1982: 33 1983: 12 1983: 16 1984: 15 1984: 16 1985: 15 1985: 10

TOURISM Visas to U.S.: 344 Visas from U.S.: NA U.S. Residents in Burma: 24 Residents in U.S.: 990 CHINA, PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF

LMD: 3,677,308 square miles Cultivated: 11% Forest: 13% Pasture: 43%' Resources: coal, iron, petroleum, mercuryl tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese

POPULATION: 1,042 million Annual Population Growth: 1.1% Projected Population in the Year 2000: 1,197 million Ethnic Division: Han Chinese 93.3%. others include Zhuang, Uygan, Hui, Yi, Tibetan Religion: Marxist state Workforce: 465 million Commerce, Services: 5% Manufacturing: 11% Agriculture and Fishing: 76% Construction: 2% Government and Public Authorities: 4% Students: Primary 135 million, Secondary 46.3 million, Tertiary 1.21 million

ECONOMY Gross National Product (in billions of U.S. dollars) 1980: 276 1981: 317 1982: 312 1983: 328 1984: 336 19 85: 363 1985 Gross National Product Growth: 8.3% 1985 Consumer Price Index Increase: 7.7% Agriculture as a percentage of GNP: 37% Industry as a percentage of GNP: 45% 1985 Per Capita Income: $322 (in U.S. dollars) Major Industries: iron, steel, coal, machinery,, light industrial products, armaments

FOREIGN TRADE (in billions of U.S. dollars) Imports Exports 1980: 20.9 1980: 19.3 1981: 17.9 1981: 21.5 1982: 16.6 1982: 22.1 1983: 18.3 1983: 23.5 1984: 25.1 1984: 27.4 1985: 28.6 1985: 33.6 Major Imports: grain, chemical fertilizers, industrial raw materials, machinery Major Exports: agricultural goods, textiles, light industrial products, petroleum, iron, weapons

POLITICA Freedom House Index, [1 is the highest, 7 is the lowest] Political Freedom: 6 Civil Liberties: 6 Status of Freedom: Not Free 1985 Voting with the U.S. at the U.N.: 6 % official name of country: PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA Type of Government: co=unist Type of Chief of State: President Name of Chief of State: Li Xiannian Name of Read of Government: Premier Zhao Ziyang [Hu Yaobang, Communist Party Secretary General-] Foreign Minister: WU Xueqian

MILITARY 1985 Military Expenditure: $7.79 billion (in U.S. dollars) Military Expenditure as percentage of GNP: 8.6% Total Regular Forces: 3,9o6,ooo Reserves: 5,377,000 Army: 2,973,000 Air Force: 490,000 planes: 800 bombers, 5,100 fighters, 190 recon, 550 trans, 400 helicopters Navy: 350,000 ships: 2 SSBNp 3 SSNj 107 diesel attack subs, 44 major surface combat ships Security Alliance with U.S.: no U.S. Military Installations: none

U.S.-CHINA RELATIONS

China is the 16th largest U.S. trading partner.

TRADE (in millions of U.S. dollars) U.S. Imports from China U.S. Exports to China 1980: 11161 1980: 3y754 1981: 2lO62 1981: 3,603 1982: 2,502 1982: 21912 1983: 2,477 1983: 21173 1984: 31381 1984: 3FOO4 1985: 4p224 1985: 3,856

INVESTMENT U.S. Direct Investment, 1985: More than $1 billion (in U.S. dollars) Major U.S. Companies investing in China: Occidental Petroleum,, Arco-Atlantic Richfield, Mutual Petroleum, Beatrice Company China Direct Investment in the U.S.: $7 million (in U.S. dollars) Major Chinese companies investing in U.S.: Cafia of California Ltd., Laser Electronic Co., Computer Hardware Co.

TOURISM Visas to U.S.: 30,126 Visas from U.S.: NA U.S. Residents in China:'2,,177 Residents in U.S.: 24,787 CHINA, REPUBLIC OF (TAIWAN)

LAND: 13,846 square miles Cultivated: 24% Forest: 55% Pasture: 6% Resources: coal, fish

POPULATION: 18.8 million Annual Population Growth: 1.8% Projected Population in the Year 2000: 24.6 million Ethnic Division: Chinese 98%, Aborigine 2% Religion: mixture of Confucian, Taoist, Buddhist 93%. Christian 4.5% Workforce:-7 million Commerce, Services: 39.9% Manufacturing: 31.6% Agriculture and Fishing: 18.9% Construc :tion: 8.2% Government and Public Authorities: 2.0% Students: Primary 2.2 million, Secondary 1.7 million, Tertiary 375,000

ECONOMY Gross National Product (in billions of U.S. dollars) 1980: 40.0 1981: 45.9 1982: 46.5 1983: 49.9 1984: 57.8 1985: 60.1 1985 Gross National Product Growth: 7.2% 1985 Consumer Price Index Increase: .63% Agriculture as.a percentage of GNP: 6.38% Industry as a percentage of GNP: 50.07% 1985 Per Capita Income: $3,068 (in U.S. dollars) Major industries: textiles, clothing,, chemicals,, plywood, electronics

FOREIGN TRADE (in billions of U.S. dollars) Imports Exports 1980: 19.7 1980: 19.8 1981: 21.2 1981: 22.6 1982: 10.8 1982: 22.2 1983: 20.2 1983: 25.1 1984: 21.9 1984: 30.1 1985: 20.1 1985: 30.7 Major Imports: electrical-equipment, machine tools, metals, chemicals,, transportation equipment Major Exports: textiles, electrical equipment, wood products, metal products

POLITICA Freedom House Index, [1 is the highest, 7 is the lowest] Political Freedom: 5 Civil Liberties: 5 Status of Freedom: Partly Free official name of country: REPUBLIC OF CHINA Type of Government: republic Type of Chief of State: President Name of Chief of State: Chiang Ching-kuo Name of Head of Government: Premier Yu Kuo-hwa. Foreign Minister: Chu Fu-sung

MILITARY 1985 Military Expenditure: $3.948 billion (in U.S. dollars) Military Expenditure as percentage of GNP: 7% Total Regular Forces: 444,000 Reserves: 1,470,000 Army: 290,000 Air Force: 77,000 planes: 567 combat aircraft, 12 helicopters Navy: 38,000 ships: 2 subs, 27 destroyers, 9 frigates, 3 corvettes Security Alliance with U.S.: 1954 Mutual Defense. Treaty abrogated by U.S. in 1979 U.S. Military installations: none

U.S.-TAIWAN RELATIONS

Taiwan is the 6th largest U.S. trading partner.

TRADE (in millions of U.S. dollars) U.S. Imports from-Taiwan U.S. Exports to Taiwan 1980: 7,363 1980: 4j217 1981: 8l631 1981: 41178 1982: 91587 1982: 4,153 1983: 12,110 1983: 4,401 1984: 16fO88 1984: 51003 1985: 17,761 1985: 41700

INVESTMENT - U.S. Direct Investment, 1985: $754 million (in U.S. dollars) Major Categories: electrical equipment, chemicals, trade, banking, petroleu3t Major U.S. Companies investing in Taiwan: Ford Motor Co., Texas Instruments, RCA, General Electric, Zenith, Bank America ROC Direct Investment in the U.S., 1985: $75 million (in U.S. dollars) Major ROC Companies investing in U.S.: Zurich-American insurance Co., Dubai Bank, Ltd., Krung Thai Bank Ltd., Formosa Plastics Corporation,-Airco Inc.

TOURISM Visas to U.S.: 76,319 Visas from U.S.: NA U.S. Residents in Taiwan: NA Residents in U.S.: 14,895

14

HONG KONG

LAND: 404 square miles Cultivated: 9.1% Forest: 11.9% Pasture: 45.6% Resources: None

POPULATION: 5.5 million Annual Population G:rowth: Vk Projected Population in the Year 2000: 6.7 million Ethnic Division: Chinese, Indian, European Religion: Buddhism,, Taoism, Christian, Hindu Workforce:-2.45 million Commerce, Services: 3,5.6% Manufacturing: 37.1% Agriculture and Fishing: 1.4% Construction: 7.5% Government and Public Authorities: 18.4% Students: Primary 541,000, Secondary 502,000, Tertiary 184,.000

ECONOMY Gross Domestic Product (in billions of U.S. dollars) 1980: 22.3 1981: 29.6 1982: 30.4 1983: 28.2 1984: 31.8 1985: 34.1 1985 Gross Domestic Product Growth: 7.2% 1985 Consumer Price Index Increase: 5.5% Agriculture as a percentage of GDP: 6% .Industry as a percentage of GDP: 30.1% 1985 Per.Capita Income: $5,,837 (in U.S. dollars) Major Industries: textiles, clothing, toys, transistor radios, watches, electronics

FOREIGN TRADE (in billions of U.S. dollars) Imports Exports 1980: 12.1 1980: 19.9 1981: 14.3 1981: 24.7 1982: 20.9 1982: 23.5 1983: 21.9 1983: 22.1 1984: 28.6 1984: 28.3 1985: 31.7 1985: 31.1 Major Imports: raw materials, semi-manufactured goods, capital goods Major Exports: clothing, textiles,, electronics, toys

POLITICA official name of country: BRITISH CROWN COLONY OF H09GKONG Type''of Government: British Crown Colony Type of Chief of State: Reigning British Monarch Name of Chief of State: Queen Elizabeth 11 Name of Head of Government: Governor Sir Edward Youde Foreign Minister: under auspices of Britain

U.S.-HONG KONG RE = IONS

Hong Kong is the.10th largest U.S. trading partner'.

TRADE (in millions of U.S. dollars) U.S. Imports from Hong Kong U.S. Exports to Hong Kong 1980: 51026 1980: 2,686 1981: 51757 1981: 21635 1982: 51895 1982: 2,453 1983: 61825 1983: 21564 1984: 8,899 1984: jfO62 1985: 81994 1985: 21786

INVESTMENT U.S. Direct Invedtment, 1985: $3,799 million (in U.S. dollars) Major Categories: financial services, petroleum exploration, electronics, chemicals Hong Kong Direct Investment, 1985: $618 million (in U.S. dollars) Major U.S. Companies investing'in Hong Kong: Exxon,, Motorola,, BP Fairchild Major Hong Kong companies investing in U.S.: Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank, Carrian Holdings

TOURIS Visas to U.S.: NA Visas from U.S.: NA U.S. Residents in Hong Kong: 14,025 Residents in U.S.: 5,171

INDIA

LAND: 1,,264,331 square miles Cultivated: 52.3% Forest: 11% Pasture: 4.5% Resources: coal, iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, chromite, limestone

POPULATION: 762.2 million Annual Population Growth: 2.2% Projected Population in the Year 2000: 990.6 million Ethnic Division: Indo-Aryan 72%. Dravidian 25%, Xongolian 2% Religion: Hindu 83%. Xuslix 11%, Christian 2.6%. Sikh, aain, Buddhist, Parsi Workforce: 275.3 million Commerce, Services: 8.1% Manufactu-ring: 11.4% Agriculture and Fishing: 70.7% Construct-ion: 1.6% Government and Public Authorities: 8.9% Students: Primary 120 million, Secondary 28.9 million, Tertiary 5.8 million

ECONOXY Gross National Product (in billions of U.S. dollars) 1980: 95.0 1981: 99.0 1982: 114.5 1983: 126.2 1984: 143.9 1985: 147.5 1985 Gross National Product Growth: 4% 1985 Consumer Price Index Increase: 6.4% Agriculture as a percentage of GNP: 43.2% Industry as a percentage of .GNP: 17.7% 1985 Per Capita Income: $193 (in U.S. dollars) Xajor,Industries: steel,, rice,, sugarcane,, cotton cloth,, cement

FOREIGN TRADE (in billions of U.S. dollars) Imports Exports 1980:.10.00 1980: 7.3 1981: 12.50 1981: 7.5 1982: 11.80 1982: 6.7 1983: 12.48 1983: 7.7 1984: 13.09 1984: 8.1 1985: 13.85 19-85: 9.5 Xajor imports: crude oil, machinery, transportation equipment, edible oils, fertilizer - Xajor Exports: crude oil, engineering goods, precious stones, cotton apparel, fabric

POLITICA Freedom House Index, Cl is the higest, 7 is the lowest] Political Freedom: 2 Civil Liberties: 3 Status of Freedom: Free 1985 Voting with the U.S. at the U.N.: 8.9% official name of country: REPUBLIC OF INDIA Type of Government: federal republic Type of Chief of State: President Name of Chief of State: Zail Singh Name of Read of Government: Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi Foreign Minister: same

MILITARY 1985 Military Expenditure: $6.907 billion (in U.S. dollars) Military Expenditure as percentage of GNP: 3.5% Total Regular Forces: 1,260,000 Reserves: 200,000 Army: 1,100,000 Air Force: 113,000 with 846 combat aircraft, 60 helicopters Navy: 47,000 ships: 8 subs, 1 carrier, 1 cruiser, 3 destroyers, 23 frigates Security Alliance with U.S.: no U.S. Military Installations: none

U.S.-INDIA RELATIONS

India is the 24th largest U.S. trading partner.

TRADE (in millions of U.S. dollars) U.S. Imports from India U.S. Exports to India 1980: 1,209 1980: 1,684 1981: ll325 1981: ll746 1982: 1,,522 1982: 18597 1983: 21334 1983: 11827 1984: 2p737 1984: 10566 1985: 21478 1985: 11642

INVESTMENT U.-S. Direct Investment, 1985: $466 million (in U.S. dollars) Major Categories: chemicals,, machinery,, metals,, electronics,, banking, petrol, food products major U.S. companies investing in India: American Express, Dow Chemical,, Dupont,, Union Carbide, Colgate-Palmolive India Direct Investment in U.S., 1985: $18 million (in U.S. dollars) Major India Companies investing in U.S.: Ladha Shafik, Patel Family

TOURIS Visas to U.S.: 7.5l677 Visas from U.S.: NA U.S. Residents in India: 3,960 Residents in U.S.: 26,026

INDONESIA

LAND: 738,077 square miles Cultivated: 12% Forest: 64% Pasture: 6.3% Resources: oil, tin,, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper

POPULATION: 168.4 million Annual Population Growth: 2.2% Projected Population in the Year 2000: 226.9 million Ethnic Division: Malay, Chinese, Irianese Religion: Muslim 90%. Catholic 5%p Hindu 3% Workforce:,57.8 million . Commerce, Services: 18.5% Manufacturing: 10.4% Agriculture and Fishing: 54.6% Construct:ion: 3.6% Government and Public Authorities: 12.9% Students: Primary 28.3 million, Secondary 7.4 million, Tertiary 980,000

ECON6MY Gross Domestic Product (in billions of U.S. dollars) 1980: 70.1 1981: 84.5 1982: 93.3 1983: 79.3 1984: 90.0 1985: 93.6 1985 Gross Domestic Product Growth: 4.1% 1985 Consumer Price Index.Increass: 6% Agriculture as a percentage of GDP: 25.5% Industry as a percentage of GDP: 12.8% 1985 Per Capita Income: $566 (in U.S. dollars) Major Industries: food and beverage, textiles, cement, fertilizers, light manufacturing

FOREIGN TRADE (in.billions of U.S. dollars) Imports Exports 1980: 8.83 1980: 21.68 1981: 9.10 1981: 21.97 1982: 17.80 1982: 19.79 1983: 17.70 1983: 19.80 1984: 13.88 1984: 20.80 1985: 17.40 1985: 20.80 Major Imports: rice, food grains, textiles, chemicals, iron and steel products Major Exports: oil, natural gas, timber, rubber, tin, palm oil

POLITICA Freedom House Index Increase, Cl is the highest, 7 is the lowest] Political Freedom: 6 Civil Liberties: 5 Status of Freedom: Partly Free 1985 Voting with the U.S. at the U.N.: 14.3 %

19

official name of country: REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA Type of Government: republic Type of Chief of State: President Name of Chief of State: Suharto Name of Read of Government: same Foreign Minister: Mochtar Kusumaatmadja

MILITARY 1985 Military Expenditure: $2.42 billion (in U.S. dollars) Military Expenditure as percentage of GDP: 3.3% Total Regular Forces: 278,050 Army: 216,000 Air Force: 25,100 with 68 combat aircraft Navy: 36,950 ships: 2 subs, 13 frigates, 24 patrol vessels Security Alliance with U.S.: no U.S. Military Installations: none

U.S.-INDONESIA RELATIONS

Indonesia is the 21st largest U.S. trading partner.

TRADE (in milli 'ons of U.S. dollars) 'U.S. Imports from Indonesia U.S. Exports to Indonesia 1980: 51503 1980: lp393 1981: 6f413 .1981: lp264 1982: 41509 1982: 11944 1983: 51657 1963: ll446 1984: 51867 1984: 11193 1985: 41933 1985: 795

INVESTMENT U.S. Direct Investment, 1985: $4,087 million (in U.S. dollars) Major Categories: oil,, gas,, chemicals,, banking,, electronic equipment Major U.S. Companies investing in Indonesia: Goodyear Tire and Rubber, International Telephone and Telegraph (ITT) Georgia-Pacific International Corporation, Inter-Oceania Factor Indonesia Direct Investment in U.S.,, 1985: $15 million (in U.S. dollars) Major Indonesia companies investing in U.S.: Bank Negara Indonesia

TOURIS Visas to U.S.: 21,573 Visas from U.S.: NA U.S. Residents in Indonesia: 10,,172. Residents in U.S.: 1,269 JAPAN

LAND: 145,294 square miles Cultivated: 12.6% Forest: 66.9% Pasture: 1.6% Resources: negligible mineral resources, fish

PQPULATION: 120.8 million Annual.Population Growth: .6% Projected Population in the Year 2000: 128.1 million Ethnic Division: Japanese, Koreans .6% Religion: Shintoism, Buddhism,, Christian .8% Workforce:-57.6 million Commerce, Services: 53.2% Manufacturing: 24.9% Agriculture and Fishing: 8.6% Construction: 9.1% Goverment and Public Authorities: 3.4% Students: Primary 11.1 million, Secondary 6 million, Tertiary: 5.2 million

ECONOMY Gross National Product (in billions of U.S. dollars) 1980: 11100 1981: 1,142 1982: 11062 1983: lf157 1984: 11235 1985: lr302 1985 Gross National Product Growth: 5.5% 1985 Consumer Price Index Increase: 2.8% Agriculture as a percentage of GNP: 3.4% Industry as a percentage of GNP: 42% 1985 Per Capita Income: $7,109 (in U.S. dollars) Major industries: machinery, equipment, metals and metal products, textiles, autos, chemicals

FOREIGN TRADE (in billions of U.S. dollars) Imports Exports 1980: 123.5 1980: 113.4 1981: 122.9 1981: 130.7 1982: 125.9 1982: 132.8 1983: 123.4 1983: 143.6 1984: 131.3 1984: 163.8 1985: 136.5 1985: 170.1 Major Imports: fossil fuels, metal ore, raw materials, food stuffs, machinery and equipment Major Exports: autos, machinery and equipment,, electrical and electronics products

POLIJICA Freedom House Index, [1 is the highest, 7 is the lowest] Political Freedom: 1 Civil Liberties: 1 Status of Freedom: Free 1985 Voting with the U.S. at the U.N.: 66.3% Official name of country: JAPAN Type of'Government: parliamentary democracy Type of Chief of State: Emperor Name of Chief of State: Hirchito Name of Head of Government: Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone Foreign Minister: Tadashi Kuranari

MILITARY 1985 Military Expenditure: $12.018 billion (in U.S. dollars) Military Expenditure as.percentage of GNP: 1% Total Regular Forces: 243,000 Reserves: 43,000 Army: 155,000 Air Force: 44,000 with 270 combat aircraft Navy: 44,000 ships: 14 subs, 31 destroyers, 18 frigates, 11 patrol craft Security Alliance with U.S.: Mutual cooperationind security treaties 1951,' 1960 U.S. Military Installations: Okinawa, Saqazihara, Yokohama, Atsugi, Yokosuka, Sasebo, Futerma, Iwakuni, Misawa

U.S.-JAPAN REL&JIONS

Japan is the 2nd largest U.S. trading partner..

TRADE (in millions of U.S. dollars) .U.S. Imports from Japan U.S. Exports to.Japan 1980: 32l961 1980: 20j684 1981: 39j904 1981: 21FG41 1982: 39l931 1982: 200668 1983: 431559 1983: 21,600 1984: 60,371 1984: 231173 1985: 72,380 1985: 22,631

INVESTMENT U.S. Direct Investment, 1985: $9,095 million (in U.S. dollars) Major Categories: manufactured goods, petroleum, wholesale trade, finance, insurance, banking Direct Investment in U.S.: $19,116 million (in U.S. dollars) Major Categories: wholesale trade, banking,, machinery,, primary and fabricated metals,, chemicals Major U.S. Companies investing in Japan: IBM, Johnson Johnson, Citibank, Hewlett-Packard, Chase Manhattan Bank Major Japanese Companies investing in U.S.: Mitsui, Nissan Motors, Honda, Nippon Kokan

TOURIS Visas to U.S.: lfll5p578 Visas from U.S.: NA U.S.'Residents in Japan: 26,091 Residents in U.S.: 4,086 KOREA, REPUBLIC OF (SOUTH KOREA)

LAND: 37,885 square miles Cultivated: 23% Forest: 67% Pasture: 10% Resources: limited coal,, tungsten,, iron ore,, limestone,, kaolinite, graphite

POPULATION: 42.7 million Annual Population Growth: 1.7% Projected Population in the Year 2000: 51.7 million Ethnic Division: Korean, some Chinese Religion: Buddhi.4m,, Christianity,, Shamanism, Confucianism Workforce: 14.4 million Commerce, Services: 42% Manufacturing: 23% Agriculture and Fishing: 25% Construction: 6.2% Government and Public Authorities: 5.39% Students: Primary 5.29 million, Secondary 4.86 million, Tertiary 1.77 million

ECONOMY Gross National Product (in billions of U.S. dollars) 1980: 56.5 1981: 62.2 1982: 65.7 1983: 75.3 1984: 80.9 1985: 86.4 1985 Gross National Product Growth: 6.8% 1985 Consumer Price Index Increase: 2.3% Agriculture as a percentage of GNP: 13.9% Industry as.a percentage of GNP: 29.2% 1985 Per Capita Income: $1,998 (in U.S. dollars) Major Industries: textiles, footwearl electronics, shipbuilding, autos, petroleum, chemicals

r.OREIGN TRADE (in billions of U.S. dollars) Imports Exports 1980: 16.08 1980: 12.63 1981: 21.83 1981: 17.75 1982: 21.46 1982: 19.34 1983: 24.39 1983: 22.77 1984: 30.40 1984: 29.06 19851 30.50 1985: 29.50 Major Imports: crude oil, grain, machinery, chemicals, bass metals, transportation equipment XaJor Exports: textiles, transportation equipment

POLITICAL Freedom House Index, Cl is the highest, 7 is the lowest] Political Freedom: 4 Civil Liberties: 5 Status of Freedom: Partly Free 1985 Voting with the U.S. at the-U.N.: observer status Official name of country: REPUBLIC OF KOREA Type of Government: republic,, with strong executive Type of Chief of State: President Name of Chief of State: President Chun Doo Hwan Name of Head of Government: Prime Minister Lho Shin-yonq Foreign Minister: Lee Won Kyunq

MILXTARY 1985 Military Expenditure: $4.402 billion (in U.S. dollars) Military Expenditure as percentage of GNP: ' 5.2% Total Regular Forces: 598,000 Reserves::l,,400,,000 Army: 520,,000' Air Force: 33,000 with 451 combat aircraft Navy: 23,000 ships: 11 destroyers, 7 frigates, 7 corvettes, 11 patrol craft Secukity Alliance with U.S.: mutual co-op and security 1954 U.S. Military Installations: Kunsan, Sonqtan, Uijonq-Bu, Tonqduchon-ni

U.S.-SOUTH KOREA RELATIONS

South Korea is-the 7th largest U.S. trading partner.

TRADE (in millions of U.S. dollars) U.S. Imports from South Korea U.S. Exports to South Korea 1980: 4l432 1980: 4;422 1981: 51474 1981: 51009 1982: 6lOll *1982: 5;,334 1983: 71657 1983: 5,710 1984: 10,027 1984: 5g830 1985: 10,713 1985: 51956

INVESTMENT U.S. Direct Investment, 1985: $823 million (in U.S. dollars) Major Categories: banking, trade, electronics, transportation, equipment, petroleum, machinery Major U.S. Companies investing in South Korea: General Motors, Chrysler Corporation,, Hewlett-Packard, IBM Korean Direct Investment in the U.S., 1985: $-78 million (in U.S. dollars) Major South Korea Companies investing in U.S.: Hyundai, Pohang, Korea Exchange Bank, Samsung Group

TOURISM Visadto U.S.: 45f985 Visas from U.S.: NA U.S. Residents in Korea: 9,529 Residents in U.S.: 35,253

MALAYSIA.

L M 126,654 square miles Cultivated: 13% Forest: 80% Pasture: 1% Resources: petroleum, tin, timber, copper

POPULATION: 15.7 million Annual Population Growth: 2.4% Projected Population in the Year 2000: 21.1 million Ethnic Division: Malay 50%, Chinese 36%, Indian 10%, Other 4% Religion: Mui3lim, Hindu, Buddhist, Confucian, Christian Workforce: 5.58 million r Commerce, Services: 22.8% Manufacturing: 15.3% Agriculture and Fishing: 37% Constructionz 6.6% Government and Public Authorities: 16% Students: Primary 2.1 million,, Secondary 1.16 million,, Tertiary 55,,000

ECONOMY Gross National Product (in billions of U.S. dollars) 1980: 22.60 1981: 24.24 1982: 25.43 1983: 27.37 1984: 29.50 1985: 31.03 1985 Gross National Product Growth: 5.2% 1985 Consumer Price Index Increaset .5% Agriculture as a percentage of GNP: 20.1% Industry as a percentage of GNP: 20.2% 1985 Per Capita Income: $1,996 (in U.S. dollars) Major Industries: tin, steel, electronics, rubber products, autos

FOREIGN TRADE (in billions of U.S. dollars) Imports Exports 1980: 10.58 1980: 12.60 1981: 12.10 1981: 12.01 1982: 12.88 1982: 12.50 1983: 12.62 1983: 11.47 1984: 13.45 1984: 15.70 1985: 13.57 1985: 15.50 Major Imports: machinery, food, transportation equipment, intermediate goods Major Exports: petroleum, natural rubber, timber, palm oil, tin

POLITICA Freedom House Indexr El is the highest, 7 is the lowest] Political Freedom: 3 Civil Liberties: 5 Status of Freedom: Partly Free 1985 Voting with the U.S. at the U.N.: 16.3% official name of country: MALAYSIA Type of Government: federal parliamentary democracy Type of Chief of State: a "Yang di-Pertuan Agunq11 chosen from among hereditary Sultans Name of Chief of State: Tunku Mahmood Iskandar Al-Haj Ibni Marhum Sultan Ismail Name of Head of Government: Prime Minister Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad Foreign Minister: Tunku Ahmad Rithauddeen

MILITARY 1985 Military Expenditure: $1.624 billion (in U.S. dollars) Military Expenditure as percentage of GNP: 5.4% Total Regular Forces: 110,000 Reserves: 46,400 Army: 90',000 Air Force: 11,000 with 42 combat aircraft Navy: 9,000 ships: 3 frigates, 20 patrol craft Security Alliance with U.S.: no U.S. Military Installations: none

U.S.-MALAYSIA RELATIONS

Malaysia is the 25th largest U.S. trading partner.

TRADE (in millions of U.S. dollars) U.S. Imports from Malaysia U.S. Exports to Malaysia 1960: 216aS 1980: IF291 1981: 2,272 1981: 11465 1982: 1:959 1982: 1,711 1983: 2,205 1983: ll678 1984: 2l825 1984: lg827 1985: 2,399 1985: 11539

INVESTMENT U.S. Direct Investment, 1985: $1,217 million (in U.S. dollars) Major Categories: petroleum, electronics',, trade,,.chemicals,, banking Major U.S. Companies investing in Malaysia: IBM, Texas Instruments, Motorola, Monsanto, Johnson & Johnson Malaysia Direct Investment in U.S., 1985: $23 million (in U.S. dollars) Major Malaysia Companies investing in U.S.: Malaysian Industrial Development Authority CMIDA], Bank of Bumiputra, Malaysian Banking, Rubber Bureau., Merline.inn

TOURISM- Visas to U.S.: 2llll2 Visas from U.S.: NA U.S. Residents in Malaysia: 2,526 Residents in U.S.: 939 NEW ZEALAND

LAND: 103,486 square miles Cultivated: 3% Forest: 26.4% Pasture: 52.7% Natural Resources: natural gas, iron, coal, timber

POPULATION: 3.3 million Annual Population Growth: .8% Projected Population in the Year 2000: 3.6 million Ethnic Division: European 85.7%, Maori 8.9%, other Polynesian 2.7% Religion: Anglican 29%, Presbyterian 18%. Catholic 15%, Other 3.8% Workforce: 1.3 million - Commerce, Services: 33.5% Manufacturing: 22.0 Agriculture and Fishing: 10.4% Construction: 21.5% Government and Public Authorities: 21.5% Students: Primary 465,500, Secondary 230,400, Tertiary 44,620

Gross National Product (in billions of U.S. dollars) 1980: 23.1 1981: 23.5 1982: 22.5 1983: 21.9 1984: 16.6 1985: 19.3 1985 Gross National Product Growth: 5% 1985 Consumer Price Index Increase.e 16% Agriculture as a percentage of GNP: 6.4% Industry as a percentage.of GNP: 33% 1985 Per Capita Income: $5,547 (in U.S. dollars) Major Industries: food processing, textile production, machinery, transport equipment FOREIGN TRADE (in billions of U.S. dollars) Imports Exports 1980: 4.0 1980: 4.7 1981: 4.3 1981: 4.8 1982: 5.0 1982: 5.2 1983: 5.4 1983: 5.7 1984: 5.2 1984: 5.1 1985: 5.3 1985: 5.2 Major Imports: machinery, manufactured goods,, chemicals Major Exports: meat, wool,, manufactured products,, forest products, dairy products

POLITICA Freedom House Index, [1 is the highest, 7 is the lowest] Political Freedom: 1 Civil Liberties: 1. Status of Freedom., Free 1985 Voting with the U.S. at the U.N.: 55.3%

27

official name of country: NEW ZEALAND Type of Government: democracy Type of Chief of State: titular monarch of Britain Name of Chief of State: Queen Elizabeth 11 Name of Head of Government: Prime Minister David Lange Foreign minister: same

MILITARY 1985 Military Expenditure: $400 million (in U.S. dollars) Military Expenditure as percentage of GNP: 2.2% Total Regular Forces: 12,443 Reserves: 9,553 Army: 5,431 Air Forte: 4,325 with 44 combat aircraft Navy: 2,687 Ships: 4 frigates, 8 patrol craft Security Alliance with U.S.: ANZUS treaty signatory U.S. Military Installations: none

U.S.-NEW ZEALAND RELATIONS

New Zealand is the 42nd largest U.S. trading partner.

TRADE (in millions of U.S. dollars) U.S. Imports from New Zealand U.S. Exports to New Zealand 1980: 793.4 1980: 595.1 1981: 819.6 1981: 920.5 1982: 870 1982: 897.2 1983: 828 1983: 620 1984: 880 1984: 708 1985: 969 1985: 727

INVESTMENT U.S. Direct Investment, 1985: $523 million-(in U.S. dollars) Major Categories: Chemicals,, food products,, financial services U.S. Companies investing in New Zealand: Hewlett-Packard Co., Monsanto Co., International Harvester,, Gazlen Chemical New Zealand Direct Investment in U.S., 1985: $64 million (in U.S. dollars) Major New Zealand Companies investing in U.S.: Brierly Investments Ltd, Bank of New Zealand

TOURISM Visas to U.S.: 42,472 Visas from U.S.: NA U.S. Residents in New Zealand: 8,216 Residents in U.S.: 679 PHILIPPINES

LAND: 115,385 square miles Cultivated: 25.9% -Forest: 45.5% Pasture: 1.6% Resources: timber, copper, nickel,.iron, cobalt, silver, gold, petroleum

POPULATION: 56.8 million Annual Population Growth: 2.5% Projected Population in the Year 2000: 77.7 million Ethnic Division: Malay, Chinese Religion: Catholic 83%, Protestant 9%, Miisliz 5% Workforce: 18.8 million Commerce, Services: 29.1% Manufacturing: 10.2% Agriculture and Fishing: 49.4% Construction: 3.7% Government and Public Authorities: 10.7% Students: Primary 8.69 million, Secondary 3.20 million, Tertiary 1.57 million

ECOK= Gross National Product (in billions of U.S. dollars) 1980: 35.30 1981: 38.49 1982: 39.36 1983: 34.14 1984: 29.44 1985: 27.97 1985 Gross National Product Growth: -5% 1985 Consumer Price Index Increase: 20% Agriculture as a percentage of GNP: 26.2% Industry as a percentage of GNP: 34.1% 1985 Per Capita Income: $603 (in U.S. dollars) Major Industries: textiles, pharmacueticals, chemicals, wood products

FOREIGN TRADE (in billions of U.S. dollars) Imports Exports 1980: 6.3 1980: 4.6 1981: 7.9 1981: 5.7 1982: 7.7 1982: 5.0 1983: 7.4 1983: 5.0 1984: 6.0 1984.: 5.3 1985: 5.5 1985: 4.9 Major Imports: mineral fuels, lubricants, telecommunications, machinery Major Exports: semiconductors, garments, electronic microchips, sugar, bananas, copper, timber

POLITICAL Freedom House Index, [1 is the highest, 7 is the lowest) Political Freedom: 4 Civil Liberties: 3 Status of Freedom: Partly Free 1985 Voting with the U.S. at the U.N.: 22.3% official name of country: REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Type of Government: republic Type of Chief of State: President Name of Chief of State: Corazon Aquino Name of Head of Government: President Aquino Foreign Minister: Prime minister Salvador Laurel

MILITARY 1985 Military Expendituke: $422.078 million (in U.S. dollars) Military Expenditure as percentage of GNP: 1.5% Total Regular Forces: 114,800 Reserves: 48,000 Army: 70,000 Air Force: 16,800 with 64 combat aircraft, 17 helicopters Navy: 28,000 ships: 7 frigates, 10 corvettes, 12 patrol-craft Security Alliance with U.S.: U.S.-Philippine Mutual Defense Treaties, 1951 and 1983 U.S. Military Installations: Subic Naval Bass and Clark Field Air Base

U.S.-PHILIPPINES RELATIONS

The Philippines is the 27th largest U.S. trading partner.

TRADE (in millions of U.S. dollars) U.S. Imports from the Philippines U.S. Exports to the Philippines 1980: IF913 1980: 11987 1981: 2ll6l 1981: 11757 1982: ll956 1982: 1,835 1983: 21159 1983: ll793 1984: 2,622 1984: 11709 1985: 20334 1985: 1,379

INVESTMENT U.S. Direct Investment, 1985: $983 million (in U.S. dollars) Major Categories: banking, chemicals, food products, petroleum, electronics Major U.S Companies investing in the Philippines: Caltex, Inc., Dole Pineapple, Philipinas Shell Petroleum Philippines Direct.,Investment in U.S.,, 1985: $120 million (in U.S. dollars) Major Philippines Companies investing in U.S.: Ayala International

TOURISM Visas to U.S.: 68l560 Visas from U.S.: NA U.S. Residents in the Philippines: 40,000 Residents in U.S.: 47.,970 SINGAPORE

LAND: 298 square miles Cultivated: 9.5% Forest: 4.6% Natural Resources: None

POPULATION: 2.6 million Annual Population Growth: 1.1% Projected Population in the Year 2000: 3 million Ethnic Division: Chinese 77%, Malays 15%. Indians 6%, Others 2% Religion: Buddist, Taoist, Muslim, Hindu, Christian Workforce: 1.19 million r Commerce,, services: 41.5% Manufacturing: 27.4% Agriculture and Fishing: .7% Construction: 8.5% Government and Public Authorities: 21.4% Students: Primary 290,000, Secondary 182,000, Tertiary 30,900

ECONOMY Gross National Product.(in billions of U.S'. dollars) 1980: 10.8 1981: 13.1 1982: 14.5 1983: 16.3 1984: 17.6 1985: 17.6 1985 Gross National Product Growth: 8.08% 1985 Consumer Price Index Increase:.1.3% Agriculture as a percentage of GNP: 1% Industry as a percentage of GNP: 37.1% 1985 Per Capita Income: $6,992 (in U.S. dollars) Major Industries: petroleum products, electronics, ship works, food and beverage, textiles

FOREIGN TRADE (in billions of U.S. dollars) Imports Exports 1980: 24.10 1980: 19.40 1981: 27.57 1981: 20.96 1982: 28.15 1982: 20.78 1983: 28.15 1983: 21.83 1984: 28.10 1984: 23.60 1985:. 28.11 1985: 24.20 Major Imports: rice, machinery, crude oil, manufactured goods Major Exports:.petroleum products, electrical machinery, telcommunications apparatus, rubber, tin

POLItICA Freedom House Index, Cl is the highestF 7 is the lowest] Political Freedom: 4 Civil Liberties: 5 Status of Freedom: Partly Free 1985 Voting with the U.S. at the U.N.: 23.6% Official name of country: REPUBLIC OF SINGAPORE Type of Government: parliamentary Type of Chief of State: President Name of Chief of State: President Wes Kim Wee Name of Head of Government: Prime Minister Lee Xuan Yew Foreign Minister: S. Dhanabalan

MILITARY 1985 Military Expenditure: $857.328 million (in U.S. dollars) Military Expenditure as percentage of GNP: 5.8% Total Regular Forces: 55,500 Reserves: 150,000 Army: 45,000 Air Force: 6,000 with 164 combat aircraft Navy: 4,500 with 9 patrol craft Security Alliance with U.S.: no U.S. Military Installations: none

U.S.-SINGAPORE RELATIONS

Singapore is the 17th largest U.S. trading partner.

TRADE (in millions of U.S. dollars) U.S. Imports to Singapore U.S. Exports to Singapore 1980: 11984 1980: 2,972 1981: 2F195 1981: 2f958 1982: 21274 1982: 31170 1983: 21969 1983: 31686 1984: 4,121 1984: 3p631 1985: 41412 1985: 31476

INVESTMENT U.S. Direct Investment, 1985: $1,897 million (in U.S. dollars) Major Categories: electronic equipment.-trade, banking, chemicals, metals, finance Major U.S. companies investing in Singapore: Texas Instruments, General Electric, AT&T Singapore Direct Investment in U.'S.,, 1985: $238 million (in U.S. dollars) Major Singapore Companies investing in U.S.: Goverment of Singapore

TMIS Visas to U.S.: 18,101 Visas from U.S.: NA U.S. Residents in Singapore: 9,500 Residents in U.S.: 460

SRI LANKA

LAND: 25,231 square miles Cultivated: 35.7% Forest: 44.2% Pasture: 6.5% Resources: limestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems, phosphate

POPULATION: 16.4 million Annual Population Growth: 2.1% Projected Population in the Year 2000: 20.8 million Ethnic Division: Sinhalese 74%, Tamils 18%,, Moors 7%,, Burhgers, Malay and Veddas 1% Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Christianity Workforce: 4.1 million Commerce,, Services: 29.19% Manufacturing: 14.44% Agriculture and Fishing: 31.2% Construction: 5.17% Government and Public Authorities: 24.8% Students: Primary 2.4 million, Secondary 1.3-million, Tertiary 60,886

ECONOMY Gross National Product (in billions of U.S. dollars) i98O: 3.8 1981: 4.0 1982: 4.3 1983: 4.6 1984: 5.1 1985: 5.4 1985 Gross National Product Growth: 5% 1985 Consumer Price Index Increase: 4.1% Agriculture as a percentage of GNP: 28.4% Industry as a percentage of GNP: 27% 1985 Per Capita Income: $340 (in U.S. dollars) Major Industries: food, beverage, tobaccos, chemical products, textiles I FOREIGN TRADE (in'billions of U.S. dollars) imports Exports 1980: 2.10 1980: 1.10 1981: 1.09 1981: 1.09 1982: 2.10 1982: 1.03 1983: 1.80 1983: 1.00 1984: 1.82 1984.: 1.40 1985: 1.83 1985: 1.42 Major Imports: rice, flour, sugar, textiles,,.oil,, machinery Major Exports: tea, rubber, coconut products, precious stones

POLITICA Freedom House Index, [1 is the highestj 7 is the lowest] Political Freedom: 3 Civil Liberties: 4 Status of Freedom: Partly Free 1985 Voting with the U.S. at the U.N.: 17.7% official name of country: DEMOCRATIC SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF SRI LANKA Type of Government: republic Type of Chief of State: President Name of Chief of State: aunius Richard Jayewardene Name of Read of Government: same .Foreign Minister: Abdul Cader Shahul Hameed

MILITARY 1985 Military Expenditure: $131.396 million (in U.S. dollars) Military Expenditure as percentage of GNP:.1.7% Total Regular Forces: 21,560 Reserves: 16'.100 Army: 30,000 Air Force: 3,700 with 2 combat helicopters Navy: 3,960 ships: 9 patrol craft Security Alliance with U.S.: no U.S. Military Installations: none

U.S.-SRI LANKA RELATIONS

Sri Lanka is a minor U.S. trading partner.

TRADE (in mill 'ions of U S. dollars) U.S. Imports from Sri Lanka U.S. Exports to Sri Lanka 1980: 140.2 1980: 61.6 1981: 171.6 1981: 90.5 1982: 194.4 1982: 198.4 1983: 206.0 1983: 75.0 1984: 302.0 1984: 92.0 1985: 313.0 1985: 73.0

TOURISM Visas to U.S.: 41485 Visas from U.S.: NA U.S. Residents in Sri Lanka: 450 Residents in U.S.: 553

THAILAND

LAND: 197,692 square miles Cultivated: 31% Forest: 30.5% Pasture: .6% Resources: timber, tin, tungsten, gems, zinc

POPULATION: 52.7 million Annual Population Growth: 1.9% Projected Population in the Year 2000: 67.6 million Ethnic Division: Thai 75%. Chinese 14%. others lit Religion: Buddhist 95.5%, Muslim 4%, other .5% Workforce: 26.6 million Commerce, Services: 18.7% Manufacturing: 9% Agriculture and Fishing: 63.8% Construction: 2.2% Government and Public Authorities: 4.3% Students: Primary 7.76 million, secondary 2.25 million, Tertiary 376,300

ECONOMY Gross National Product (in billions of U.S. dollars) 1980: 32.9 1981: 33.3 1982: 35.7 1983: 39.3 1984: 40.7 1985: 42.9 1985 Gross National Product Growth: 5.4% 1985 Consumer Price Index Increase: 3.8% Agriculture as a percentage of GNP: 22.5% Industry as a percentage of GNP: 26.1% 211'85'Per Capita Income: $794 (in U.S. dollars) Major industries: cement, automobile assembly, integrated circuits, garments

FOREIGN TRADE (in billions of U.S. dollars) Imports Exports 1980: 9.4 1980: 6.6 1981: 8.9 1981: 7.0 1982: 7.7 1982: 6.8 1983: 10.1 1983: 6.3 1984: 10.2 1984: 7.3 1985: 11.5 1985: 8.3 Major Imports: consumer, intermediate & capital goods Major Exports: fish, electronic components, gem stones, fruit and nuts

POLITICA Freedom House Index, [1 is the highest, 7 is the lowest] Political Freedom: 3 Civil Liberties: 4 Status of Freedom: Partly Free 1985 Voting with the U.S. at the U.N.: 22.4% Official name of country: KINGDOM OF THAILAND Type of Government: consitutional monarchy Type of Chief of State: King Name of Chief of State: King Bhumibol Adulyadej, Rana IX Name of Hqad of Government: Prime Minister Prem Tinsulanond Foreign Minister: Siddhi Savetsila

MILITARY 1985 military Expenditure: $1.411 billion (in U.S. dollars) Military Expenditure as p .ercentage of GNP: 3.9% Total Regular Forces: 235,300 Reserves: 500,000 Army: 160,000 Air Force: 43,100 with 183 combat aircraft Navy: 32,200 ships: 6 frigates, 7 patrol craft Security Alliance with U.S.: informal Rusk-Thanat Communique of 1962 U.S. Military Installations: none

U.S.-THAILAND RELATIONS

Thailand is the 35th largest U.S. trading partner.

TRADE (in millions of U.9. dollars) U.'S. Imports from Thailand U.S. Exports to Thailand 1980: 866 1980: 11-091 1981: ll007 1981: 10010 1982: 956 1982: 862 1983: 11035 1983: 906 1984: lf426 1984: 11044 1983: 11543 1985: 849

INVESTMENT U.S. Direct Investment, 1985: $967 million (in U.S. dollars). Major Categories: retail, wholesale, banking, chemicals, mining Major U.S. Companies investing in Thailand: Unocal, Esso, Dow Chemical, Monsanto,, Du Pont Thailand Direct Investment in U.S., 1985: $13 million (in U.S. dollars) Major Thailand Companies investing in U.S.: government of Thailand

TOURISM Visas to U.S.: l7lOO2 Visas from U.S.: NA U.S. Residents: 8,953 Residents in U.S.: 51239

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