Charlotte Patterson, “Lesbian & Gay Parenting,” American Psychological Association, p. 15, http://www.apa.org/pi/lgbt/resources/parenting-full.pdf (accessed June 8, 2012).
Perry v. Brown, 671 F.3d 1052 (9th Cir. 2012), http://www.sfgate.com/chronicle/acrobat/2010/08/04/Prop-8-Ruling-FINAL.pdf (accessed June 18, 2012).
For example, see Steven Nock, “Affidavit of Steven Lowell Nock,” Halpern v. Attorney General, Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Court File No. No.684/00, 2001, http://marriagelaw.cua.edu/Law/cases/Canada/ontario/halpern/aff_nock.pdf (accessed June 3, 2012); Robert Lerner and Althea K. Nagai, “No Basis: What the Studies Don’t Tell Us About Same-Sex Parenting,” Marriage Law Project, 2001, http://www.marriagewatch.org/publications/nobasis.pdf (accessed June 7, 2012); Walter R. Schumm, “Statistical Requirements for Properly Investing a Null Hypothesis,” Psychological Reports, Vol. 107, No. 3 (2010), pp. 953–971; and Loren Marks, “Same-Sex Parenting and Children’s Outcomes: A Closer Examination of the American Psychological Association’s Brief on Lesbian and Gay Parenting,” Social Science Research, Vol. 41, No. 4 (June 2012), pp. 735–775, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0049089X12000580 (accessed June 11, 2012).
See Judith Stacey and Timothy J. Biblarz, “(How) Does the Sexual Orientation of Parents Matter?,” American Sociological Review, Vol. 66, No. 2 (April 2001), pp. 159–183; Ellen C. Perrin and Committee on Psychological Aspects of Child and Family Health, “Technical Report: Coparent or Second-Parent Adoption by Same-Sex Parents,” Pediatrics, Vol. 109, No. 2 (February 2002), pp. 341–344; Norman Anderssen, Christine Amlie, and Erling Andre Ytterøy, “Outcomes for Children with Lesbian or Gay Parents: A Review of Studies from 1978 to 2000,” Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, Vol. 43 (2002), p. 348; Fiona Tasker, “Lesbian Mothers, Gay Fathers, and Their Children: A Review,” Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, Vol. 26, No.3 (June 2005), pp. 224–240; William Meezan and Jonathan Rauch, “Gay Marriage, Same-Sex Parenting, and America’s Children,” Future of Children, Vol. 15, No. 2 (Fall 2005), pp. 97–116, http://futureofchildren.org/futureofchildren/publications/docs/15_02_06.pdf (accessed June 8, 2012); Richard E. Redding, “It’s Really About Sex: Same-Sex Marriage, Lesbigay Parenting, and the Psychology of Disgust,” Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy, Vol. 15, No. 127 (2008), pp.127–192; and Michael J. Rosenfeld, “Nontraditional Families and Childhood Progress Through School,” Demography, Vol. 47, No. 3 (August 2010), pp. 755–775.
Nocks, “Affidavit,” pp. 7–8; and Lerner and Nagai, No Basis, p. 70.
Lerner and Nagai, “No Basis,” p. 69.
Rosenfeld, “Nontraditional Families,” Table S1. Of the 44 studies Rosenfeld reviewed for his 2010 Demography paper, 26 studies were published prior to 2001, 11 were published between 2001 and 2004, and seven were published after 2004.
Timothy J. Biblarz and Evren Savci, “Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Families,” Journal of Family and Marriage, Vol. 72, No. 3 (June 2012), pp. 482–483.
Marks, “Same-Sex Parenting and Children’s Outcomes,” p. 736.
Stacey and Biblarz, “(How) Does the Sexual Orientation of Parents Matter?,” p. 166.
Lerner and Nagai, “No Basis,” p. 76.
Biblarz and Savci, “Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Families,” pp. 487, 489, 490.
Gary J. Gates, “Family Formation and Raising Children Among Same-Sex Couples,” National Council on Family Relations, Issue FF51 (January 2012), pp. F2–F3, http://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/Gates-Badgett-NCFR-LGBT-Families-December-2011.pdf (accessed June 6, 2012). However, adoption among same-sex parents displays the opposite trend: White and more-educated same-sex parents are more likely to have adopted.
Meezan and Rauch, “Gay Marriage,” p. 106.
Lerner and Nagai, “No Basis,” p. 103.
Biblarz and Stacey, “Gender of Parents Matter?,” p. 8.
Marks, “Same-Sex Parenting and Children’s Outcomes.”
See Lerner and Nagai, “No Basis,” pp. 26–60.
Meezan and Rauch, “Gay Marriage”; Lerner and Nagai, “No Basis”; Tasker, “Lesbian Mothers”; and Anderssen et al., “Outcomes for Children.” According to Lerner and Nagai, reliability refers to “the extent to which repeated applications of the measure result in the same outcome,” and validity refers to the ability “to replicate a measurement” (pp. 63, 65).
Anderssen et al., “Outcomes for Children”; and Tasker, “Lesbian Mothers.”
Perrin, “Technical Report”; Redding, “It’s Really About Sex”; and Marks, “Same-Sex Parenting and Children’s Outcomes.”
Mark Regnerus, “How Different Are the Adult Children of Parents Who Have Same-Sex Relationships? Findings from the New Family Structures Study,” Social Science Research, Vol. 41, No. 4 (June 2012), pp. 752–770, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0049089X12000610 (accessed June 12, 2012). The NFSS contains rich data on young adult children of same-sex parents and is the second largest study, after the Census, with information on these children. Screening over 15,000 young adults, the study identified 236 respondents who reported their parents having had romantic same-sex relationships. Examining 40 outcomes in areas—related to their family and romantic relationships, education, physical and psychological well-being, economic and employment status, substance use, and criminal activity and victimization—it found that, compared to children in traditional intact families, those of mothers who have had a romantic same-sex relationship fared, on average, worse on 24 out of the 40 outcomes, and young adult children of fathers who have had a same-sex relationship fared worse on 19 outcomes. Even after accounting for a number of characteristics, these differences remained.
The study also compares children in adopted, divorced, step-parent, and single-parent families as well as children not residing with any parents. In the comparisons, the study takes into consideration young adult children’s age, gender, race/ethnicity, mother’s education level, perceived childhood household income, experience being bullied as a youth, and state’s legislative gay-friendliness. That is, respondents who are identical on these characteristics are compared.
This is evident in a prior research sequence on the intact family. During the early 1980s, the conventional wisdom among researchers was that children from single-parent families fared just as well as children from two-parent families. By the mid-1990s, however, research based on nationally representative data showed that children raised by both parents tended to have better outcomes than children raised by only one. See Sara McLanahan and Gary Sandefur, Growing Up a Single Parent: What Hurts, What Helps (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994). Indeed, a 2002 Child Trends report concluded that “it is not simply the presence of two parents, as some have assumed, but the presence of two biological parents that seems to support children’s development.” See Kristin Anderson Moore, Susan M. Jekielek, and Carol Emig, “Marriage From a Child’s Perspective: How Does Family Structure Affect Children, and What Can We Do About It?,” Child Trends, June 2002, http://www.childtrends.org/files/marriagerb602.pdf (accessed June 5, 2012). Emphasis in original.
In addition to NFSS, two recent studies have used nationally representative data to examine the outcomes of children raised by parents who have had same-sex relationships. One used the 2000 Census, and the other the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Kindergarten cohort. These studies analyzed only elementary and middle-school grade retention and reading and math assessment, respectively. For these studies, see Michael J. Rosenfeld, “Nontraditional Families”; and Daniel Potter, “Same-Sex Parent Families and Children’s Academic Achievement,” Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 74, No. 3 (June 2012), pp. 556–571.