Federal Register, Vol. 78, No. 217 (November 8, 2013), pp. 67169–67175.
 According to the FDA, “Trans fat wouldn’t be completely gone…because it also occurs naturally in small amounts in meat and dairy products. It is also present at very low levels in other edible oils, such as fully hydrogenated oils, where it is unavoidably produced during the manufacturing process.” U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, “FDA Targets Trans Fat in Processed Foods,” November 7, 2013, http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm372915.htm (accessed March 6, 2014).
 The FDA used this same comparison. The 2003 number, though, is based on FDA data for individuals 20 years of age or more, whereas the 2012 intake number is based on data for individuals two years of age or more. In footnote 8 of the tentative determination, the FDA explains, “While we did not calculate a mean intake for ages 20 years or more, based on the similarity in the intakes calculated for children aged 2–5 years, teenage boys, and persons aged 2 years or more (Ref. 8), we believe there would not be a significant difference between the intake estimated for persons ages 2 years or more and that for persons ages 20 years or more.”
 The 2010 and 2012 estimates are both based on intake for individuals two years of age or more. See Michael Taylor, “Trans Fat: Taking the Next Important Step,” U.S. Food and Drug Administration, November 7, 2013, http://blogs.fda.gov/fdavoice/index.php/2013/11/trans-fat-taking-the-next-important-step/ (accessed July 2, 2014).
 American Heart Association, “Trans Fats Q&A,” November 8, 2013, http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/FatsAndOils/Fats101/Trans-Fats_UCM_301120_Article.jsp (accessed July 2, 2014).
 According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Naturally occurring trans fat is found in small amounts in the fatty parts of meat and dairy products. Artificial trans fat comes from foods that contain partially hydrogenated oil and is formed when hydrogen is added to liquid oil turning it into solid fat.” See this CDC web page on trans fat at http://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/everyone/basics/fat/transfat.html (accessed July 1, 2014). As explained in footnote 1, artificial trans fat can also occur at very low levels in other edible oils, such as fully hydrogenated oils. For purposes of the tentative determination, the FDA is focusing on artificial trans fat from PHOs.
 This is apparently the latest data that the FDA has on natural trans fat consumption.
 Ingeborg A. Brouwer, Anne J. Wanders, and Martijn B. Katan, “Effect of Animal and Industrial Trans Fatty Acids on HDL and LDL Cholesterol Levels in Humans – A Quantitative Review,” PLoS ONE, Vol. 5, No. 3 (March 2010), http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0009434&representation=PDF (accessed July 2, 2014).
 “Human consumption of naturally occurring [trans fatty acids] from ruminants is generally low and there is evidence to suggest that it does not adversely affect health.” Shauna Downs, Anne Marie Thow, and Stephen R. Leeder, “The Effectiveness of Policies for Reducing Dietary Trans Fat: A Systematic Review of the Evidence,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Vol. 91, No. 4 (April 2013), pp. 262–269, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23599549 (accessed July 2, 2014). See also Sarah K. Gebauer et al., “Effects of Ruminant trans Fatty Acids on Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: A Comprehensive Review of Epidemiological, Clinical, and Mechanistic Studies,” Advances in Nutrition, Vol. 2 (July 2011), pp. 332–354, http://advances.nutrition.org/content/2/4/332.long (accessed July 2, 2014). Also, only recently has there been a focus on distinguishing between artificial and natural trans fat. According to the article, “Traditionally, intake of total TFA was considered independent of the origin (ruminant [natural] vs. industrially produced); however, more recent studies have separately estimated intake of rTFA [natural trans fat].”
 Grocery Manufacturers Association, “Tentative Determination Regarding Partially Hydrogenated Oils; Request for Comments and for Scientific Data and Information; Extension of Comment Period,” public comment to the Food and Drug Administration, March 7, 2014, p. 31, http://www.regulations.gov/#!documentDetail;D=FDA-2013-N-1317-0172 (accessed July 1, 2014). There are many other comments in the docket that address this issue as well.
 National Research Council, Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients) (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2005), http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=10490 (accessed July 2, 2014).
 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010, January 31, 2011, http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/DGAs2010-PolicyDocument.htm (accessed July 2, 2014).
 National Research Council, Dietary Reference Intakes. Emphasis added.
 See, e.g., Mike Ciandella, “Networks Ignore CSPI’s Hypocrisy in Trans Fat Controversy,” NewsBusters, November 13, 2013, http://newsbusters.org/blogs/mike-ciandella/2013/11/13/network-ignore-cspis-hypocrisy-trans-fat-controversy (accessed July 2, 2014).