See, e.g., Paul J. Larkin, Jr., Public Choice Theory and Overcriminalization, 36 Harv. J.L. & Pub. Pol’y 715 (2013); Evan Bernick, “The Best of Disinfectants”: Using Publicity to Fight Overcriminalization, The Heritage Found. Issue Brief No. 4120 (Jan. 8, 2014), available at http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2014/01/using-publicity-to-fight-overcriminalization; Paul Rosenzweig, Ignorance of the Law Is No Excuse, But It Is Reality, The Heritage Found. Backgrounder No. 2812 (June 17, 2013), available at http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2013/06/ignorance-of-the-law-is-no-excuse-but-it-is-reality.
 See Bouie v. City of Columbia, 378 U.S. 347, 350 (1964) (“[A] criminal law must give fair warning of the conduct it makes a crime”).
 See Edwin Meese III & Paul J. Larkin, Jr., Reconsidering the Mistake of Law Defense, 102 J. Crim. L. & Criminology 725, 733–36 (2012).
 See, e.g., Glenn Harlan Reynolds, Ham Sandwich Nation: Due Process When Everything Is a Crime, 113 Colum. L. Rev. Sidebar 102, 108 (2013) (“[A]ny reasonable observer would have to conclude that actual knowledge of all applicable criminal laws and regulations is impossible, especially when those regulations frequently depart from any intuitive sense of what ‘ought’ to be legal or illegal. Perhaps placing citizens at risk in this regard constitutes a due process violation; expecting people to do (or know) the impossible certainly sounds like one.”); see also, e.g., Joshua Dressler, Understanding Criminal Law 166 (3d ed. 2001) (explaining that “many modern statutes are exceedingly intricate,” and “even a person with a clear moral compass is frequently unable to determine accurately whether conduct is prohibited.”); William J. Stuntz, Self-Defeating Crimes, 86 Va. L. Rev. 1871, 1871 (2000) (“[E]ven criminal law professors rarely know much about what conduct is and isn’t criminal in their jurisdictions”).
 Brian W. Walsh & Tiffany M. Joslyn, Without Intent: How Congress Is Eroding the Criminal Intent Requirement in Federal Law (2010).
 Id. at 7.
 John G. Malcolm & Norman L. Reimer, Over-Criminalization Undermines Respect for Legal System, The Washington Times, Dec. 11, 2013, http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2013/dec/11/malcolmreimer-over-criminalization-undermines-resp/.
 See, e.g., Walsh & Joslyn, supra note 5, at 23–24 (finding that 14 percent of the nonviolent, non-drug criminal provisions that Congress introduced in 2005 and 2006 and 22 percent of those it enacted “delegated criminal lawmaking authority to unelected regulators”).
 See Rosenzweig, supra note 1.
 Id.; Paul J. Larkin, Jr., Supplying the Information Required by Law: Directing the Federal Government to Identify All Federal Criminal Laws, The Heritage Found. Issue Brief No. 4143 (Feb. 10, 2014), available at http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2014/02/overcriminalization-and-the-identification-of-all-federal-criminal-laws.
 See Stephen J. Schulhofer, Rethinking Mandatory Minimums, 28 Wake Forest L. Rev. 199, 209 (1993).
 See Prepared Statement of David B. Muhlhausen, Senior Policy Analyst, The Heritage Found., to the U.S. Sentencing Comm’n 9 (May 27, 2010) (acknowledging that “drug mandatory minimum statutes impose harsh sentencing ‘cliffs’ based on what are often small differences between cases”).
 See Larkin, supra note 1, at 725 (Congress passed 450 new crimes from 2000 through 2007).
 524 U.S. 184, 193 (1998).
 See Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013, Pub. L. No. 113-4, 127 Stat. 54 (2013); Stolen Valor Act of 2013, Pub. L. No. 113-12, 127 Stat. 448 (2013); Agricultural Act of 2014, Pub. L. No. 113-79, § 12308 (2014) (amending Section 26 of the Animal Welfare Act, 7 U.S.C. § 2156).
 See National Resource for Victims of Crime, Criminal Stalking Laws, available at http://victimsofcrime.org/our-programs/stalking-resource-center/stalking-laws/criminal-stalking-laws-by-state (listing stalking laws) (last visited Feb. 21, 2014); Stuart P. Green, Lying, Cheating, and Stealing: A Moral Theory of White-Collar Crime 152 (2006) (“Under American federal law, for example, there are now dozens of statutory provisions that criminalize offenses such as mail fraud, wire fraud, bank fraud, health care fraud, tax fraud, computer fraud, securities fraud, bankruptcy fraud, accounting fraud, and conspiracy to defraud the government.”); id. at 152 n.23 (citing 18 U.S.C. §§ 1341 (mail fraud), 1343 (wire fraud), 1344 (bank fraud), 1347 (health care fraud), 26 U.S.C. § 7201 (tax fraud), 18 U.S.C. § 1030 (computer fraud), 15 U.S.C. §§ 77x, 78ff (securities fraud), 18 U.S.C. §§ 157 (bankruptcy fraud), 371 (conspiracy to commit fraud against the United States) (2006)); Neil Miller, Domestic Violence: A Review of State Legislation Defining Police and Prosecution Duties and Powers, Institute for Law and Justice 7 (2004) (“Common law crimes that are often invoked in domestic violence incidents include homicide offenses, assault and battery, sexual assault, and criminal trespass…. [E]very state provides criminal penalties for homicide and assault and battery”); Jared Paul Haller, United States v. Alvarez: What Restrictions Does the First Amendment Impose on Lawmakers Who Wish to Regulate False Factual Speech?, 45 Ind. L. Rev. 191, 211 (2011) (“[E]xisting fraud laws cover cases where false claims are made in order to obtain some benefit”); Patrick Graves, Keith Mosman, & Shayna Rogers, 2011 Legislative and Administrative Review, 18 Animal L. 361, 365 (2011) (“[F]orty-nine states have already enacted statutes prohibiting spectatorship.”).
 See Regulatory Crime: Solutions: Hearing Before the Congressional Task Force on Overcriminalization of the House Comm. on the Judiciary, 113th Cong (2013); Regulatory Crime: Identifying the Scope of the Problem: Hearing Before the Congressional Task Force on Overcriminalization of the House Comm. on the Judiciary, 113th Cong. (2013); Mens Rea: The Need for a Meaningful Intent Requirement in Federal Criminal Law: Hearing Before the Congressional Task Force on Overcriminalization of the House Comm. on the Judiciary, 113th Cong. (2013); Defining the Problem and Scope of Over-criminalization and Over-federalization: Hearing Before the Congressional Task Force on Overcriminalization of the House Comm. on the Judiciary, 113th Cong. (2013).
 See Paul J. Larkin, Jr., Prohibition, Regulation, and Overcriminalization: The Proper and Improper Uses of the Criminal Law, 42 Hofstra L. Rev. 745, 757 (2014).
 See Paul J. Larkin, Jr., The Need for a Mistake of Law Defense as a Response to Overcriminalization, The Heritage Found. Legal Memorandum No. 91 (April 11, 2013), available at http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2013/04/the-need-for-a-mistake-of-law-defense-as-a-response-to-overcriminalization.
 See H.R. 1823, 112th Cong. (2013). Chairman Sensenbrenner issued a section-by-section analysis to accompany the bill. See Criminal Code Modernization and Simplification Act of 2011: Hearing on H.R. 1823 Before the H. Comm. on the Judiciary, 112th Cong. 83 (2011).
 See 16 U.S.C. §§ 3371–78 (2012).
 See The 2008 Lacey Act Amendments: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Fisheries, Wildlife, Oceans and Insular Affairs of the H. Comm. on Natural Resources, 113th Cong. (2013).
 See Paul J. Larkin, Jr., Why U.S. Citizens Should Not Be Branded as U.S. Criminals for Violating Foreign Law, The Heritage Found. Legal Memorandum No. 107, available at http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2014/01/why-us-citizens-should-not-be-branded-as-us-criminals-for-violating-foreign-law (“[I]f the average person cannot keep track of regulatory offenses defined by American law, he or she certainly cannot keep track of regulatory offenses defined by hundreds of foreign nations.”).
 See, e.g., The 2008 Lacey Act Amendments: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Fisheries, Wildlife, Oceans and Insular Affairs of the H. Comm. on Natural Resources (statement of Steven McCreary on behalf of National Association of Music Merchants), 113th Cong. 4 (2013) (discussing the “unintended consequences” of the Act and urging Congress to take up “common sense proposals to modify the law”).
 See H.R. 2656, 113th Cong. (2013).
 See Paul J. Larkin, Jr., Managing Prisons by the Numbers: Using the Good-Time Laws and Risk-Needs Assessments to Manage the Federal Prison Population, 1 Harv. J.L. & Pub. Pol’y: Federalist 1 (2014).
 See S. 1410, 113th Cong. (2013).
 See Evan Bernick & Paul J. Larkin, Jr., Reconsidering Mandatory Minimums: The Arguments for and Against Potential Reforms, The Heritage Found. Legal Memorandum No. 110 (Feb. 10, 2014), available at http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2014/02/reconsidering-mandatory-minimum-sentences-the-arguments-for-and-against-potential-reforms.
 The existing safety valve is codified at 18 U.S.C. § 3553(f).
 See S. 1410 § 2.
 See id. §§ 3–4.
 See John G. Malcolm, The Case for the Smarter Sentencing Act, 26 Fed. Sent’g Rep. 298 (2014).
 See S. 1410 §7.
 Paul J. Larkin, Jr., Supplying the Information Required by Law: Directing the Federal Government to Identify All Federal Criminal Laws, The Heritage Found. Issue Brief No. 4143, at 2 (Feb. 10, 2014), available at http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2014/02/overcriminalization-and-the-identification-of-all-federal-criminal-laws.