Members of the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and
Governmental Affairs introduced the Providing for Additional
Security in States' Identification (PASS ID) Act of 2009 on June
15, 2009. This act would repeal substantive provisions of the REAL
ID Act of 2005, which aimed at ensuring that all states
meet minimum security standards for issuing driver's licenses in
order to enhance national security, increase driver safety, combat
drug running, and better safeguard against identity theft and
While no state is compelled to comply, approximately 30 states
are actively moving to meet REAL ID's minimum standards, which will
help to make America less vulnerable. Opponents of REAL ID have
painted the law as an affront to privacy and states' rights, but
the reality is that REAL ID is an appropriate means for maintaining
liberty and security. Congress should preserve REAL ID, fund it
adequately, and take steps to ensure its full implementation.
A 9/11 Commission Recommendation
REAL ID was enacted in 2005 in direct response to
recommendations of the 9/11 Commission that the federal government
set secure standards for identifications, such as driver's
licenses. The commission found that 18 of the 19 hijackers on
September 11, 2001, obtained 17 driver's licenses and 13 state IDs,
including at least seven obtained by fraud in Virginia. Six of
these IDs were used to help the hijackers board planes on the
morning of 9/11. Of the legally obtained IDs, many were
duplicates, with some states issuing the same hijacker multiple
licenses over a period of several months. In its report, the 9/11
Secure identification should begin in the United States. The
federal government should set standards for the issuance of birth
certificates and sources of information, such as drivers
Most of the REAL ID provisions were adopted from a secure ID
framework drafted by the American Association of Motor Vehicle
Administrators (AAMVA) and published in a lengthy report in
response to the 9/11 Commission's investigation. The standards emphasized that
identity documents must be secure in their content, physical
features, and issuance process. Without identity security at the
base of identity document issuance processes, the AAMVA concluded
that driver's license issuing standards would not produce secure
The Need for Standards
The need for more stringent standards dates back to before 9/11.
Identity has always been the cornerstone of a free society, and for
decades the key form of identification in the United States has
been the driver's license. In its 2004 Security Framework, the
AAMVA identified clear security parameters:
The license is now readily accepted as an official
identification document for both licensed drivers, and, in most
jurisdictions, for non-drivers. The Motor Vehicle Administrations
(MVAs) who issue these documents have unique, continuous and
long-lasting contact with most of their constituents from the
individual's teenage years onward.
Most MVAs allow driver's license reciprocity with other MVAs;
therefore a common security protocol among MVAs is necessary. This
document provides minimum standards of security, interoperability
and reciprocity agreed upon by all North American MVAs regarding
driver's license/identification card (DL/ID) issuance. Each MVA
- Either meet or exceed the requirements of the Security
Framework based on risk analysis and resource availability.
- Determine that all individuals granted a DL/ID "are who they
say they are."
- Ensure that each individual issued a DL/ ID "remains the same
person" throughout subsequent dealings both with itself or any
Licenses have often been copied or manipulated and are subject
to vast amounts of identity theft and fraud. For example, a woman
in Florida pleaded guilty to obtaining a fake driver's license in
someone else's name and using it to draw on the victim's bank
account and to obtain credit cards, charging about $4,000 on those
Driver's license fraud rings have been prosecuted nationwide,
including well-known cases in Michigan, Pennsylvania, New Jersey,
New York, and Ohio. The Castorena Family Organization operated
franchises in every major city in the United States for over a
decade, reaping millions of dollars annually from counterfeited and
To address the 9/11 Commission's and AAMVA's recommendations and
growing media attention on the issue of driver's license fraud,
Congress enacted the REAL ID Act in 2005. The act includes the
following compliance requirements:
- Identity verification. Each driver's license or identity
card will be required to contain a person's full legal name,
signature, date of birth, gender, driver's license or
identification number, photograph, and the address of the person's
principal place of residence.
- Document authentication. States are required to digitize
birth records (another key 9/11 Commission recommendation) and
review the authenticity of the information provided to obtain a
license, such as Social Security information, immigration or lawful
presence documentation, and other proof of identity, such as
principal place of residence.
- Card security. REAL ID requires a certain level of
physical security features to ensure more tamper-proof cards.
- Security plans. To ensure states meet security and
privacy standards and to hold them accountable, REAL ID requires
states to submit detailed security plans.
- One driver, one license. REAL ID requires creation of a
network of state databases to enable states to verify that
applicants do not hold multiple licenses in multiple states,
something states already do voluntarily for commercial licenses and
"bad" drivers. They are also exchanging digital images of drivers
outside of REAL ID requirements.
- "Official purposes" requirement. REAL IDs will be
required to board a commercial aircraft or enter a federal building
and other areas deemed for "official purposes."
Some controversy began soon after REAL ID was enacted. States
were unhappy about paying to upgrade their licensing systems to
meet the REAL ID standards. Privacy advocates feared the onset of a
national identification card and creation of national databases. Even before
the proposed regulations were released in 2008, state legislatures
began to make assumptions about REAL ID, which led to significant
misinformation about the program's execution.
By January 2008, when the Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
rolled out the REAL ID regulations, the states' substantive
concerns had been assuaged. To ease their cost and logistical
concerns, compliance times were extended to reduce the cost of
issuing REAL ID licenses. Originally, REAL ID would have required
states to produce compliant IDs for all driver's
licenses--including new applicants, those renewing their licenses,
and those simply wanting to board a plane whose licenses would not
expire until 2013. The DHS reduced this cost burden by including
phase-in requirements that allow states to become compliant first
with licenses of those under 50 years old by 2014 and then with
those over 50 years old by 2017. An internal DHS economic impact
assessment of the new phase-in deadlines concluded that
implementing REAL ID would cost about $8 per person. In
addition, under the REAL ID grant program, about $149 million in
appropriated funds was distributed in 2008 to help states to
implement REAL ID.
In an effort to implement the one-driver-one-license program,
DHS designated Mississippi as the "lead hub" state, with Florida
and Wisconsin as two partner states, and appropriated $17 million
to help states begin meeting the information sharing and
state-based database requirements of REAL ID. In addition, Kentucky was
awarded $3 million to prepare for the nationwide deployment of
electronic birth record verification to support REAL ID identity
verification, otherwise known as Electronic Verification of Vital
Events (EVVE). To date, 13 states have digitized their
birth records, and North Dakota, South Dakota, and Iowa have a
verification network for checking driver's license applications.
The Benefits of REAL ID
Given the ongoing debate, it is important to lay out what REAL
ID actually is and is not. The basic premise of REAL ID is to set
minimum standards for issuing driver's licenses and IDs. It does not
limit states on how many IDs they can issue or to whom they may
issue them. Nor does the law bind states to its provisions. Rather,
REAL ID simply makes clear that noncompliant driver's licenses and
noncompliant state-issued ID cards cannot be used as identification
for any federal purpose. In this way, REAL ID makes Americans safer
and deals with several issues.
Making Americans Safer. REAL ID fulfills a key 9/11
Commission recommendation. The commission's recommendations have
frequently received bipartisan support as important guidelines that
should be implemented to help to prevent acts of terrorism against
Congress has passed numerous bills to implement the 9/11
Commission's recommendations, including the Intelligence Reform and
Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 and Implementing the Recommendations of
9/11 Commission Act of 2007.
The driver's license provisions of the REAL ID law are no
different. The 9/11 Commission recommended requiring all states to
meet minimum security standards for issuance of and identification
for driver's licenses. Given that six hijackers had used
fraudulently obtained Virginia IDs to board planes on the morning
of 9/11, REAL ID went further by requiring REAL IDs (or secure
equivalents) to board commercial aircraft or enter critical
government facilities such as nuclear power plants.
Illegal Immigration. REAL ID permits states to issue
driver's licenses and IDs to whomever they choose, but only those
who can demonstrate that they are lawfully present in the United
States may obtain REAL IDs. More specifically, REAL ID requires not
only lawful presence, but also that the duration of the license or
ID match the individual's legal length of stay in the U.S. In other
words, once a person is no longer lawfully present in the United
States, their driver's license should expire. This provision is
necessary to prevent individuals who enter the U.S. legally and
overstay their visas from using their driver's licenses or IDs to
access federal areas with "official purposes." This will prevent
individuals illegally in the U.S. from using false driver's
licenses to obtain government services fraudulently.
Privacy. REAL ID requires those handling database
information and producing IDs to undergo more rigorous background
checks and screening than is currently required. Furthermore,
facilities that create and store IDs are required to maintain a
minimum level of physical security on their premises. This means
that information is better protected, not less. Furthermore, REAL
ID does not give information to the federal government, but instead
ensures that states remain in charge of this information, in the
same way that they did prior to REAL ID. In addition, states must
submit certification plans and meet privacy standards to
demonstrate that they comply with REAL ID standards.
Fraud and Identity Theft. Billions of dollars are lost
each year in identity theft, fraudulently obtained government
services, and other criminal activities. Standards that take
security for granted simply make no sense in the 21st century.
Efforts to implement the 9/11 Commission's recommendations on
identity verification, lawful presence, and the digitization of
documents, such as birth and death records, have already
substantially reduced fraud. Furthermore, those states that have
not fully complied with REAL ID, such as Maryland, have felt the
strain that driver's license fraud places on their state budgets. Since the
passage of REAL ID, nearly every state has begun checking Social
Security numbers and lawful status. Twice as many states require
lawful presence today than two years ago. Furthermore, REAL ID's
one-driver-one-license rule enables states to prevent bad drivers
from obtaining new licenses in other states and to stop criminals
from evading the law by using multiple identities in one or more
Myths About REAL ID
Despite these benefits, REAL ID is subject to criticisms, but these
criticisms are based on widely perpetuated myths.
Myth #1: REAL ID invades privacy.
Fact: REAL ID protects privacy by
ensuring that people are who they say they are.
The information contained on the machine-readable strip on the
back of a REAL ID license is the same that most states require on
the face of the license, such as a digital photo, name, permanent
address, age, height, and weight. Thus, this information does not
implicate privacy concerns. REAL ID licenses are not required to
contain RFID (radio frequency identification) technology, biometric
fingerprint information, or Social Security numbers, which could
raise privacy concerns.
Myth #2: REAL ID will create a
national ID card and a hackable, national database.
Fact: REAL ID does not collect
personal data in a centralized federal database.
REAL ID calls for the states to operate and access secure
databases that are queried by authorized parties (such as MVAs and
law enforcement). No databases are created to serve REAL ID. It
only directs states to bring together pre-existing databases into a
broader, secure network that will allow states to talk to one
another and prevent fraud. Moreover, the federal government cannot
and will not have access to any applicant's information. There is
nothing "national" about the process. If anything, REAL ID can be
said to obviate any need for a national ID.
Myth #3: REAL ID is a federal mandate
that eliminates the right of states to issue driver's licenses and
Fact: Each state can still issue many
varieties of IDs, including IDs and driver's licenses that do not
comply with REAL ID.
The driver's license is the most common form of ID used in the
U.S. today. A driver's license is accepted for everything from
opening a bank account to boarding a plane to picking up movie
tickets purchased with a credit card. Securing this widely used
credential makes sense on the state level, but not on the national
level. Furthermore, the right to do this, even under REAL ID, still
resides with the individual state. Each state can still issue many
varieties of REAL ID-compliant cards and can continue to issue
noncompliant IDs. The law remains completely voluntary, and states
are not required to comply. Finally, REAL ID does not infringe on
the right of states to decide who is eligible for a driver's
license or ID.
PASS ID Act: The Wrong Strategy
PASS ID advocates portray the bill as a means of maintaining
9/11 Commission recommendations in a more flexible manner than
offered by REAL ID. In reality, the PASS ID Act repeals outright
substantive provisions of REAL ID, stripping away provisions that
are already making driver's license issuance more secure. In short,
PASS ID would set the same standards for driver's licenses as was
recommended by the Commission, but the standards will not ensure
The primary supporters of PASS ID have made their opposition to
REAL ID clear and the PASS ID language demonstrates that their goal
is to freeze standards as they are today instead of continuing to
strengthen licensing under REAL ID. Specifically, PASS ID
- Weaken identity verification. Two areas are key:
ensuring that people are who they say they are (identity
verification) and digitization of birth records to safeguard
driver's license issuance. PASS ID returns identity verification to
identity validation, the pre-9/11 standard, in which the state
could simply rubber-stamp documents, such as birth certificates,
principal residency documents, electronic verification of Social
Security numbers, and passports. This was the same process that
five 9/11 hijackers used to secure fake documents (principal
residence affidavits) in Virginia, which enabled them to obtain IDs
in early August 2001. REAL ID combats this problem by adding
passport verification and birth record digitization as additional
layers of security.
- Lawful presence checks are only effective if identity
verification and document authentication (ensuring that documents
used are valid and trustworthy) are sufficient. Absent sufficient
verification, an applicant would only need to steal, borrow, or buy
a legal immigrant's or U.S. citizen's identity, use it to validate
submitted paperwork, and then undergo a lawful presence screening,
which is largely ineffective without the identity verification
step. In essence, these requirements would further enable identity
theft, instead of combating it like the requirements of REAL
- Give states money without accountability or fiscal
responsibility. PASS ID gives grant money to states without any
accountability or any requirement to comply with the PASS ID
requirements. In fact, PASS ID would not apply if a state law
preempts the legislation. The bill would push back the compliance
deadline another four years until 2017 (currently states would be
required to be in compliance for those younger than 50 by 2014).
Finally, even though most states already exceed PASS ID standards,
it would not require states to demonstrate progress toward
achieving the standards in exchange for the federal grants, which
translates into essentially free money for states to use at their
discretion. At a cost to U.S. taxpayers, the act also requires the
federal government to provide free access to states for lawful
status databases checks, including checking Social Security number
- Weaken airport security. Given that at least six
hijackers used state-issued IDs or driver's licenses at airport
check-in counters on the morning of 9/11, REAL ID requires
passengers to present a secure ID before boarding a commercial
airplane. PASS ID eliminates this provision, allowing anyone to
board a commercial aircraft, whether or not they have a secure
- Eliminate information sharing among states. The 9/11
Commission also found that the 9/11 hijackers held multiple
driver's licenses and IDs from multiple states, similar to bad
drivers, drug runners, counterfeiters, and others trying to
circumvent the law. While REAL ID grants have been given to the
states to create an information-sharing system to ensure that
applicants no longer hold driver's licenses from other states, PASS
ID would end that program, replacing it with a demonstration
project that would likely never produce a useable system.
What the U.S. Should Do Instead
Since 2005, opponents have made several attempts to chip away at
REAL ID Act requirements, and PASS ID is the latest such effort.
Given the progress that has been made on REAL ID, Congress
- Keep REAL ID. The REAL ID standards can be implemented
in a manner that respects constitutionally guaranteed liberties and
the principle of federalism, makes economic sense, better protects
the individual liberties and privacies of U.S. persons, and
contributes to national security and public safety. Postponing
or modifying implementation confuses the work already in process
and detracts from the underlying purpose of REAL ID: enhancing
security of both the individual and the nation.
- Appropriate necessary funds to finish implementing REAL
ID. To date, states have been allocated $129 million in grants.
However, approximately $50 million of the funds appropriated for
fiscal year (FY) 2009 remain unspent. Even though Congress
doubled funding for FY 2009 to $100 million, it is generally
recognized that these sums will not cover the costs of implementing
REAL ID. Rather than repeal REAL ID, Congress should support the
states by appropriating sufficient funding and spending the
remaining funds as originally intended.
- Move interested states into the REAL ID system. The
supporters of the PASS ID Act have claimed that states are
uninterested in REAL ID and that PASS ID represents a more
palatable option. However, about 15 states have publicly supported
REAL ID and are working toward achieving the first round of 18
material compliance benchmarks set by REAL ID regulations by the
January 1, 2010, deadline. Other states continue to make progress
towards REAL ID goals. These benchmarks indicate progress toward
REAL ID goals and include target goals, such as mandatory facial
image capture, requiring applicants to sign applications under
penalty of perjury, ensuring physical security of the ID cards,
ensuring the security of personally identifiable information,
verifying Social Security numbers and lawful status with federal
database queries, and conducting background checks on covered MVA
employees. Alabama, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Indiana, Iowa,
Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, Nevada, New Jersey, North
Carolina, Ohio, Rhode Island, Texas, and Wisconsin should be deemed
in material compliance as soon as practicable. Their successes will
encourage other states to follow suit.
- Add flexibility to the state grant program. Some states
have chosen to increase the security of their IDs through enhanced
driver's license (EDL) memorandums of agreement with the DHS. This
program enables states to add additional information to driver's
licenses to comply with the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative
(WHTI), which rolled out in full on June 1, 2009. WHTI requires a
passport or "biometric equivalent" for any person, including U.S.
citizens, to cross into the U.S. from Bermuda, the Caribbean,
Mexico, or Canada. Several states have successfully implemented
EDLs, including Washington, New York, Vermont, and Michigan (as of
late April 2009). Texas lawmakers have authorized the state
government to begin issuing EDLs, but the governor has held back
the process. The DHS should enable states that choose
to implement an EDL program that complies with REAL ID standards to
use REAL ID grants for EDLs in addition to REAL IDs, producing a
Secure IDs for a Safer America
When a state issues a driver's license or ID, both the state and
the individual should be confident that the license is a secure,
authenticated credential. The DHS issued final regulations for REAL
ID in January 2008, based on thousands of comments from states and
other interested parties. Many states have already made significant
progress toward this end. States are working toward implementation,
spending millions of dollars to improve their driver's license
Stopping those efforts now would simply waste money, confuse
processes that took four years to put in place, and delay what most
Americans want: secure IDs and a safer America.
Janice L. Kephart is a former counsel
to the September 11 Commission and is National Security Policy
Director for the Center for Immigration Studies. Jena Baker
McNeill is Policy Analyst for Homeland Security in the Douglas
and Sarah Allison Center for Foreign Policy Studies, a division of
the Kathryn and Shelby Cullom Davis Institute for International
Studies, at The Heritage Foundation.
AppendixState Participation in REAL
Alabama. Citizens take computerized tests. Their
records are captured electronically, and their digital photos are
stored in a searchable database. Their names are automatically
checked against national databases to confirm their identities and
to ensure that they are legally entitled to licenses.
Colorado.Colorado remains a leader in identify
Delaware.Delaware is examining ways in which the
state can move forward with REAL ID implementation.
Florida. Florida received $1.2 million to partner
with Mississippi, the lead hub state for pilot implementation and
Indiana. Indiana received $1.2 million to partner
with the lead hub state for pilot implementation and verification
testing. "BMV Commissioner Ron Stiver said the new licenses will
result in a total cost savings of $2.5 million during the six-year
Iowa.Iowa is planning to comply with REAL ID
and is actively taking steps toward this goal.
Kentucky."FEMA awarded Kentucky an additional $4
million to help state Department of Motor Vehicle Departments
connect to state Vital Records Offices (VRO). The Commonwealth of
Kentucky will enable state VROs to access the Electronic
Verification of Vital Events hub (a web based portal) to verify
birth and death record information of individuals applying for REAL
ID driver's licenses and identification cards. Kentucky will also
use these funds to expand the scope of its REAL ID Pilot Project by
comparing U.S. foreign born citizens applying for a REAL ID
driver's license with the U.S. Department of State's foreign born
citizen birth record information."
Maine. On June 3, 2009, Maine Governor John
Baldacci vetoed a bill that would have stopped Maine from complying
with REAL ID. He cited the fact that "Maine had become a target for
unscrupulous individuals looking to circumvent legal presence
requirements in other states," as one of the reasons behind the
Maryland. Governor Martin O'Malley signed a bill
to comply with REAL ID on May 8, 2009.
Mississippi.Mississippireceived $17 million to
become the lead state for verification hub requirements and
Nevada. Nevada received $1.2 million
to partner with the lead hub state for pilot implementation and
verification testing. "Nevada citizens will have the option of
obtaining a Real ID compliant driver's license or identification
card, or a standard Nevada driver's license as issued today."
Ohio.Ohio was the first state to request and
receive an extension. "Ohio has no plans to oppose Real ID. At this
time, we are going to have to review the final rules to make a
determination, but we have been moving full steam ahead with the
intent of implementing Real ID in Ohio." 
Oregon. In 2007, Oregon Governor Ted Kulongonski
issued an Executive Order which called for stricter driver's
license and identification card issuance standards.
Rhode Island."Governor Carcieri has indicated that
he supports REAL ID implementation in Rhode Island."
Wisconsin. Wisconsin received $1.2 million to
partner with the lead hub state for pilot implementation and
verification testing. "Under the 2007-2008 biennial budget
provisions Wisconsin [will be] in full compliance with the federal
Real ID law."
109-13, §§ 201-207.
Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, The 9/11
Commission Report: Final Report of the National Commission on
Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (New York: W.W. Norton
and Company, 2004), p. 390, at /static/reportimages/F44F08E003B9ADB2C35C8630BA8037CB.pdf
(May 21, 2009).
"Identity and Security," pp. 10-11; Janice L. Kephart, presentation
at panel on "Making REAL ID Real: Implementing National Standards,"
The Heritage Foundation, audio file, January 16, 2008, at http://www.heritage.org/press/events/ev011608a.cfm; and
Janice Kephart, "Ohio Driver's Licenses Hit by Four-Year ID Theft
Scam," Center for Immigration Studies, December 17, 2008, at http://cis.org/kephart/
OHDriversLicense (May 26, 2009).
"Identity and Security," p. 9. See press release, "Francisco Javier
Miranda-Espinosa Sentenced to Serve over 11 Years in Federal Prison
for Aggravated Identity Theft and Conspiracy to Launder Monetary
Instruments," U.S. Attorney's Office, District of Colorado,
February 15, 2006, at http://www.usdoj.gov/usao/co/press_releases/archive/2006/
February06/2_16_06.html (June 10, 2009), and press
release, "Joint Task Forces Created In 10 Cities to Combat Document
and Benefit Fraud," U.S. Department of Homeland Security,
Immigration and Customs Enforcement, April 5, 2006, at http://www.dhs.gov/xnews/releases/press_release
_0884.shtm (May 26, 2009).
2005 109-13, § 206.
January 2008 press conference, DHS Secretary Michael Chertoff
stated: "What we're doing is we're taking the current cost
estimate, which may--which is a pretty generous estimate, I might
say--which is under $4 billion for a period of 10 years nationwide.
And if you were to extrapolate that over all the licenses, it would
essentially, on a pro rata basis, come out to a cost of a little
more than $8 per license." Michael Chertoff, remarks at press
conference, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, January 1, 2008,
(May 26, 2009).
Association for Public Health Statistics and Information Systems,
presentation at June 2007 Annual Meeting.
popular in reducing fraud in Social Security and Medicare and
Medicaid checks already. For example, EVVE Pilot with SSA for
August 2002 to December 2003 for Birth/Death
Verifications/Certifications included participating Vital Records
Offices in California, Colorado, Hawaii, Iowa, Minnesota,
Mississippi, Missouri, Oklahoma and SSA Local Offices in 26 states
had EVVE access." Rose Trasatti, "All About EVVE," presentation at
ISM Conference, Boston, August 6, 2007, at http://www.aphsa-ism.org
201-3_Citizenship%20Verification_Trasatti.pdf (May 26,
Attorney General Halts Sale of Fake Driver's Licenses,"
Government Technology, April 11, 2008, at http://www.govtech.com/gt/28
5914 (May 22, 2009). See also WBAL TV, "I-Team: Fake IDs
Easy to Get for Immigrants," July 30, 2007, at http://www.wbaltv.com/news/
13784640/detail.html (May 21, 2009).
does maintain the lawful presence checks of REAL ID, which is an
important standard for driver's license security. Maryland recently
began checking lawful presence, after finding that allowing illegal
immigrants to obtain Maryland driver's licenses had made the state
a magnet for fraud, crime, and bad drivers. Governor O'Malley, a
co-chair of the National Governors Association's Homeland Security
Committee, signed a bill to comply with REAL ID on May 8, 2009.
Laura Smitherman, "O'Malley Signs Contentious New Laws," The
Baltimore Sun, May 8, 2009, at http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/local/politics/bal-md.bills08may08,0,7
190848.story (May 26, 2009). See also Andy Green,
"O'Malley's Position on Real ID," The Baltimore Sun, March
31, 2009, http://weblogs.baltimoresun
(May 26, 2009).
Carafano, "Making REAL ID a Reality."
"Secretary Chertoff's Stocking Stuffer."
Department of Homeland Security, "Frequently Asked Questions: REAL
ID," June 20, 2008, at http://www.6pinternational.com/news/copy
%20of%20real%20id%20grants%20faqs.pdf (May 29, 2009). See
also American Financial Services Association, "The REAL ID Act:
State Implementation & Effects," March 2009, p. 4, at https://www.afsaonline.org
26, 2009). For details on individual states, see the Appendix.
Michels, "Enhanced Drivers' License Eases Border Crossing for
Washington State Residents," Government Technology, April 9,
2008, at http://www.govtech.com/gt/279970?id=279970
(May 26, 2009); New York Department of Motor Vehicles, "Enhanced
DMV Photo Documents for U.S. Citizens Who Are Residents of NYS," at
-main.htm (May 26, 2009); Vermont Department of Motor
Vehicles, "EDL FAQs," updated March 12, 2009, at http://dmv.vermont.gov/documents/
MiscellaneousDocuments/EDLFAQ.pdf (May 26, 2009); and Sue
Schroder, "Cross the Border with Michigan's Enhanced Driver's
License," MLive.com, May 10, 2009, at http://www.mlive.com/travel/index.ssf/2009/05/
it_wasnt_exactly_the_border.html (June 10, 2009).
Department of Public Safety, "States Special Report on States
Special Compliance with PL 109-13, the REAL ID Law," July 2008.
Department of Homeland Security, "Frequently Asked Questions: REAL