Scorecard on Clinton's First 100 Days

Report Political Process

Scorecard on Clinton's First 100 Days

April 29, 1993 33 min read Download Report
Acting Senior Vice President, Research
Kim R. Holmes, oversaw the think tank’s defense and foreign policy team for more than two decades.

(Archived document, may contain errors)


937 April29,1993 SCORECARD ON CLINTON'S FIRST100 DAYS To the best my knowledge, the only lcampai commitment1 I haven't deficit the week after the election was announced as being $50 billion bigger than I thought it was. An d I can't responsibly er to cut anybody's taxes been able to le ep was to give me tax relief to t 8" e middle class because the when the deficit is going up instaad of dawn. T 2 t's not right and I can't do it Bill Clinton, Boston April 25,1993 INTRODUCTI ON After Bill Clinton was elected president last November, The Heritage Foundation re leased a series of frfteen special publications entitled Memos zo President-Elect Clinton.

Each Memo outlined the steps needed to implement a major promise made during th e campaign. While the Mems did note legislative initiatives, they concentrated on the short-tenn administrative decisions that should be taken to shift policy in the direction Bill Clinton desired.

To be sure, there could be wide differences of opinion on many of the long-term strate gic policy steps needed to fulfill a campaign pledge, such as the budget package to revive the economy. But many of the short-term administrative actions recommended by Heri tage scholars were the steps virtually any Administ r ation would need to take to fulfill a particular campaign pledge. For example, one Memo outlined the detailed actions neces sary for the White House to fulfill Clinton's pledge to cut 100,OOO civil service positions given the complexities of existing law.

As Clinton's 100th day in office approached, Heritage scholars identified the actions that Americans could expect to have been taken within 100 days if the Clinton Adminis tration seriously addressed certain campaign pledges. These have been assembled bel ow and the relevant Administration decisions nqted.

It is a sorry scorecard. Of 76 actions needed to take the fust steps to fulfill important pledges chosen by Heritage in only five cases could the Administration be awarded an ACTION TAKEN scm. In a staggering 56 cases the White House failed to take the ne cessary steps, and in only 15 cases could it be said that the Administration had made signifkant progress-yet less progress than could reasonably have been expected.

What is ironic is that Clinton promised to focus on domestic policy like a laser. Yet he has taken none of the actions needed in the first 100 days to fulfill his commitments just three actions were partially taken, while no action was taken on another

41. In do mestic policy, Clinton pledges during the campaign to provide tax relief to the m iddle class, halve the deficit within four years, and trim regulation and the bureaucracy were soon abandoned. But in his first 100 days as President, Clinton has delivered a huge tax hike, budget tricks to mask spending increases, and more red tape and b ureaucracy meant confusion around the world about Americas priorities and broad objectives. The only bright spot is Russia, wheri: Clinton took clear steps to give tangible support to Boris Yeltsins government.

In defense policy, Clintons first 100 days ha ve been little short of a disaster. Despite his pledge to develop a comprehensive national policy for Americas defense he has not done so, but instead has become embroiled in a damaging dispute over homosexuals in the military-hardly the top priority in a n y rethinking of U.S. security interests. And rather than trim spending on defense in line with a thoughtfully developed defense reas sessment, he has cut the defense budget by twice the amount he pledged in the campaign in what seems to be little more tha n a policy of raiding defense to find cash for expensive new domestic pgrams. The result a demaralized and confused American military i In foreign policy, Clinton has been dangerously slow out of the starting gate. That has U TURNS IN DOMESTIC POLICY By gi v ing no ~al muscle to campaign commitments to ker trade, Clinton risks the collapse of the carefully negotiated he trade agreement with Mexico and the Uruguay Round of the GAIT talks. Absent, too, in the first 100 days is any follow-through on his pledge t o end welfare as a way of life and to foster empowerment in Americas inner-city communities. On the campaign trail Clinton hted Congress for not enacting former 1 In some cases, a similar action is needed to help accomplish more than one pledge. In these c a ses, the action is scored only once 2 HUD Secretary Jack Kemps programs to help the working poor to own their own homes. As President he gutted funds for these programs from his budget request. Clinton crisscrossed the country pledging radical reform of t h e welfare system. As President he appointed a Secretary of Health and Human Services with a long history of opposition to reform-and who even had to be reminded to discuss welfare changes at her confirma tion hearing A DIRECTIONLESS FOREIGN AND DEFENSE PO L ICY During President Clintons first 100 days in office, his Administration has failed to ar ticulate a coherent foreign policy or defense policy. While the Administration has sketched the broad outlines of its policies, it has not been forthcoming with de tailed pol icy statements on specific issues.

A bottom-up review of defense policy is due to be completed this summer, yet many key jobs in the Pentagon have not been fded. Clintons defense budget doubles the $60 billion cut over five years that he pledged during the campaign. This draconian reduction in defense capability at a time of increasing global uncertainty poses additional risks to American security.

Moreover, the topdown approach to defense budget cuts means that defense policy has become purely budget-driven. The Clinton defense budget cuts will eventually under mine the ability of the U.S. to protect its security interests around the globe. The 40 per cent reduction in the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) budget for fiscal year 1994 is par ti c ularly troubling; it will result in a strategic defense system that will defend only U.S allies overseas and not Americans on U.S. htory. Mareover, to save money, the Ad ministration plans to rely on less-capable resme forces as a substitute for active fa rces.

This Certainiy will weaken the combat-xeadiness of U.S. forces.

The Clinton Administration has yet to define its Latin America and Caribbean policy.

While it claims that the North American Free Trade Agreement with Mexico and Canada will be a top p rioity and the center of its international trade policy, Clinton has SQ far failed to develop an effective strategy for promoting it to the American people and get ting it passed through an inuGasingly protectionist Congress. Placing the region on the bac k burner will only lead to increased protectionism, regional economic stagnation, po litical turmoil, and an increase in such security threats as drug trafficking and tenwism.

The Clinton Administration has a limited window of opportunity in which to act if it plans to improve U.S.-Latin American ties.

By contrast, Clinton llecognized the urgency of assisting reform in Russia. The Presi dent was right to back Boris Yeltsin and to hold an early summit with the Russian presi dent. However, the Administration must do mm to use foreign aid to promote private entrepreneurship in Russia. If U.S. economic assistance is to succeed, more effort has to be put into designating efficient, private or public-private disbursement agencies on the U.S. end, and recipient e nterprises on the Russian end. Also, more aid has to be provided to the non-Russian republics of the fmer Soviet Union.

In the days before his inauguration, Heritage staff called on Clinton to calm fears in Asia and demonstrate your commitment to maintaini ng all the benefits of Americas con tinued influence there Clinton, however, has heightened Asians worries that the 3 U.S. will remain a dependable ally. By doubling the defense reductions he promised dur ing his campaign, and setting a harsh tone for U.S . -Japan relations, Clinton has raised fears in Asia of a U.S. retreat from its 20th century role as a peacekeeper in the Pacific and sharpened worries about protectionist trade policies CONCLUSION Bill Clintons first 100 days must alarm those Americans who looked forward to a New Democrat in the White House, a Democrat who would understand the fears and aspi rations of working families and would avoid the tax-and-spend philosophy of the past.

The record to date is one of a politician who apparently has lear ned little from merit his tory. While speaking elo quently in the campaign of the need to restore the fiscal integrity of Wash ington, he has opened the tax and spending fldgates. Despite talk of insisting on responsi bility in social programs he is ready ing huge new entitlement programs for enactment, And rather than fostering stability in the world with a U.S fareign and defense pol icy based on a clear vi sion, he has made the world less safe by dither ing and by demoralizing Americas armed farces.

While 100 days is far tooshortaperiodin which to pass judgment on Clintons Presidency it is long enough to jus tify deep concern.

Stuart M. Butler Vice President and Director of Domestic and Economic Policy Studies Kim R. Holmes Vice President and Directo r of Foreign and Defense Policy Studies 4 DOMESTIC AND ECONOMIC POLICY STUDIES From Memo fo Presidenf-Elect Clinton No. 1 An Action Plan to Create Jobs By Daniel J. Mitchell December 14,1992 Putting people first demands, above all, that we put America bac k to work My national economic strategy will raoard the people who work hard crating new jobs starting new businesses and investing in our people and our plants here at home. To restore economic growth, we need to help free enterprise flourish, put our peo p le back to work and learn again how to compete Bill Clinton, Putting People First A National Economic Strategy for Amerika ACTION: Using executive authority, index the capital gains tax 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN. The Clinton Administration proposes limited capit a l gains tax relief for small business. However, it permits only Subchapter C corporations to take advantage of a lower capital gains rate-only 20 percent of businesses in this country. Most new businesses are set up as sole proprietorships, partnerships, o r Subchapter S corpof8tions ACTION: By executive order, suspend the DavbBacon Act 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN. Even. worse, the Clinton Administration instead overturned the Bush Administrations suspension of the Act last fall. That suspension, intended to assist t he rebuilding of the hurricane-hit areas of Florida, Louisiana, and Hawaii opened up federal construction jobs far lower-skilled, often minority, Americans ACTION: Using executive authority, reinstate the Gramm-Rudman deficR reduction targets 8 ACTION NUT TAKEN ACTION: Propose legislation to cut payroll and Income tax rates 8 ACTION NUT TAKEN. The Clinton Administrations budget proposes over $300 bil lion in new taxes over the next five years, including hikes in personal income tax rates, corporate income tax rates, Medicare payroll taxes, Social Security benefit taxes, estate taxes, a broad-based energy tax, and higher gas taxes beginning in 19

96. In addition, the Administrations Health Care Task Force is considering tax ing some employee health benefits and a value added tax in order to pay for its health care proposal ACTION: Propose legislation to cap domestic spending. a1 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN. The Clinton Administrations budget would increase domes tic spending by $290 billion over five years, excluding net interest and savings and loan bailout costs. i 5 ACTION: Propose real budget process reform legislation 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN.

ACTION: Veto mandated benefits legislation 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN. Less than three weeks into his presidency, Clinton signed into l aw the Mandated Family Leave bill ACTION: Promote school choice legislation and other real education reforms in Congress and in the states ACTION NOT TAKEN. President Clinton is not expected to include it in the educa tional Iefm package sent to Congress. So low-income Americans will continue to have no effective choice of school. Clinton did exercise school choice personally by sending his own daughter to an exclusive Washington,private school, costing ap proximately $lO,OOO per year ACTION: Reject govern ment makework programs ACTION NOT TAKEN. The Administrations now-withdrawn $16 billion economic stimulus package contained make-work infrastructure and summer jobs pmgrams.

Moreover, the FY 1994 Labor Department budget calls for one-stop career cen ters, i ncreased Jobs Carps funding, and a new dislocated worker program From Memo to President-Elect Clinton No. 2 How to Cut the Federal Bureaucracy By Donald Devine December 14,1992 We cannot put peoplefirst and create jobs and economic grawth without a rmluti o n in government. We must take away power porn the entrenched bureaucracies and special interests that dominate Washin gton I will reduce the white House staff by 25 percent and challenge Congress to do the same I willl eliminate 200,000 unnecessary positi ons in the bureaucracy. Iwill cut 200,OOOfideral government positions through attrition I will require federal managers and workers to achieve a 3 percent across-the-board administrative savings in every federal agency.

Bill Clinton, Putting People First A National Economic Strategy

America ACTION: institute on Inauguration Day a total freeze on federal hiring (except political appoint ments), accompanied by a 3 percent across-the=bard administrative cut 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN. President Clinton did issue exe cutive orders calling for a re duction of 100,OOO government jobs by the end of 1995 and a 14 percent cut in fed eral administrative costs by 19

97. But his FY 1994 budget inflates the base num bers from which he is cutting staff, making it easier to reac h his target. And unlike an immediate freeze, it is not clear whether the cuts ever will be enacted, because the President defers most of the staff reductions to later years 6 ACTION: Demand that Congress eliminate minimum staffing levels In all departmen ts and agen cies 8 ACTION NOTTAKEN.

ACTION: Reestablish Off Ice of Personnel Management (OPM) monthly accounting of full-time equivalent FTE) employment 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN ACTION: Demand from Congress the elimination of leglslatlve limb on the number and f une tions of political appointees, and reduce the Executive Office of the President staff by wpercent 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN. Clintons press releases point to a 25 percent staff reduction but the fine print shows othewise. To achieve his target, Clinton simpl y excluded the two largest units in the White House, including the most bloated, the Office of Management and Budget. In addition, he used as a base for comparison the point at which the Bush Administration was at its staffing peak rather than the last fis c al year. Mmover, the Clinton Administration has quietly asked Congress for $1 1 mil lion in supplemental funding this year for unanticipated expenses. In sum, total funding for thewhite House will haease from $180.4 million (FY 1992 outlays to $185 millio n (FY 1994 proposed From Memo to President-Elect Clinton No. 5 ow to Expand World Trade to Spur U.S. Economic Growth By Bryan T. Johnson December 30,1992 The issue here is not whether we should support fiee trade or open markets. Of course we should We sim ply cannot go backward when the rest ofthe wld is going fonuurrd into more integrated economIies We cannot go inward when our opptunities are so often outward.

Bill Clinton, Remarks at North Carolina State Univemity, Raleigh, North Carolina October 4,1992.

If we can make this [NAFTAI a eement wk with Canada and Mexico, then we can reach down into the other mar iL -oriented economies of Central and South America to expand even further It will provide more jobs through exports. It will challenge us to become more competitive. It will certainly help Mexico A wealthier Mexico will buy more American products. As incomes rise there, that will reduce pressure for immigration across the border into the United States I think that a major part of our economic future rests in building up a strong two-way trade with Latin America I hope we can get a trade agreement with Chile.

Im very encouraged by whats going on in Argentina now.

Bill Clinton, Remarks at the Bipartisan Congressional Leadership Press Conference Novemb er 19,1992 7 ACTION: Urge Congress to ratify the North American FreeTrade Area (NAFTA) Agreement 8 ACTION PARTIALLY TAKEN. The Clinton Administration does support passage of the NAFTA. But the Administration will not submit the NAFIA to Congress until suc c essful negotiation of additional parallel accords concerning labor and the en vironment. In effect, this opens the NAFTA to renegotiation and gives special inter ests more opportunity to defeat the treaty in Congress. Moreover, by not pushing the agreemen t aggressively on Capitol Hill, the Administration has allowed NAFTA opponents to mobilize ACTION: Conclude the Utuguay Round of the General Agreement onTariffs and Trade 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN. The Adminisktion has been slow to act, missing an opportu nity to wrap up the GATI talks and jeopardizing the agreements already secured.

However, U.S. Trade Representative Mickey Kantor recently traveled to Empe in support of GAIT, and Administration officials stated recently that they hope to con clude negotiations by December 15 ACTION: Commence free trade area negotiations with Chile 8 A CTION NOTTAKEN.The Administration is waiting until after the NAE;TA talks conclude. To be sm, the Administration has died rhetorically the Bush Administrations commitment that free ,trade negotiations ~6th Chile will follow the NAFTA, but officials have f ailed to gi& assurance that they will move quickly ACTION: Seek from Congress an extension of fast=track trade negotiating authority.

I ACTION PARTIALLY TAKEN. The Administration on April 9 requested an eight month extension of the fast track negotiating a uthority. However, this request was made for the GAIT negotiations only bd not for any other negotiations, such as fm trade agreement with Chile Fmm Memo to President-Elect Clinton No. 6 A Strategy for Sound Housing Poliq By Carl F. Horowitz, Ph.D.

Januar y 12,1993 We have to start indigenous economic development and housing strate es in these inner city] areas. There are all kinds of housing programs that are at ZUOI f that are empowering people. I think the Congess made a mistake in not passing more of l ack Kemps housing initiatives to do more for low income working people, to give them the right to own their own homes and secure their own neighborhoods.

Bill Clinton, remarks at Georgetown University, Washington, D.C December 12,1991 8 ACTION: Continue fo rmer HUD Secretary Jack Kemps agenda for giving residents of public and subsidized housing more control over their projects 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN. President Clintons budget phases out the HOPE program which supports tenant ownership of housing D will cease o ffering planning grants under HOPE in 1993 and 19

94. Moreover, Clinton proposes to transfer al most half of the 1993 HOPE apprOpriation 661 million) to two new separate p grams, Youthbuild and a Severely Dismssed Public Housing demonstration promm ACTION: Press for legislation phasing out subsidies for construction, reconstruction, and reha billtation of public and subsidized housing, and instead support wider use of vouchers and certificates 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN. In his FY 1994 budget proposal, Clinton pro p oses to renew expiring moderate rehabilitation contracts with vouchers. But, at the same time, he proposes 4,800 new public housing units and increases public housing operating subsidies by $239 million. And as part of the Administrations investment initi a tive, Clinton proposes a $5 11.4 million increase for the HOME program, which gives money to builders, not residents ACTION: Adopt the recommendations of the Advisory Commission on Regulatory Barriers to Af fordable Housing 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN ACTION: ign o re calls to delay Resolution Trust Corporation auctions of residential properties 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN. The Clinton Administration has slowed down bulk sales of RTC assets by capping the size of real estate, securities or other assets sold at $50 million Fr o m Memo to President-Elect Clinton No. 8 How to Get Spending Under Control By Scott A. Hodge January 15,1993 No wonder all of us have had enough. Our government doesnt wk We cannot put people first and create jobs and economic growth without a revolution i n government. We must take away power from the entrenched bureaucracies and special interests that dominate Washington The anszuer for every problem cannot always be another program or more money. It is time to radically change the way government operates M y plan will cut the deficit in half within four years, and assure that the deficit continues to fill each year after that Bill Clinton, Putting People First A National Economic Strategy for America 9 ACTION: Use the vote on raising the government's debt l l mit (expected In March) as a lever to force budget process reforms that will control spending 8 ACTiON NOT TAKEN. The Clinton Administration supported passage of an amend ment-free debt limit extension ACTION: Create a presidential commission to examine o p tions for cutting federal spending, I modelled after the Base Closing Commission 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN. The Clinton Administration oppoies such a commission de spite support from members of both parties on Capitol Hill, and policy research or ganizations ran g ing from The Heritage Foundation to the Progressive Policy Insti tute. He has instead appointed Vice Resident Go= to study red tape and govern ment waste and report back this summer ACTION: Send early, unequivocal signals of your opposition to wasteful sp e nding and your ea gerness to eliminate it 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN. The Administration's budget and economic package contains dozens of wasteful programs that will reward special interest pork projects, but few real cuts. Opposition to wasteful spending has com e from Congress, not thewhite House I ACTION: End the use of 'baseline" or "current services" budgeting technique in your first bud get, and use this budget to educate taxpayers on how their money is being spent.

I( ACTION NOT TAKEN. Not only is the Clinto n Administration using "baseline bud geting but officials m comparing their total deficit Eduction to the un-capped baseline deficits. In other words, their baseline exceeds even the 1990 budget agree ment spending caps. This gives them almost $100 billio n in artificial "savings" over five years I I ACTION: Seek legisiatbn to extend for five years the "firewail" that currently separates domes tic spending and defense spending, and eliminate the firewall that now separates do mestic discretionary spending a nd domestic entitlement spending.

I( ACTIONNOTTAKEN 10 From Memo to President-Elect Clinton NO. 9 Why Infrashucture Spending Wont Jump Startthe Economy By Edward L. Hudgins, Ph.D January 15,1993 As a prominent part of our commitment to put people first, we will create a Rebuild America Fund, with u $20 billion Federal investment in each year for four yars Bill Clinton, Putting People Fiirst A National Economic Strategy for America ACTION: Suspend the 1931 Davis=Bacon Act, which mandates that higher wages b e paid to workers on federally funded construction projects even when adequate, lower wage labor Is available 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN See An Action Plan to Create Jobs ACTION: instruct the Transportation Secretary to develop guidelines for selling airports to t he private sector and to publicize the benefits of privatization to the local governments that own the airports 8 ACTION NN TAKEN.

ACTION: Urge Congress to repeal Section 13(c) of the Urban MassTransportation Act of 1964 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN From Memo to Pre sident-Elect Clinton No. 11 Why You Were Right in Calling for a LineItem Veto By Steven Schwalm January 18,1993 Istrongly support the line-item veto, because I think its one of the most paverJul weapons we could use in our fight against out-of-control def i cit spending ACTION 8 ACTION 8 Bill Clinton, quoted in Just Do It, The Wall Street Journal Editorial, February 26,1992 include a iinaitem veto constitutional amendment in the legislative program submitted to Congress for enactment during the first 100 day s of your Administration.


Continue discussions with congressional leaders on enhanced rescission authority only as an interim measure which may be useful during the amendment ratification process.

ACTION PARTIALLY TAKEN. President Clint on supports enhanced rescission authority, but not as an interim step to a constitutional amendment 11 From Memo to President-Elecf Clinton No. 12 A Comprehensive Urban Policy By Robert Rector January 18,1993 How to Fix Welfare and Revitalize America's In n er Cities Let's make we1 re a second chance, not a way of life. I want to erase the stigma of welfare for good 6 restoring a simple, dignified principle: no one who can work can stay on welfare former It's time to honor,and reward people who wk hard and p l ay by the rules that means providing opportunity, demanding responsibility, and ending wel're as we know it Bill Clinton On Rewarding Work Clinton campaign document ACTION: Take steps that will achieve a comprehensive reform of the welfare system 8 ACTiON NOT TAKEN. Resident Clinton calls for radical change in the welfare sys tem, but has done almost nothing to achieve it. His choice for Secretary of Health and Human Services, Donna Shalala, has a long mod of advocating the expansion of traditional welfare spending and apposing work requhments on welfare recipi ents. Clinton's first-year budget contained SOme $30 billion in new spending on con ventional welfare programs of the sort he has proposed to end-but he requested none of funds needed to implement hi s welfare reforms ACTION: Improve inner-clty education by supporting real school choke 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN See "An Action Plan to &ate Jobs ACTION: Create jobs by slgnhg enterprh zone leglslatlon 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN. In February, Clinton called for enterpris e zone legislation.

But he did not propose enactment of a zone program in his FY 1994 budget ACTION: Launch a War on Crime 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN. Clinton actually has taken steps backward. His budget calls for a reduction in planned prison consauction, thus e nsuring that the= will be mm dangerous repeat felons on the streets ACTION: Lead a campaign to restore moral values and personal responsibility within innerdty communities 8 ACTION NOTTAKEN 12 From Memo to President-Elect Clinton No. 14 How to Help the En v ironment Without Destroying Jobs By John Shanahan January 19,1993 I believe it is time for a new era in environmental protection which uses the market to help us get OUT environment back on track-to recognize that Adam Smiths invisible hand can have a gre e n thumb In1 certain settings, this results-oriented approach can cut compliance costs, shrink regulatory bureaucracies, enlist corporate support, take environmental policy away from the specialists and lobbyists, and open if up more to the general public.

Bill Clinton, remarks at Drexel University, Earth Day, April 22,1992.

ACTION: Factor real exposure levels Into declslons to list sites for Superfund cleanup 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN ACTION: Within 100 days, open up the relevant government archives on global warming to re= searchers, subject to national security concerns 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN.

ACTION: Press for new leglslation to replace CAFE automobile fuel economy standards with pollution fees 8 ACTION NOTTAKEN.

ACTION: Within the flrst 100 days, issue an executhre order requiring the government to pay owners of wetlands the value of thelr confiscated property rights when development is denled to protect societally beneflclal wetlands 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN.

ACTION: Wlthln the flrst 100 days, issue an executhre order to eliminate most of the current costly regulations affecting solld waste dlsposal and r equire financial assurances from operators of landfills 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN I1 il I I I I i I I I j I I I I I I 13 From M&o to President-Elect Clinton No. 15 Realistic Options for Reducing the Burden of Excessive Regulation By William G. Laffer III January 19,1993 Expanding regulations threaten to overwhelm the nations entrepreneurs and divert them froom the task of building strong, innovative companies. While loudly complaining about crushing government regulations, Bush and Quayle have piled one regulatio n afrer another on the backs of Americas entrepreneurs Under Geor e Bush, the number of employees devoted to issuing and enforcingfederal The BushlQuayle penchant for overregulation has not gone unnoticed. The conservative Heritage Foundation recently conc l uded that although President Bush often complains about the burden placed on the economy by excessive regulation only Richard Nixon in the last two decades has done more to add to this burden regu L tions has incrmedfroom 104,000 to a stifling 125,000 Qin t odGore on Small Business and Entrepreneurship I am going to stop handing down mandates to you and regulating you to death ACTION 8 ACTION 8 ACTION 8 Bill Clinton, remarks before the US. Conference on Mayors, Houston, Texas June 22,1992 Walt at least six m onths before Imposing any new regulations.

ACTION NOT TAKEN: The Administration in fact has begun to extend its regulatory reach. Examples: It is calling far higher fuel efficiency standards far light trucks and mini-vans. It has undone some Bush Administr ation efforts to deregulate bio technology resemh. And the Administration is pressing General Motors to recall 4.7 million pickup trucks because of suspicions that side-mounted fuel trucks pose a fire hazard. Major airlines, the cable TV industry, and pha r maceutical manufactur ers are among the likely near-tern targets of federal mandates Before lmplementlng any new regulations, undertake a comprehenshre review of all ex isting federal regulations to look for ways to reduce thelr total burden to the econom y.


Revitalize the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) and use it as your personal agent to review all regulations promulgated by the executive branch, to make sure that the agencies use the least burdensome means posslble to achleve the de sired regulatory trends.

ACTION NOT TAKEN. The President has only recently named an Administrator for OJRA, and she has yet to be confiied by the Senate. It is too early to

ct whether or not she can revitalize ORA to counter Vice Pres ident Gores already strong role in regulatory review 14 ACTION: If you decide to repeal Executlve Order 12291, whlch requlres agencies to conslder overall costs and benefits of proposed regulations, do not abandon the principle of cost=beneflt analysis 8 ACTlON NOT TAKEN. TheWhite House does plan to scrap the arder, and is working on how to overhaul the Reagan/Bush executive orders governing regulatory review.

Still in question is whether cost-benefit analysis will be included. Meanwhile, Vice President Go re reportedly is overseeing an interagency project to create aWhite House system for reviewing major rule proposals ACTION: To limit the total cost Imposed on the economy by federal regulatlon, establlsh a regu latory budget 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN FOREIGN AND DEFENSE POLICY STUDIES From Memo to President-Elect Clinton No. 4 A Plan For Preserving Americas Military Strength By Baker Spring December 28,1992 I pledge to maintain forces strong enough to deter and when necessary to defeat any threat to our essential interests Bill Clinton, remarks at Georgetown University December 12,1991 ACTION: Set a floor on the overall size of the rnllftary 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN. All indications are that defense policy is now budget-driven.

Clintons defense budget, which doubles the $60 billion cut over five years he pledged during the campaign, is certain to produce a farce structure that is much smaller than the American people were given to expect during the pnxidential cam paign ACTION: Develop a reglonal-based strategy whereby s pecific forces are committed to project power to specific reglons 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN. Secretary of Defense Les Aspin has talked about a regional based strategy, but has yet to announce an allocation of farces 15 ACTION: Continue to produce, not just devel o p, new generations of weapons 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN. The Clinton budget would reduce the military procurement account to $45.5. billion in fiscal 1994, a 17 percent reduction from fiscal 1993 lev els. The 38.6 billion research and development account is redu c ed by 1 percent This budget puts the U.S. on the path to spending as much on research and develop ment as procurement. This is an unhealthy ratio, which eventually will undermine the ability of the U.S. to field high technology weapons ACTION: Set dates f o r the deployment of defenses against both short-range and ionprange missiles 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN. No dates have been set. Indeed, the 40 percent reduction in the Strategic Defense Initiative budget for fiscal 1994, if reflective of future cuts be yond 1994 , will at a minimum delay significantly-the deployment of defenses against short-range missiles and leave no viable deployment options for defenses against long-range missiles ACTION: Establish a new policy for ensuring U.S. access to and control of space I n the event of conflict 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN. No such policy has been announced yet. The Administrations plans may emerge this summer as a part of the bottom-up re view ACTION: Retain an effective military force fo,cused on its mission I( ACTION NOT TAKEN. T he Administration has fallen short in this area. With the Administration moving toward admitting openly gay men and women in the armed foms and putting women into combat, unit cohesion will suffer. In both the Army and Air Farce, Clinton has proposed farc e reductions for fiscal 1994 that axt indica tive of a policy of dying on less-well-trained, less-combat-mady reserve farces From Memo to President-Elect Clinton No. 7 An Agenda for Latin America and the Cariibean By Michael G. Wilson January 13,1993 One o f the strengths of any democracy is the continuity it allows our governments as our leaders change I want you to be assured that I intend to build on the relationships of the past four years and make the next four years even stronger in the co+eration for o ur mutual commitment to democracy and economic progress Bill Clinton, Address to the Rio Group of Latin American Leaders, Argentina, December 1,1992 16 ACTION 8 ACTION I ACTION 8 ACTION 8 ACTION I Pledge strong support for the North American Freelrade Agr e ement and for continued close ties with Mexico ACTION PARTIALLY TAKEN. The Administration continues to send mixed signals on the NAFTA. Since the inauguration, Clinton and several of his Cabinet mem bers, including Commerce Secretary Ron Brown and Treasur y Secretary Lloyd Bentsen, have pledged the Administrations strong support for the free trade pact be tween the U.S Canada, and Mexico. However, the White House has not yet devel oped a plan to get the NAFTA passed through Congress, where opposition is gro w ing daily Announce the U.S. intention to negotiate a free trade agreement with Chile.

ACTION NOT TAKEN While Clinton has mentioned his interest in negotiating a free trade agreement with Chile on several occasions since taking office, he has offered no f ormal commitment to such a pact I Ask Congress to extend fast track trade negotiating authority.

ACTION PARTIALLY TAKEN The Clinton Administration requested an eight-month extension of the fast track trade negotiating authority on April

9. However, this re quest was made only for the GATI negotiations.The Administration gave in to the labor unions and other protectionists by not extending it for bilateral trade agree ments with Latin American countries like Chile that are ready to begin n egotiations Promote the Enterprbe for the Americas initiative (EAI or a similar program of ACTION PARTIALLY TAKEN. The Clinton Administration rderated its support for the EAI during a March 30 speech by Larry Summers, the Undersecretary of the Tnasurydesi g nate furhtemational Affairs.The EAI, first proposed by George Bush on June 27,1990, is a far-mching pgram to create a hemisphere-wide free trade zone, spur foreign investment in Latin America, and reduce the regions debt burden. Swnmm, however, conditione d the Administrations supptnt for the initia tive on the protection of wurkers rights aqd the environment throughout the Ameri cas. This may slow the process of expanding fiee trade in the Americas spreading free trade In the Western Hemlsphere. I I i Lift the U.S. embargo on Haiti, help negotiate a political compromlse between support ers of ousted Haitian President JeanBertrand Arktide and the current government in Port-au=Prince, and spur free market reforms in Haiti.

ACTION PARTIALLY TAKEN To its credit , the Clinton Administration has upheld George Bushs executive order banning the entry of Haitian boat people into the U.S. If Clinton had xeversed the Bush policy, as he claimed he would during the campaign, it would have triggered a massive wave of Hait i an economic refugees fleeing to U.S. shores. The Administration, however, has not lifted the embargo, as hood of innocent Haitians I I it should, thereby further undermining the Haitian economy and the economic liveli- I 17 ACTION: Increasingly isolate th e Castro regime and encourage regional democracles to pres sure Havana to reform its political system 4 ACTION TAKEN. The Clinton Administration deserves high marks on its Cuba pol icy. During his confirmation hearings on January 12 and 13, Secretary of St a te War ren Christopher told the Senate Foreign Relations Committee that the Clinton Ad ministration would strongly enfarce the 1992 Cuban Democracy Act, which is lates Castro economically while encouraging a greater exchange of information be tween Cuba a n d the outside world ACTION: Remove the remaining sanctions on the government In Peru 4 ACTION TAKEN. The Clinton Administration on March 18 approved the release of a 105 million bridge loan provided by the U.S. and Japan to the Fujimori govern ment in Per u . The loan is intended to help Peru pay off its debt arrears with the In ternational Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank. By paying off its mars, Peru once again became eligible to receive new loans hm the international financial community to support its f r ee market reform and anti-narcotics programs. Neverthe less, a ban on U.S. anti-drug and military assistanceto Peru remains in effect pemd ing a review of that countrys human rights policies ACTION: Demand that Nicaragua reform its political and economic s ystems. This should Include stricter conditions on the disbursement of US. aid and demands for military, police and judicial reforms ACTION NOT TAKEN. The Clinton Administration announced the release of the re maining $50 million in U.S. aid to the Chamam , government in Nicaragua on April 2. This was the final installment of a two-year $731 million U.S. aid package to Ma nagua. The Clinton Administration states that the Chamm government is taking a number of steps that are vital for the consolidation of de m ocracy. While U.S. aid money and influence can be used constructively in Nicaragua, the timing of this aid release was premature. The Clinton Administration should have withheld aid until concrete measms were taken to remove top Sandinista officials from t he Nicara guan my, police,,and courts, and until greater progress was ma& in solving the political murders of Contra leaders and other innocent citizens ACTION: Continue to fight Latin Americas drug cartels and terrorist groups 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN. The Cli n ton Administration has yet to develop its anti-narcot ics and terrorism policy for Latin America and the Caribbean. However, there has been some discussion at the White House, Justice Department, and State Depart ment about cutting anti-narcotics programs in the region and funneling more money into drug rehabilitation and education programs in the U.S. From Mew, to President-Elect Clinton NO. 10 Demonstrating A U.S. Commitment to Asia By Seth Cropsey January 18,1993 Todays economic realities will require t he US. and other countries to meet pressing needs at home Bill Clinton, from a letter of congratulations to the newly elected Resident of the Philippines Fidel Ramos ACTION: Use personal diplomacy to demonstrate U.S. comm

nent to Asian security 8 ACTION NO T TAKEN. Indexxi, Clinton has done the opposite. Reversing the policy of all his post-World War II predecessors, Clinton made it clear in his fist meeting with Japanese Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa that such economic issues as Japans trade surplus with t he U.S. are his fmt concern in Washingtons relation ship with Tokyo ACTION: Resist trade protection In dealing with Japan 8 ACTION PARTIALLY TAKEN. So far, the Administration has misted protectionism but it has not resisted repeated neferences to how, whe n , where, and why to apply it For example, although no quotas have yet been put into place, the Clinton Adminis tration has declared that the 1986 agreement Washington exacted from Tokyo to purchase a specific amount of American semiconductors is a good mo d el far the fu ture ACTION: Encourage a unified and democratic Korea 8 ACTION PARTIALLY TAKEN. The biggest challenge to Korean unification is North Kareas nuclear weapons prognun. While Bill Clinton pays lip.service to the long standing alliance between Wa s hington and Seoul, his plan to double the size of fens cuts he promised during last years campaign casts universal doubts on the fu ture strength of the U.S. military. Such doubts will hurt Clintons ability to lead an international coalition or convince K i m Il-sung that the U.S. could-if necessary take unilateral action to stop North Kma from becoming a nuclear power ACTION: Protect Taiwans security and encourage its worldwide diplomatic recognition 65 ACTION PARTIALLY TAKEN. A Clinton sub-cabinet appointe e in confmation hear ings befare the Senate Foreign Relations Committee has reaffmed Washingtons long-standing position that Taiwan and China resolve their differences peacefully.

Clintons willingness to ensureTaiwans security and push for its inclusion in such international fora as the GAIT has not been determined ACTION: Advance human rights in China by supporting Beijings economic reforms 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN. The most effective way to advance the Chinese peoples human rights is by supporting the economic freedoms which are turning Chinas coastal provinces into the fastest growing economic region on earth. After his elec 19 tion on November 3, Clinton acknowledged George Bushs prudence in continuing to grant China most-favored-nation status, but since inau g uration the President has not said what he intends to do about renewing Chinas MFN trading status with the U.S From Memo to President-Elect Clinton No. 3 Averting a Failure of U.N. Peacekeeping in Cambodia By Richard D. Fisher December 15, 1993 Renegade f w ces such as the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia...continue to endanger the peace A primary task for American tensions and contain regional threats to security licy in the future will be to detmine ways to zwrk with Asian nations to form a c d consensus on how to r educe regional Bill Clinton, responding to a questionnaire from The Asian Wall Street Journal wet October 26,1992 ACTION: Press the United Natlonslransitlon Authority In Cambodia (UNTAC) to protect all electoral candidates 8 ACTION PARTIALLY TAKEN. The U. S . has pushed MAC to increase its military patrols to protect candidates who are campaigning far &ice in the national elec tions scheduled for May. But WAC continues to balk at curbing the governments &ve ministries which have used their powers to baten, a n d in some cases kill, opposition candidates ACTION: Ghre dhct esslstenco to demoaatic forces in Cambodla 8 ACTION NOTTAKEN. The Clinton Administration has no declared poky that sup ports democratic farces in Cambodia ACTION: Repare for UNTACs posslble fai l ure by warning Chine and Vietnam not to assist their respecthre clients, the Khmer Rouge and the Phnom Penh government 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN. The Administration has warned neither China nor Vietnam of any consequences should fighting resume in Cambodia 20 Fr o m Memo to President-Elect Clinton No. 13 An Action Plan for Promoting Reform in Russia By Ariel Cohen January 18,1993 I Thelgravest threats are most likely to occur in thefolluzuingareas. First, the spread of deprivation and disorder in the firmer Soviet U nion, which could lead to armed conflict among the republics or the rise ofa fervidly nationalistic and aggressive regime in Russia, still in possession of thousands of long-range nuclear WeUpCS Bill Clinton, remarks at Georgetown University December 12,1 9 91 ACTION: Appolnt an ambassador to Russia who Is knowledgeable about the problems confront lng the reformers and who has sufficient political weight to command an open channel of communication with you to Russia in March. However, his nomination was stal l ed in the Senate. There has been no American ambassador in Moscow since November, when Robert Strauss resigned J ACTION TAKEN. Clinton appointed Thomas Pickering as the next U.S. ambassador ACTION Designete a high-level official to coordinate US. govmnt p o licy toward Russla and the other Newly Independent States SmbeTalbott as Ambassador at Large far Commonwealth of Independent States af fairs, it remains to be seen whetherTalbott will prove to be an effective policy mor dinator. Talbott lacks government e x perience and is handicapped by the fact that he is based at the State Department, not at thewhite House J ACTION TAKEN. Althoughthe Administration has designated former journalist ACTION: Link US. assistance to contlnued progress on economic reforms In Ru s sia, Including endlng hyperinflation; achleving full convertibility of the ruble; continued progress in prhratlzatlon and scaling back the slze of the mllitary=lndustrlal complex 8 ACTION PARTIALLY TAKEN. While promises of aid to Russia have been made, th e Administration has not explicitly and unequivocally linked U.S. assistance to prog ress on economic refom ACTION: Ensure that U.S. and multllateral assistance promotes the creation of a market econ omy. Whenever possible, foreign aid should be directed p rimarily to the private sector.

Govemment=togovemment ald should not be used for government operations, but for creating a prhrate market economy 8 ACTION PARTIALLY TAKEN. While lip service was paid to this principle, a large in fusion of cash is earmarked for the Russian government. This money will be used to purchase Western heavy equipment for Russian stateowned enterprises. Little thought has been given to such questions as how, where, by whom and to whom the aid is to be disbursed 21 ACTION 8 ACTION I ACTION J ACTION 8 Press for greater coordination among the Western ald programs, Including a functional dhrlsion of responsibilities between America and its allies ACTION PARTIALLY TAKEN. While the US. provided leadership fur the Western ef fort to aid Ye l tsins reformers, there has not been much coordination beyond the joint announcement of the G-7 aid package on April 17 Llnk contlnued assistance to Russla to its obsetvatlon of arms control agreements signed by the U.S.S.R. and Russia. Hard-line opposiUon to the recently signed START iI is mounting In the Supreme Soviet, and further reductions In Russias conventlonai forces are being resisted.

ACTION NOT TAKEN. The aid issue has not been linked to Russias observing START, INF, and CFE agreements Insist that Ukralne give up the nuclear weapons on its territory and become a nonnu clear state.

ACTION TAKEN. The Administration has demanded that the Ukrainians give up their nuclear weapons Press for continued Russian troop withdrawals from Eastern Europe and the Banks and observation of agreed-upon deadlines.

ACTION PARTIALLY TAKEN, Because its attention has been focused on Russia, the Clinton Administration has done very little to ensure Baltic independence. Russia has linked withdrawal of its troops from the Baltic states with Baltic concessions on continued Russian conbl of ports and milithry industry factories, and citizenship fur Russians now living in the Baltic states. Despite Russian footdragging, the U.S continues to call for Russian troop withdrawals; no concrete steps have been taken to assure those withdrawals ACTION: insist that minority rights be respected throughout the region, Including rights of the Russlan mlnorities In the non=Russian republics. Violations of minority rights are one of most li kely causes of conflld within these new states and between them.

I( ACTION NOTTAKEN. The Clinton Administration has demonstrated little under standing of the minorities situation in the former Soviet Union. Russia is most vocif erous regarding the rights o f ethnic Russians in the Baltic states and Ukraine, using it as a battering ram against the former republics. There are also at least eighteen million non-Russians in Russia, whose rights are almost never mentioned, and have .I. to be equally Xespected AC T ION: Oppose the spread of Iranian and other Muslim fundamentalist influence in Central Asla. The U.S. should support the efforts of pWestem powers, such as Turkey, to provide assistance in bulldlng democratlc Institutions and market economies in these are as 8 ACTION PARTIALLY TAKEN. The Administration thus far has given very low priur ity to cooperation with Turkey and other states to encourage the emergence of sta ble, democratic, free market states in Cent

Asia 22 ACTION: Prevent the unauthorired sale o r transfer by the NIS of nuclear weapons, materials know-how, and technology, as well as other weapons of mass destruction 8 ACTION PARTIALLY TAKEN. Although the Clinton Administration has stated that nuclear proliferation is a high priority issue, it has not yet clearly articulated its pm liferation policies. Mare attention needs to be paid to monitoring the movements of the materials, technology, and personnel needed to construct nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction, to prevent them from reaching rogue Third World regimes ACTION: Foster good relations wlth both Russie and Ukraine and promote Russian4krainlan reconciliation 8 ACTION NOT TAKEN. Very little has been done to bolster U.S. relations with Ukraine, the second largest republic of the CIS. More US. attention should be given to the security needs of Ukraine, as the neo-imperialist voices in Moscow grow in strength 23


Kim Holmes

Acting Senior Vice President, Research