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Backgrounder #1992 on Religion and Civil Society and Civil Society

December 18, 2006

Why Religion Matters Even More: The Impact of Religious Practice on Social Stability

By

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[1] This paper is an update of Patrick F. Fagan, "Why Religion Matters: The Impact of Religious Practice on Social Stability," Heritage Foundation Backgrounder No. 1064, January 15, 1996, at www.heritage.org/research/religion/upload/bg_1064.pdf . See also Bill Broadway, "The Social Blessings of Believing: Heritage Foundation Report Urges Policymakers to Explore the Practical Benefits of Religious Practice," The Washington Post, February 10, 1996, p. B7.

[2] See Diane R. Brown and Lawrence E. Gary, "Religious Socialization and Educational Attainment Among African Americans: An Empirical Assessment," Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 60, No. 3 (Summer 1991), pp. 411-426; Sung Joon Jang and Byron R. Johnson, "Neighborhood Disorder, Individual Religiosity, and Adolescent Use of Illicit Drugs: A Test of Multilevel Hypotheses," Criminology, Vol. 39, No. 1 (February 2001), pp. 109-144; and Byron R. Johnson and David B. Larson, "Religion: The Forgotten Factor in Cutting Youth Crime and Saving At-Risk Urban Youth," Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, Center for Civic Innovation Jeremiah Project Report No. 2, 1998, at www.manhattan-institute.org/html/jpr-98-2.htm (December 6, 2006).

[3] For a review of the evidence on this topic, see Michael Novak, On Two Wings: Humble Faith and Common Sense at the American Founding (San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2001).

[4] James D. Richardson, Compilation of Messages and Papers of the Presidents, 1789-1897 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1907), Vol. 1, p. 213.

[5] See Linda Waite and Maggie Gallagher, The Case for Marriage: Why Married People Are Happier, Healthier, and Better Off Financially (New York: Doubleday, 2000); David Popenoe, Life Without Father (New York: Free Press, 1960); and David Blankenhorn, Fatherless America (New York: Basic Books, 1995).

[6] Andrew J. Weaver, Judith A. Samford, Virginia J. Morgan, David B. Larson, Harold G. Koenig, and Kevin J. Flannelly,"A Systematic Review of Research on Religion in Six Primary Marriage and Family Journals: 1995-1999," American Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 30, No. 4 (July 2002), pp. 293-309.

[7] Christopher G. Ellison and Kristin L. Anderson, "Religious Involvement and Domestic Violence Among U.S. Couples," Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 40, Issue 2 (June 2001), pp. 269-286.

[8] Linda C. Robinson, "Marital Strengths in Enduring Marriages," Family Relations, Vol. 42, No. 1 (1993), pp. 38-45.

[9] Jane Reardon-Anderson, Matthew Stagner, Jennifer Ehrle Macomber, and Julie Murray, "Systematic Review of the Impact of Marriage and Relationship Programs," Urban Institute, February 11, 2005, at www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/411142_impact_marriage.pdf (December 6, 2006).

[10] Karen Price Carver, "Female Employment and First Union Dissolution in Puerto Rico," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 55, No. 3 (1993), pp. 686-698.

[11] Vaughn R. A. CallandTim B. Heaton, "Religious Influence on Marital Stability," Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 36, No. 3 (September 1997), pp. 382-392.

[12] Chris Knoester and Alan Booth, "Barriers to Divorce: When Are They Effective? When Are They Not?"Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 27, No. 1 (January 2000), pp. 78-99.

[13] David B. Larson, Susan S. Larson, and John Gartner, "Families, Relationships and Health," in Danny Wedding, ed., Behavior and Medicine (St. Louis: Mosby Year Book, Inc., 1990), pp. 135-147.

[14] Lee G. Burchinal, "Marital Satisfaction and Religious Behavior," American Sociological Review, Vol. 22, No. 3 (June 1957), pp. 306-310.

[15] Lisa D. Pearce and Dana L. Haynie, "Intergenerational Religious Dynamics and Adolescent Delinquency," Social Forces, Vol. 82, No. 4 (June 2004), pp. 1553-1572.

[16] Christopher G. Ellison, John P. Bartkowski, and Kristin L. Anderson, "Are There Religious Variations in Domestic Violence?" Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 20, No. 1 (January 1999), pp. 87-113.

[17] Kristen Taylor Curtis and Christopher G. Ellison, "Religious Heterogamy and Marital Conflict: Findings from the National Survey of Families and Households," Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 23, No. 4 (May 2002), pp. 551-576.

[18] Evelyn L. Lehrer and Carmel U. Chiswick, "Religion as a Determinant of Marital Stability,"Demography, Vol. 30, No. 3 (August1993), pp. 385-404.

[19] Howard Wineberg, "Marital Reconciliation in the United States: Which Couples Are Successful?" Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 56, No.1 (February 1994), pp. 80-88.

[20] Michael Hout, "Why More Americans Have No Religious Preference: Politics and Generations," American Sociological Review, Vol. 67, No. 2 (April 2002), pp. 165-190.

[21] Timothy T. Clydesdale, "Family Behaviors Among Early U.S. Baby Boomers: Exploring the Effects of Religion and Income Change, 1965-1982," Social Forces, Vol. 76, No. 2 (December 1997), pp. 605-635.

[22] Paul R. Amato, David R. Johnson, Alan Booth, and Stacy J. Rogers, "Continuity and Change in Marital Quality Between 1980 and 2000," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 65, No.1 (February 2003), pp. 1-22.

[23] W. Bradford Wilcox, Soft Patriarchs, New Men: How Christianity Shapes Fathers and Husbands (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004), p. 186.

[24]Howard M. Bahr and Bruce A. Chadwick, "Religion and Family in Middleton, USA,"Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 47 (May 1985), pp. 407-414.

[25] Carol Tavris and Susan Sadd, The Redbook Report on Female Sexuality (New York: Delacorte Press, 1977).

[26] Larry L. Bumpass, James A. Sweet, and Andrew Cherlin, "The Role of Cohabitation in Declining Rates of Marriage," University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology National Survey of Families and Households Working Paper No. 5, 1989, pp. 913-927.

[27] Paul R. Amato, "Explaining the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 58, No. 3 (August 1996), pp. 628-640.

[28] Kazuo Yamaguchi, "Dynamic Relationships Between Premarital Cohabitation and Illicit Drug Use: An Event-History Analysis of Role Selection and Role Socialization," American Sociological Review, Vol. 50, No. 4 (August 1985), pp. 530-546.

[29] Arland Thornton, W. G. Axinn, and D. H. Hill, "Reciprocal Effects of Religiosity, Cohabitation, and Marriage," American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 98, No. 3 (November 1992), pp. 628-651.

[30] Ibid.

[31] Lisa D. Pearce and William G. Axinn, "The Impact of Family Religious Life on the Quality of Mother-Child Relations," American Sociological Review, Vol. 63, No. 6 (December 1998), pp. 810-828.

[32] W. Bradford Wilcox, "Religion, Convention, and Paternal Involvement," Journalof Marriage and Family, Vol. 64, No. 3 (August 2002), pp. 780-792.

[33] William S. Aquilino, "Two Views of One Relationship: Comparing Parents' and Young Adult Children's Reports of the Quality of Intergenerational Relations," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 61, No. 4 (November 1999), pp. 858-870.

[34] Pearce and Haynie, "Intergenerational Religious Dynamics and Adolescent Delinquency."

[35] Pearce and Axinn, "The Impact of Family Religious Life on the Quality of Mother-Child Relations."

[36] Ibid.

[37] Valerie King, "The Influence of Religion on Fathers' Relationships with Their Children," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 65, No. 2 (May 2003), pp. 382-395.

[38] Wilcox, Soft Patriarchs, pp. 112-118.

[39] Wilcox, "Religion, Convention, and Paternal Involvement."

[40] Ellison et al., "Are There Religious Variations in Domestic Violence?"

[41] Ellison and Anderson,"Religious Involvement and Domestic Violence Among U.S. Couples."

[42] Wilcox, Soft Patriarchs, p. 182.

[43] Lisa D. Wade, "Relationship Dissolution as a Life Stage Transition: Effects on Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 64, No. 4 (November 2002), pp. 898-914.

[44] Sharon Scales Rostosky, Mark D. Regnerus, and Margaret Laurie Comer Wright, "Coital Debut: The Role of Religiosity and Sex Attitudes in the Add Health Survey," Journal of Sex Research, Vol.40, No. 4 (November 2003), pp. 358-367.

[45] Wilcox, Soft Patriarchs, p. 81.

[46] Gerbert Kraaykamp, "Trends and Countertrends in Sexual Permissiveness: Three Decades of Attitude Change in the Netherlands: 1965-1995," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 64, No. 1 (February 2002), pp. 225-239.

[47] Arland Thornton, "Religious Participation and Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Attitudes," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 51, No. 3 (August 1989), pp. 641-653.

[48] In this study, "religiosity" scores were measured on a scale that ranged from 3 to 12 and represented an average of an individual's scores with regard to three different variables: attendance at religious services, participation in religious youth activities, and self-rated importance of religion.

[49] Rostosky et al., "Coital Debut."

[50] Lynn Blinn-Pike, "Why Abstinent Adolescents Report They Have Not Had Sex: Understanding Sexually Resilient Youth," Family Relations, Vol. 48, No. 3 (July 1999), pp. 295-301.

[51] John O. G. Billy, "Contextual Effects on the Sexual Behavior of Adolescent Women," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 56, No. 2 (May 1994), pp. 387-404.

[52] Byron R. Johnson, Ralph Brett Tompkins, and Derek Webb, "Objective Hope-Assessing the Effectiveness of Faith-Based Organizations: A Systematic Review of the Literature," Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, Center for Research on Religion and Urban Civil Society, 2002, at www.manhattan-institute.org/pdf/crrucs_objective_hope.pdf (June 30, 2005).

[53] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, "Births: Preliminary Data for 2005," reviewed November 21, 2006, at www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/hestats/
prelimbirths05/prelimbirths05.htm#ref01
(December 13, 2006).

[54] Maureen Waller, "High Hopes: Unmarried Parents' Expectations About Marriage," Children and Youth Services Review,Vol. 23, No. 6 (December 2001), pp. 457-484.

[55] Allan F. Abrahamse, Beyond Stereotypes: Who Becomes a Single Teenage Mother? (Santa Monica, Calif.: Rand Corporation, 1988), pp. 37-50.

[56] Michael J. Donahue, "Aggregate Religiousness and Teenage Fertility Revisited: Reanalyses of Data from the Guttmacher Institute," presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Religion, Chicago, October 30, 1988.

[57] Harold G. Koenig, Linda K. George, Harvey J. Cohen, Judith C. Hays, David B. Larson, and Dan G. Blazer, "The Relationship Between Religious Activities and Cigarette Smoking in Older Adults," Journals of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, Vol. 53A, Issue 6 (November 1998), pp. M426-M434.

[58] Feroz Ahmed, Diane R. Brown, Lawrence E. Gary, and Frough Saadatmand, "Religious Predictors of Cigarette Smoking: Findings for African American Women of Childbearing Age," Behavioral Medicine, Vol. 20, No. 1 (Spring 1994), pp. 34-43.

[59] John Gartner, David B. Larson, and George Allen, "Religious Commitment and Mental Health: A Review of the Empirical Literature," Journal of Psychology and Theology, Vol. 19, Issue 1 (Spring 1991), pp. 6-25.

[60] Deborah Hasin, Jean Endicott, and CollinsLewis, "Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Patients with Affective Syndrome," Comprehensive Psychiatry, Vol. 26,Issue 3(May-June 1985), pp. 283-295.

[61] Achaempong Y. Amoeateng and Stephen J. Bahr, "Religion, Family, and Drug Abuse," Sociological Perspectives, Vol. 29 (1986), pp. 53-73, and John K. Cochran, Leonard Beghley, and E. Wilbur Block, "Religiosity and Alcohol Behavior: An Exploration of Reference Group Therapy," Sociological Forum, Vol. 3, No. 2 (Spring 1988), pp. 256-276.

[62] Marvin D. Free, Jr., "Religiosity, Religious Conservatism, Bonds to School, and Juvenile Delinquency Among Three Categories of Drug Users," Deviant Behavior, Vol. 15, No. 2 (1994), pp. 151-170.

[63] David A. Brizer, "Religiosity and Drug Abuse Among Psychiatric Inpatients," American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Vol. 19, No. 3 (September 1993), pp. 337-345.

[64] Stephanie Carroll, "Spirituality and Purpose in Life in Alcoholism Recovery," Journal of Studies on Alcohol, Vol. 54, No. 3 (May 1993), pp. 297-301.

[65] Vangie A. Foshee and Bryan R. Hollinger, "Maternal Religiosity, Adolescent Social Bonding, and Adolescent Alcohol Use," Journal of Early Adolescence, Vol. 16, No. 4 (November 1996), pp. 451-468.

[66] Barbara R. Lorch and Robert H. Hughes, "Religion and Youth Substance Use," Journal of Religion and Health, Vol. 24, No. 3(September 1985), pp. 197-208.

[67] Johnson et al., "Objective Hope."

[68] Byron R. Johnson, "A Better Kind of High: How Religious Commitment Reduces Drug Use Among Poor Urban Teens," Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, Center for Research on Religion and Urban Civil Society Report No. 2000-2, at www.manhattan-institute.org/html/cr_12.htm (December 6, 2006).

[69] Edward M. Adlaf, "Drug Use and Religious Affiliation: Feelings and Behavior," British Journal of Addiction,Vol. 80, No. 2 (June 1985), pp. 163-171.

[70] Roger D. Thompson, "Teen Challenge of Chattanooga, Tennessee: Survey of Alumni," University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, 1994.

[71] Aaron T. Bicknese, "The Teen Challenge Drug Treatment Program in Comparative Perspective," doctoral dissertation, Northwestern University, 1999.

[72] A recent review of the sociological literature on drug treatment and rehabilitation by Byron Johnson, now at Baylor University's Department of Sociology and Anthropology, gives cause for both optimism and caution: "Our review of the literature on faith-based [interventions] reveals two very basic facts. First, what we do know about their effectiveness is positive and encouraging. Faith-based organizations appear to have advantages over comparable secular institutions in helping individuals overcome difficult circumstances (e.g., imprisonment and drug abuse). Second, although this literature is positive, it is also limited." Johnson et al., "Objective Hope."

[73] Johnson et al.,"Objective Hope."

[74] Ibid.

[75] Ibid.

[76] Ellison et al., "Are There Religious Variations in Domestic Violence?" andJ. M. Mosher and P. J. Handal, "The Relationship Between Religion and Psychological Distress in Adolescents," Journal of Psychology and Theology, Vol. 25, Issue 4 (Winter 1997), pp. 449-457.

[77] Christopher G. Ellison, Jason D. Boardman, David R. Williams, and James S. Jackson, "Religious Involvement, Stress, and Mental Health: Findings from the 1995 Detroit Area Study," Social Forces, Vol. 80, Issue 1 (September 2001), pp. 215-249.

[78] Sung Joon Jang and Byron R. Johnson, "Explaining Religious Effects on Distress Among African Americans," Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 43, No. 2 (June 2004), pp. 239-260.

[79] Johnson et al.,"Objective Hope."

[80] Neal Krause, Christopher G. Ellison, Benjamin A. Shaw, John P. Marcum, and Jason D. Boardman, "Church-Based Social Support and Religious Coping," Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 40, No. 4 (December 2001), pp. 637-656.

[81] Ellisonet al.,"Religious Involvement, Stress, and Mental Health."

[82] C. A. Markstrom, "Religious Involvement and Adolescent Psychosocial Development," Journal of Adolescence, Vol. 22, No. 2 (April 1999), pp. 205-221.

[83] Ellison et al., "Are There Religious Variations in Domestic Violence?"

[84] Johnson et al.,"Objective Hope."

[85] Christopher G. Ellison, "Race, Religious Involvement, and Depressive Symptomatology in a Southeastern U.S. Community," Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 40, No. 11 (June 1995), pp. 1561-1572.

[86] Loyd S. Wright, Christopher J. Frost, and Stephen J. Wisecarver, "Church Attendance, Meaningfulness of Religion, and Depressive Symptomatology Among Adolescents," Journal of Youth and Adolesence, Vol. 22, No. 5 (October 1993), pp. 559-568.

[87] Frank Tovato, "Domestic/Religious Individualism and Youth Suicide in Canada," Family Perspective, Vol. 24, No. 1 (1990), pp. 69-81.

[88] K. Harker, "Immigration Generation, Assimilation, and Adolescent Psychological Well-Being," Social Forces, Vol. 79, No. 3 (March 2001), pp. 969-1004.

[89] Johnson et al.,"Objective Hope."

[90]Mark D. Regnerus, "Religion and Positive Adolescent Outcomes: A Review of Research and Theory," Review of Religious Research, Vol. 44, No. 4 (June 2003), pp. 394-413.

[91]Robert A. Hummer, Richard G. Rogers, Charles B. Nam, and Christopher G. Ellison, "Religious Involvement and U.S. Adult Mortality," Demography, Vol. 36, No. 2 (May 1999), pp. 273-285.

[92] Robert A. Hummer, Christopher G. Ellison, Richard G. Rogers, Benjamin E. Moulton, and Ron R. Romero,"Religious Involvement and Adult Mortality in the United States: Review and Perspective," Southern Medical Journal, Vol. 97, No. 12 (December 2004), pp. 1223-1230.

[93] Jeffrey S. Levin and Preston L. Schiller, "Is There a Religious Factor in Health?" Journal of Religion and Health, Vol. 26, No. 1 (March 1987), pp. 9-35.

[94] George W. Comstock and Kay B. Patridge, "Church Attendance and Health," Journal of Chronic Diseases, Vol. 25, No. 12 (December 1972), pp. 665-672.

[95] Hummer et al., "Religious Involvement and U.S. Adult Mortality."

[96] Ellison et al., "Are There Religious Variations in Domestic Violence?"

[97] Mark D. Regnerus, "Making the Grade: The Influence of Religion upon the Academic Performance of Youth in Disadvantaged Communities," University of Pennsylvania, Center for Research on Religion and Urban Civil Society Report No.3, 2001.

[98] Mark D. Regnerus, "Shaping Schooling Success: Religious Socialization and Educational Outcomes in Metropolitan Public Schools," Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 39, Issue 3 (September 2000), pp. 363-370.

[99] Chandra Muller and Christopher G. Ellison, "Religious Involvement, Social Capital, and Adolescents' Academic Progress: Evidence from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988," Sociological Focus, Vol. 34, No. 2 (May 2001), pp. 155-183.

[100] See Derek Neal, "What Have We Learned About the Benefits of Private Schooling?" Federal Reserve Bank of New York Economic Policy Review, Vol. 4, No. 1 (March 1998), pp. 79-86.

[101] Muller and Ellison, "Religious Involvement, Social Capital, and Adolescents' Academic Progress."

[102] Richard B. Freeman, "Who Escapes? The Relation of Churchgoing and Other Background Factors to the Socioeconomic Performance of Black Male Youths from Inner-City Tracts," National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 1656, June 1985.

[103] Douglas M. Sloane and Raymond H. Potvin, "Religion and Delinquency: Cutting Through the Maze," Social Forces, Vol. 65, No. 1 (September 1986), pp. 87-105.

[104]Regnerus, "Making the Grade."

[105] Brown and Gary, "Religious Socialization and Educational Attainment Among African Americans."

[106] Regnerus, "Shaping Schooling Success."

[107] Arthur C. Brooks, "Compassion, Religion, and Politics," Public Interest, September 22, 2004, pp. 57-66.

[108] Mark D. Regnerus, Christian Smith, and David Sikkink, "Who Gives to the Poor? The Influence of Religious Tradition and Political Location on the Personal Generosity of Americans Toward the Poor," Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 37, No. 3 (September 1998), pp. 481-493.

[109]Brooks, "Compassion, Religion, and Politics."

[110]Ram A. Cnaan, "The Philadelphia Story: Preliminary Findings from the Philadelphia Census," Hartford Institute for Religious Research, at www.hirr.hartsem.edu/cong/research_phillycensus.html (December 7, 2006), and Ram A. Cnaan and Stephanie C. Boddie, "Philadelphia Census of Congregations and Their Involvement in Social Service Delivery," Social Service Review, Vol. 75, No. 4 (December 2001), pp. 559-589.

[111]Patrick F. Fagan, "The Real Root Causes of Violent Crime: The Breakdown of Marriage, Family, and Community," Heritage Foundation Backgrounder No. 1026, March 17, 1995, at www.heritage.org/Research/Crime/upload/bg_1026.pdf.

[112] Hummer et al., "Religious Involvement and Adult Mortality in the United States," pp. 1224-1225.

[113] David Lester, "Religiosity and Personal Violence: A Regional Analysis of Suicide and Homicide Rates," The Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 127, No. 6 (December 1987), pp. 685-686.

[114] Ellison et al., "Are There Religious Variations in Domestic Violence?"

[115]Byron R. Johnson, David B. Larson, Spencer De Li, and Sung Joon Jang, "Escaping from the Crime of Inner Cities: Church Attendance and Religious Salience Among Disadvantaged Youth," Justice Quarterly, Vol. 17, No. 2 (June 2000), pp. 377-39.

[116]Freeman, "Who Escapes?"

[117] Johnson and Larson, "Religion," and Byron R. Johnson, "Does Adolescent Religious Commitment Matter? A Reexamination of the Effects of Religiosity on Delinquency," Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 38, No. 1 (February 2001), pp. 22-43.

[118] Increased religious practice coincides with decreases of 27 percent for marijuana use and 33 percent for hard drugs. Jang and Johnson, "Neighborhood Disorder, Individual Religiosity, and Adolescent Use of Illicit Drugs."

[119] Johnson and Larson, "Religion."

[120] Johnson, "A Better Kind of High."

[121] Pearce and Haynie, "Intergenerational Religious Dynamics and Adolescent Delinquency."

[122]Ibid.

[123] Johnson et al.,"Objective Hope."

[124] For original research results and a review of related literature, see Marlena Studer and Arland Thornton, "Adolescent Religiosity and Contraceptive Usage," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 49, No. 1 (February 1987), pp. 117-128, and Jennifer S. Manlove, Elizabeth Terry Humen, Erum Ikramullah, and Kristin A. Moore, "The Role of Parent Religiosity in Teen's Transition to Sex and Contraception," Journal of Adolescent Health, Vol. 39, Issue 4 (October 2006), pp. 578-587.

[125] See Patrick Fagan, Kirk A. Johnson, and Jonathan Butcher, "A Portrait of Family and Religion in America: Key Outcomes for the Common Good," The Heritage Foundation, 2006, p. 33, Chart 26, and p. 34, Chart 27, at www.heritage.org/upload/Map_of_Religion.pdf.

[126] David B. Larson and Susan S. Larson, The Forgotten Factor in Physical and Mental Health: What Does the Research Show? (Rockville, Md.: National Institute for Healthcare Research, 1994), p. 87.

[127] Ken F. Wiebe and J. Roland Fleck, "Personality Correlates of Intrinsic, Extrinsic, and Non-Religious Orientations, Journal of Psychology, Vol. 105, No. 2 (July 1980), pp. 111-117.

[128] Richard D. Kahoe,"Personality and Achievement Correlates on Intrinsic and Extrinsic Religious Orientations," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 29, No. 6 (June 1974), pp. 812-818.

[129] Allen E. Bergin, Kevin S. Masters, and P. Scott Richards, "Religiousness and Mental Health Reconsidered: A Study of an Intrinsically Religious Sample," Journal of Counseling Psychology, Vol. 34, Issue 2 (April 1987), pp. 197-204; Mark Baker and Richard Gorsuch, "Trait Anxiety and Intrinsic-Extrinsic Religiousness," Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 21, No. 2 (June 1982), pp. 119-122; Gordon W. Allport and J. Michael Ross, "Personal Religious Orientation and Prejudice," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 5, No. 4 (April 1967), pp. 432-443.

[130] Bergin et al., "Religiousness and Mental Health Reconsidered."

[131] Ann M. Downey, "Relationships of Religiosity to Death Anxiety of Middle-Aged Males," Psychological Reports, Vol. 54, No. 3 (June 1984), pp. 811-822.

[132] Gordon W. Allport, The Person in Psychology: Selected Essays (Boston: Beacon Press, 1968), p. 150.

[133] Zorach v. Clauson, 343 U.S. 306 (1952).

[134] Johnson et al.,"Objective Hope."

[135] Byron R. Johnson, "Religious Programs and Recidivism Among Former Inmates in Prison Fellowship Programs: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study," Justice Quarterly, Vol. 21, No. 2 (June 2004), pp. 329-354.

[136] Allen E. Bergin, "Values and Religious Issues in Psychotherapy and Mental Health," The American Psychologist, Vol. 46, No. 4 (April 1991), pp. 394-403.

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