2018 Index of Economic Freedom

Major Works Cited

The 2018 Index of Economic Freedom relies on data from multiple internationally recognized sources to present a representation of economic freedom in each country that is as comprehensive, impartial, and accurate as possible. The following sources provided the primary information for analyzing and scoring the 12 components of economic freedom. In addition, the authors and analysts used supporting documentation and information from various government agencies and sites on the Internet, news reports and journal articles, and official responses to inquiries. All statistical and other information received from government sources was verified with independent, credible third-party sources.

African Development Bank, Statistics Pocketbook 2017; available at http://www.afdb.org/en/knowledge/publications/the-afdb-statistics-pocketbook/.

African Development Bank and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, African Economic Outlook 2017; available at http://www.africaneconomicoutlook.org/en/.

African Financial Markets Initiative, Country Profiles; available at http://www.africanbondmarkets.org/en/country-profiles/.

Asian Development Bank, Asian Development Outlook 2017: Transcending the Middle-Income Challenge; available at 

             , Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2017; available at https://www.adb.org/publications/key-indicators-asia-and-pacific-2017.

Country statistical agencies, central banks, and ministries of finance, economy, and trade; available at http://unstats.un.org/unsd/methods/inter-natlinks/sd_natstat.asp;http://www.census.gov/aboutus/stat_int.html; and http://www.bis.org/cbanks.htm.

Deloitte, International Tax and Business Guide, Country Highlights; available at https://www.dits.deloitte.com/.

Economist Intelligence Unit, Ltd., Country Commerce, London, U.K., 2011–2017.

             , Country Finance, London, U.K., 2011–2017.

             , Country Report, London, U.K., 2011–2017.

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Country Strategies, 2011–2017; available at http://www.ebrd.com/pages/country.shtml.

European Commission, Eurostat, European Statistics; available at http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/themes.

International Monetary Fund, Article IV Consultation Staff Reports, various countries, Washington, D.C., 2011–2017; available at 

             , Country Information; available at http://www.imf.org/external/country/index.htm.

             , Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix, various countries, Washington, D.C., 2011–2017.

             , World Economic Outlook Database, April 2017; available at http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2017/01/weodata/index.aspx.

Low Tax Network, various countries; available at http://www.lowtax.net.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD Economic Outlook, Vol. 2017, Issue 1 (June 1, 2017); available at 

             , OECD Statistics Portal; available at http://stats.oecd.org/source/.

             , OECD Web site; available at www.oecd.org/home.

PricewaterhouseCoopers, Worldwide Tax Summaries; available with registration at http://www.pwc.com/gx/en/tax/corporate-tax/worldwide-tax-summaries/taxsummaries.jhtml.

Transparency International, The Corruption Perceptions Index, Berlin, Germany, 2000–2016; available at 

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, World Investment Report 2017: Investment and the Digital Economy; available athttp://unctad.org/en/pages/PublicationWebflyer.aspx?publicationid=1782.

United States Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook 2017; available at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html.

United States Department of Commerce, Country Commercial Guides, Washington, D.C.,2011–2017; available at 

United States Department of State, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016, released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, March 2017; available at http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper.

             , Investment Climate Statements: 2011–2017, released by the Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs; available at 

United States Trade Representative, Office of the, 2017 National Trade Estimate Report, Washington, D.C., 2017; available at 

World Bank, World Bank World Development Indicators Online, Washington, D.C.; available at http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/world-development-indicators.

             , Country Briefs and Trade-at-a-Glance (TAAG) Tables, Washington, D.C.; available at http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/TRADE/0,,contentMDK:22421950~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:239071,00.html.

             , Doing Business; available at www.doingbusiness.org.

World Trade Organization, Trade Policy Reviews, 1996–2017; available at https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/tpr_e/tpr_e.htm.

Heritage Media Contacts

  • Justin Posey
    • Communications Manager, Institute for Economic Freedom and Opportunity
    • work: 202.608.6175
    • cell: 202.230.6690
  • Jim Weidman
    • Director, Editorial Services
    • work: 202.608.6145

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