- GDP (PPP):
- $82.8 billion
- 0.2% growth
- 1.3% 5-year compound annual growth
- $22,455 per capita
- Inflation (CPI):
- FDI Inflow:
Uruguay’s economic freedom score is 69.3, making its economy the 44th freest in the 2021 Index. Its overall score has increased by 0.2 point, primarily because of an improvement in fiscal health. Uruguay is ranked 4th among 32 countries in the Americas region, and its overall score is above the regional and world averages.
This year, Uruguay’s economy again remains in the ranks of the moderately free where it has generally resided since the inception of the Index in 1995. To make the leap into the mostly free category, the government would have to strengthen the judicial system, cut government spending, lighten labor market regulations, and reduce state interference in and control of the financial sector.
IMPACT OF COVID-19: As of December 1, 2020, 78 deaths had been attributed to the pandemic in Uruguay, and the economy was forecast to contract by 4.5 percent for the year.
Uruguay, Bolivia, and Paraguay were established in the 19th century as buffers between regional powers Brazil and Argentina. Public outrage at Marxist guerrilla violence in the 1960s facilitated a military takeover of the government in 1973. Civilian rule was restored in 1985. President Luis Lacalle of the National Party started his five-year term in March 2020, ushering in a conservative government after 15 years of rule by the left-wing Broad Front. The once-dominant Colorado Party forms part of Lacalle’s administration. The economy, based on exports of such commodities as milk, beef, rice, and wool, suffered in 2019 from the economic recession in Argentina. Traditionally a safe country, Uruguay is experiencing growing rates of homicide.
Uruguay recognizes and enforces secured interests in property and contracts. Expropriation is unlikely. The judiciary is transparent and independent, but the courts function slowly and are subject to intimidation. Transparency International ranked Uruguay the least corrupt Latin American country in its 2019 Corruption Perceptions Index. The government has prosecuted some high-level officials from the executive, parliamentary, and judicial branches for corruption in recent years.
The top individual income tax rate is 36 percent, and the top corporate tax rate is 25 percent. Other taxes include value-added and capital gains taxes. The overall tax burden equals 28.6 percent of total domestic income. Government spending has amounted to 33.2 percent of total output (GDP) over the past three years, and budget deficits have averaged 2.6 percent of GDP. Public debt is equivalent to 67.4 percent of GDP.
The cost of starting a business has increased, and business freedom has declined for a fifth straight year. The maximum number of days per week that an employee can work has been reduced. The government has eliminated some price controls but still sets prices for electricity, fuels, rents, interdepartmental transport, medicines, natural gas, pasteurized milk, taxi fares, tolls, and water.
Uruguay has eight preferential trade agreements in force. The trade-weighted average tariff rate is 9.6 percent, and 53 nontariff measures are in effect. The economy is relatively open to foreign investment, but major investment reforms have been absent. About 70 percent of adult Uruguayans have formal banking accounts. In 2020, reserve requirements were reduced to maintain the appropriate level of liquidity in the banking system.