October 28, 1994 | Backgrounder on Federal Budget
1008 October 28, 1994 HOW WASHINGTON WASTED YOURMOMY INTHE 1995 APPROPRIATIONS BILLS INTRODUCTION President Bill Clinton and many Members of Congress are trying to convince skepti cal voters that l ast years massive tax bill, the largest tax increase in U.S. history, finally put Washingtons fiscal house in order. They cite as evidence the fact that the budget deficit for fiscal 1994, which ended September 30, dipped to $203 billion, the lowest level since Ronald Reagan left office. While news of a temporary decline in the deficit may cheer many taxpayers, however, the Congressional Budget Offices projections indi cate that the deficit will rise rapidly in the future, nearly doubling within ten years. The fiscal 1995 appropriations bills, recently passed by Congress and signed into law by the President, are a clear sign that Washington is still addicted to profligate pork barrel spending.
These 13 bills were packed with the kinds of projects and spendi ng items that incum bents believe will win them reelection. Some of the more egregious spending items hid den in this years appropriations bills include 1.5 million for the 21 st Street Corridor Project in Wichita, Kansas 2 million for the Farmers Market i nToledo, Ohio 750,000 for the SciTrek Science Museum in Downtown Atlanta 462,000 for the Education licenser Commission in Washington, D.C 2.8 million for a Army Corps of Engineers Building in Walla Walla, Wash ington 2.6 million for a Navy Child Developme n t Center on Parris Island, South Carolina 4.75 million for the Rice Germplasm Center in Stuttgart, Arkansas 1.1 million in the Agriculture appropriations bill for a Childrens Hospital in Arkansas 600,000 for the Fish Farming Experimental laboratory in Stu t tgart Arkansas 42 million for Official Mail for Members of Congress and another 464,000 for election year moving costs 200,000 for an Army Corps of Engineers investigation of the Malibu Coastal Area in California and $13 million for construction at the Ro b ert C. Byrd locks and Dam in West Virginia 40 million for the Pennsylvania Station Redevelopment Project in New York City 1.5 million for a survey of Boston-to-New York Amtrak riders to deter mine modal preferences 30 million to continue the Interstate Co mmerce Commission (ICC which the House earlier this year had voted to abolish 150 million in breast cancer research funding in the Department of Defense appropriations bill.
These and hundreds of similar spending items indicate that last years budget deal which purportedly contained $250 billion in spending cuts, did not cut federal spending to the bone as some supporters have claimed. Yet many in Washington insist that the only way to achieve further deficit reduction is to enact draconian cuts in large e n title ment programs such as Medicare and Medicaid. While it is true that such things as the ris ing cost of many federal health care programs will help the deficit balloon to an esti mated $397 billion by fiscal 2004, it is not true to say that nothing ca n be done to lower the deficit until major entitlement reform is achieved.
The fiscal 1995 appropriations bills are littered with hundreds of programs which, if eliminated or cut, would save taxpayers tens of billions of dollars. If Members of Con gress we re serious about cutting the deficit, they would begin by systematically rein venting the spending budget through a number of techniques. Among them x Cutting outmoded programs and programs with a long history of failure x Cutting programs benefiting pure ly local or commercial interests; and Beginning to use innovative techniques such as privatization.
These approaches have been successfully employed by governments throughout the world and by state and local governments in this country. They enable governm ents to achieve major reductions in spending while maintaining the services that voters currently demand of government. To rely solely on health care or other politically difficult entitle ment reforms to cut the deficit will simply protect the kinds of s p ending that taxpayers most associate with irresponsible government 2 SEVEN FISCALLY RESPONSIBLE BUDGET RULES Contrary to the impression conveyed by the White House, the $203 billion budget defi cit recorded for the last fiscal year and the projected 162 b i llion deficit projected for the current fiscal year are not permanent trends. In the years following this temporary de cline, the governments own figures indicate that the deficit begins to soar-reaching 257 billion by fiscal 2000 and $397 billion by fisc al 20
04. Major entitlement reform would improve this gloomy pic ture signifi cantly, but law makers flinch from addressing entitlements be cause the politi cal obstacles are so daunting.
Yet, despite the conventional wisdom that only major enti t lemen t reform can make any difference in the deficit, Con gress does not have to wait for 400 300 200 100 Under Clinton Policies, Federal Deficit to Nearly Double In Next Ten Years Projected Deficits in Billions of Dollars $397 257 23 I I994 I996 I998 2000 2002 2004 Fiscal Years burm Congressional Budget ORice sweeping entitlement reform to make a permanent and lasting impact on long-term defi cit reduction. What Members of Congress will have to do is stop budgeting as usual and take a critical look at every spe nding item in the federal budget.
Before Congress embarks on such a comprehensive review of the federal budget, law makers should establish a set of rules or guidelines. These guidelines will enable Mem bers of Congress to take a hard look not only at thei r own spending behavior, but also at programs and spending items they often take for granted. The following seven rules should be included in any set of guidelines 1 Question the need for any program that is more than 50 years old and eliminate any which i s outmoded or obsolete Most taxpayers have heard the old adage that the closest thing to immortality is a federal program. But most would be stunned to learn how old many federal programs and agencies really are. Large segments of the federal bureaucracy w ere created dec ades ago for purposes that have long since been forgotten. But bureaucrats and agency supporters are remarkably adept at reinventing these programs to address whatever perceived problem is fashionable at the time Example: The National Fert i lizer Development Center in Muscle Shoals, Alabama was built as a munitions plant in 1919 to serve the militarys needs during World War I. Years later it was converted into a fertilizer plant and given to the Tennessee 3 Valley Authority. This federal fer t ilizer research project became obsolete long ago with the growth of the private fertilizer industry, an industry which generates some 9 billion in sales annually. To keep up with the times, and the flow of federal dol lars this program has changed its nam e to the TVA Environmental Research Cen ter. Despite a new name fit for the 1990s, however, it should be closed, saving tax payers $185 million over five years Example: Started in 1935 to encourage private utilities to provide electricity, and later teleph o ne service, the Rural Electrification Administration long ago completed its mission. Although nearly 100 percent of rural America has electric service and nearly 98 percent has telephone service, the REA was approved for over $1 billion in taxpayer subsid i es this year. Recent reports indicate that its management and sup porters have found a new way to try to justify REAS existence: by offering loans to provide satellite television services. The REA should be abolished, saving taxpayers more than 260 millio n over five years.
There are dozens of such dinosaurs in the federal budget that Congress should seri ously consider either abolishing or reforming. Examples of such programs and agen cies and the years they were created include The Army Corps of Engineers, 1824 83 The U.S. Department of the Interior, 1849 x U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1862 x The Mining Act of 1872 The Cooperative State Research Service, 1888 The Bureau of Reclamation, 1902 x The U.S. Forest Service, 1905 The Bureau of Mines, 1910 The Naval Petroleum Res e rves, 191 2 x The Agriculture Extension Service, 191 4 x The National Park Service, 191 6 The National Helium Reserves, 1925 Z The Davis-Bacon Act, 1931 The Tennessee Valley Authority, 1933 The Export-Import Bank, 1934 The Soil Conservation Service, 1935 T he Power Marketing Administrations, 1937 4 2) Eliminate programs with a long history of failure The culture of government assumes that the shortcomings of agencies can always be solved with more money. So rather than scrutinize a failed program more close l y or simply close it down, Congress will pour millions more taxpayer dollars into it. Con gress must learn to cut taxpayers losses before they get out of control Example: According to the General Accounting Office, there is little or no evidence to show t hat the Small Business Administration has had any impact on expanding small business development since it was formed in 19
54. Rather than eliminate this program with such a failed history, Congress and the White House approved 258 million in new spending for fiscal 1995 Example: Since 1935, the Farmers Home Administration (FmHA) has loaned over 172 billion to farmers and rural communities. But according to the House Appro priations Committee report accompanying the fiscal 1994 Department of Agricul ture a p propriations bill, the unpaid principal on all FmHA loans as of September 30, 1992, totals $56 billion. Based upon FmHAs past performance, it is likely that a sizable portion of this total, and the interest due on it, will never be repaid. Fur thermore, t he GAO reports that FmHA is making new loans to individuals just so 2 they may repay old loans. This $2.6 billion-per-year program is beyond reform and should be closed down 3) Eliminate or consolidate duplicate programs.
While few private companies would allow even two departments to perform identi cal functions, the federal government routinely permits dozens of departments to carry out the same activities. Duplication within the government is not just tolerated by Con gress; it is exacerbated by Congres s . Two congressional traits give rise to this wasteful duplication of effort. First, Congress hates to eliminate any program it has created, re gardless of how inefficient or ineffective it may be. Second, Members of Congress like to take credit for creati ng new programs to solve whatever problem may be in fash ion, even if there already are programs in place to address the issue.
The recently passed crime bill is a perfect example. The crime bill created at least 15 new social programs at a cost of some $7 billion over the next six years, supposedly to address the root causes of crime. Yet, over the past 25 years, the government has spent lavishly on programs virtually identical to the ones created in the new crime bill.
Since 1965, government has spent, a fter adjusting for inflation 161 billion on com munity and economic aid programs 202 billion on social service programs 204 bil lion on job training programs, and $292 billion on targeted education programs. There is ample evidence to suggest that this sp e nding has failed to solve the root causes of crime, and some programs may even have exacerbated social ills linked to crime 1 2 U.S. General Accounting Office, Transition Series, Housing and Community Development Issues (GAO/OCG-93-22TR December 1992, p. 20.
U.S. General Accounting Office, The Farmers Home Administration: Billions of Dollars in Farm Loans Are At Risk GAO/RCED-92-86 April 1992 5 Last year, Vice President Ai Gores National Performance Review identified vast ar eas of duplication in social sp ending. For example Some 14 separate government departments and a encies spend $24 billion a Washington spends about $60 billion a year on the well-being of children 3g year on 150 employment and training programs.
But we have created at least 340 separat e programs for families and children administered by 11 different federal agencies and department Duplication exists throughout other areas of the government as well. In some cases entire Cabinet agencies duplicate the efforts of other programs and depart m ents. For example, the GAO reports that the Department of Commerce shares its mission with at least 7 1 federal departments, agencies, and office Further, says the GAO, Export promotion programs are distributed among 10 agen cies. The U.S. Department of A g riculture, not Commerce, receives about 74 percent of total funding for these programs, although it accounts for only about 10 percent of US. exports. Congress has ignored the GAOs finding and continues to spend bil lions of dollars on these duplicative f u nctions 4) Eliminate purely local activities now funded or managed by the federal government Congress has never been content to limit itself to matters of national or federal inter est. Because Members like to take credit for solving problems, the federal govern ment is integrally involved in many activities that were once the sole responsibility of state or local governments. According to Gores National Performance Review, much of Washingtons domestic agenda 226 billion, to be precise, is allocated to sta te and local governments through an array of more than 600 different grant programs.
Moreover, Members of Congress also use the appropriations process to earmark fed eral funds for specific progrk that have nothing to do with national interests and often tie the budget hands of state and local officials.
There are hundreds of these earmarked projects in the federal budget All are loca nature; none should be the responsibility of a national or federal body such as Con gress. Some examples of those found in the appendix to this study include 1 million for an airport access road in Jacksonville, Florida 1 million to upgrade 96th Street in Indianapolis, Indiana Z $14 million for an airport access road in Detroit, Michigan 1.2 million to improve Peace and Unity Streets in Thomasville North Carolina in 3 4 Ibid p. 51 5 The National Performance Review: Creating a Government that Works Better and Costs Less (Washington. D.C US.
Government Printing Office, September 7, 1993 p. 49 U.S. General Accounting Office, Tran sition Series, Commerce Issues (GAO/OCG-93- 12TR), December 1992, p. 9 6 1.5 million for renovation of the central terminal in Buffalo, New York 1 00,000 to Easton, Pennsylvania, for downtown revitalization activities X $1 million to Brownsville, Texas, f o r infrastructure improvements in 2 million to Springfield, Massachusetts, for infrastructure and capital X $2 million for planning and design of urban revitalization activities in 2.5 million to Kansas City, Missouri, for the restoration of Union Station the port of Brownsville improvements connected to the Tapley Street operations center.
Portland, Oregon 5) Fund no project or research that benefits private industry directly.
The federal government spends billions of dollars each year funding research an d business development activities that should be the responsibility of the industries which benefit directly from the research. These projects amount to a direct taxpayer subsidy of the research and development projects of private firms. Eliminating tax p ayer-funded research would force these companies to undertake their own research and development and to consider more carefully the value of competing research pro jects.
Among the essentially commercial research projects Congress should eliminate 600,000 for the Fish Farming Experimental laboratory in Stuttgart, Arkan sas. This project benefits the $200 million-per-year catfish industry 1 07,000 for Kenaf research. For many years, Congress has funded research on turning this woody plant into paper product s on the grounds that it has great commercial application. If so, private industry should fund the research 1 million for a onetime grant to the State of Alaska for the protection and restoration of salmon habitat in the Kenai River watershed area. Ac cord i ng to theconference report accompanying the appropriations bill for the De partment of Commerce, the Kenai River and its tributaries support sport and commercial fisheries valued at $100 million annually. With so much at stake, lo cal industry or the Stat e of Alaska should fund such a project, not taxpayers na tionwide. travel industry spends billions each year promoting tourism in the U.S. There is no need for taxpayer financing of such activities The $90 million Market Promotion Program subsidizes foreig n advertising costs for large U.S. business, such as McDonalds Corporation, the Pillsbury Company, and Ernest and Julio Gallo Winery, Inc. Taxpayers should not be contributing to the cost of routine profit-generating activities of pri vate industry 1 6.4 m i llion for the U.S. Travel and Tourism Administration. The private 7 6) Use privatization techniques to improve services, reduce costs and remove government from commercial activities Privatization is now universally recognized as an effective way to deliv e r high-qual ity public services at the lowest possible cost. Governments from Moscow in Russia to Jersey City New Jersey, are using a variety of privatization techniques such as asset sales, contracting out, and voucher schemes to lower their budget defic its and improve public services. Only in Washington are these sound fiscal measures dismissed as gim micks or quick fixes. Congress has forbidden many agencies from even studying the prospects for privatizing agency functions.
The federal government simply cannot afford to continue many of the activities it has funded for decades and continues to fund in this years appropriations bills. Privati zation is the only hope of survival for many inefficient and financially faltering p r o grams, because they are starved of capital due to federal budget constraints and lack the private market disciplines needed to force managers to use capital efficiently. Con sider the problems in three programs documented by the GA0.6 x Many of the 337 d ams built by the Bureau of Reclamation are over a half-cen tury old and in desperate need of repair The Forest Service now needs $644 million to pay for the maintenance and re construction of trails and recreation sites Within a few years, many of the Arm y Corps of Engineers aging 125 bil lion inventory of water resources projects will have reached the end of their design lives.
Privatization is probably the only remaining way to raise the capital necessary for these programs. But Congress will have to cha nge its arcane attitude toward the use of private commercial capital and management techniques. If the political culture does change in Washington, there are numerous privatization opportunities available.
Among them market Sell the governments $200 billi on direct loan portfolio to the secondary loan Sell the Power Marketing Administrations through a public stock offering Sell public lands or give them back to the states Sell Amtrak through a public stock offering Privatize the Postal Service through an e m ployee stock option plan 6 U.S. General Accounting Office, Transition Series. Natural Resources Issues (GAO/OCG-93- 17TR December 1992, pp 8-9 8 7) Stop forcing the bureaucracy to waste money No owner of a private firm would make rules that force company m anagers to waste money. But Congress routinely enacts rules and mandates that force agency managers to waste billions of taxpayers dollars Example: The U.S. Park Service is prohibited from covering its costs by raising the entrance fees it charges to visi tors. Because of this rule, the Park Service now charges tourists a fraction of the real costs associated with admitting each visitor.
The Service spends $1 billion per year on the operations of the National Park sys tem but receives less than $30 million back through fees.
Example: The Davis-Bacon Act of 193 1 increases the costs of government construc tion contracts by over $1 billion annually. It does so by forcing contractors to pay union scale wages on all federally funded construction contracts, even though less expensive labor often is available. This legislation originally was enacted to keep black workers off federal construction sites. That is precisely what it has done dur ing the last 60 years. A similar law, the Service Contract Act, serves th e same func tion for federally funded service contracts. The extra costs imposed by these laws 2 billion per year.
Sometimes even well-meaning acts of Congress can cost. the bureaucracy in both money and staff time lost from an agencys mission. For example , the National Per formance Review reports that in 1993, Congress requested 5,348 reports from federal agencies. These reports cost millions of dollars to produce, but only a handful of con gressional staffers probably ever bother to read them CONCLUSION T he temporary dip in the federal budget deficit should not lull taxpayers into believing politicians claims that Washingtons fiscal house is in order. Nothing could be further from the truth. The appropriations bills recently passed by Congress and signed by Clin ton for the 1995 fiscal year contain as much or more pork and wasteful spending as in previous years.
Congress seems to have learned nothing from years of running large budget deficits: It continues to pour money into outmoded programs created 50 t o 100 years ago and pro grams with a long history of failure; it continues to spend federal tax dollars on purely lo cal projects or programs benefiting specific commercial industries; and it continues to force agencies to waste taxpayers money. Hardworki ng American families can no longer afford budgeting as usual.
Scott A. Hodge Grover M. Hermann Fellow in Federal Budgetary Affairs John Barry Research Assistant 9 APPENDIX ADDrODriatiOnS for the Legislative Branch Total Recommended in the Bill 2.4 Billion Senate 437.6 Million Expense Allowances for Leadership 86,000 Official Mail 1 1 Million Salaries, Officers and Employees 7 1.3 Million Office of the Sergeant at Arms and Doorkeeper 32.7 Million Office of the Chaplain 192,000 Republican Conference Committe e 996,000 Democratic Conference Committee 996,000 Stationery for the Leadership 13,000 House of Representatives 73 5.5 Million Leadership Offices 6.1 Million Allowances and Expenses 244.6 Million Official Expenses of Members 79.8 Million Supplies, material s , administrative costs 6.1 Million Office Equipment Services 1 1.8 Million Expenses for Telecommunications 10.9 Million Furniture and Furnishings 2 Million House Automobiles 103,000 Office mail 3 1 Million Salaries, Officers and Employees 56.3 Million Off i ce of the Sergeant at Arms 1.5 Million Office of the Doorkeeper 1 1.5 Million Office of the Chaplain 124,000 House Democratic Steering Committee and Caucus 1.5 Million House Republican Conference 1.5 Million Architect of the Capitol 1 1 1.3 Million Modern i zation of 7 Escalators in House Office Buildings 580,000 Modernization of Elevators in the Longworth Building 700,000 Addition of 6 Elevators in the Longworth Building 6.6 Million Modifications to the Post Office facility 62,000 Election Year Moving Costs 464,000 Congressional Printing and Binding 89.7 Million Capitol Guide Service 1.6 Million Members Clerk Hire (staff 240.4 Million 10 Appropriations for Agriculture. Rural Development. Food and Drug Administration. and Related Agencies Total Recommended in the Bill 68.0 Billion Department of Agriculture Alternative Agricultural Research and Commercialization 6.5 Million Agricultural Research Service 696.4 Million Ethanol Pilot Plant IL 900, 000 Appalachian Fruit Research Laboratory (WV 5.8 Million Arkansas C hildrens Hospital 1.1 Million Bee Research 5 Million Composting Research OH 300. 000 Fish Farming Experimental Laboratory. Stuttgart (AR 600. 000 Kenaf Research (MS 500. 000 Sugarcane Research 965, 000 Sweet Potato Whitefly Research (AZ 4.4 Million Wild R i ce Research 150, 000 Buildings and Facilities 43.7 Million Rice Germplasm Center in Stuttgart (AR 4.8 Million Cold Water Aquaculture Center 1.9 Million Swine Research Facility (IA 6.3 Million Special Research Grants 52.3 Million Alternative Marine and Fre s h Water Species (MS 308, 000 Aquaculture (CT, IL, LA MS 1.3 Million Broom Snakeweed 169, 000 Center for Innovative Food Technology (OH 1 8 1, 000 Competitiveness of Agricultural Products (WA 677, 000 Dairy and Meat Goat Research (TX 63, 000 Developing Pea s and Lentils for Residue (WA 226, 000 Floriculture 250, 000 Generic Commodity Promotion Research (NY 2 12, 000 Jointed Goatgrass (WA 296, 000 Lowbush Blueberry Research (ME 220, 000 Molluscan Shellfish (OR 250, 000 Regionalized Implications of Fm Programs (MO, TX 294, 000 Small Fruit Research (OR, WA ID 212, 000 Swine Research (MN 119, 000 Urban Pests (GA 64, 000 Waste Utilization 373, 000 Wood Utilization Research (OR, MS, NC, MN 3.8 Million Wool Research (TX, MT, WY 212, 000 Federal Administration 20 Mil l ion Agriculture Development in the American Pacific 564, 000 Alternative Fuels Characterization Lab 2 18, 000 American Indian Initiative of the Arid Lands Development Fund 434, 000 Herd Management in Tennessee 535, 000 11 National Potato Trade and Tariff A ssociation 93,000 Shrimp Aquaculture AZ, HI, MS, MA, SC 3.1 Million Buildings and Facllities 62.7 Million Poultry Science Facility, Auburn University (AL 522,000 Agriculture Building (AR 2.3 Million Alternative Pest Control Buildings (AR, CA 2.8 Million C e nter for Plant Biodiversity (MO 757,000 New York Botanical Garden 3.8 Million Center for Food Marketing (PA 2.4 Million Extension Service 438.7 Million Pest Management 10.9 Million Cranberry Development in Maine 50,000 Agricultural Plastics in Vermont 100 , 000 Rural Health and Safety Education 2.8 Million Income Enhancement Demonstration Project 250,000 Enhanced Range Improvement 200,000 Wood Biomass as an Alternative Farm Product 200,000 National Agricultural Library 1 8.3 Million Center for Agricultural L a w Research in Fayetteville, Arkansas 462,000 Other Agencies and Programs Agriculture Marketing Service 56.6 Million Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 288 Million Conservation Reserve Program 1.7 Billion Soil Conservation Service 556 Million Promote Pastu r eland Management and Rotational Grazing 250,000 Hungry Canyon Erosion Control Project (IA 400,000 Work on the Skaneateles and Owasco (NY 250,000 Salt Cedar Management Project (NM 200,000 Gillespie Lake Expansion Project (IL 1 50,000 Rural Electrification a nd Telephone Loan Authorizations 1.4 Billion Outreach for Socially Disadvantaged Farmers 4 Million Rural Water and Waste Disposal Grants 500 Million Foreign Assistance and Related Programs 1.8 Billion CCC Export Loans Programs 397.8 Million Foreign Agricu l tural Service 108.9 Million Wetlands Reserve Program 93.2 Million Rural Development Programs 12 Appropriations for the Department of Deiense Total Recommended in the Bill 243.6 Billion Memorial Day and July 4 Celebrations 950,000 Wild Horses Roundup at Wh i te Sands 1.5 Million Summer Olympics 14.4 Million Special Olympics 3 Million Wastewater Treatment in Hawzui 9.5 Million Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, Army 5.5 Billion AIDS Research 33.4 Million Environmental Compliance Research 49.9 Million E nvironmental Quality Technology 46.9 Million Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, Navy 8.6 Billion with Crash Worthy Seats 2.7 Million Environmental Quality and Logistics Advanced Technology 23 Million Environmental Protection Research 49.8 Million Industrial Preparedness 87.8 Million Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, Air Force 1 2.2 Billion.
National Airspace System 3 1 Million Spacetrack 54.8 Million Environmental Compliance 42.9 Million Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, Defens e-Wide 9.1 Billion University Research Imtiatives 253.3 Million Strategic Environmental Research Program 61.9 Million Electric Vehicles 15 Million NATO Research and Development 3 5.3 Million Medical Research 363.4 Million Army Breast Cancer Research 1 50 M illion Prostate Cancer 4.2 Million Ovarian Cancer 7.5 Million Osteoporosis 750,000 Lyme Disease Research 500,000 AlDS Research 33.4 Million Breast Cancer Center 5 Million Prostate Cancer 10 Million Conversion and Reinvestment Initiatives, Defense-Wide 3.3 Billion Troops to Teachers 65 Million Troops to Cops 1 5 Million National Guard Youth Opportunity Pilot Program Transfer 7 1.4 Million Other Conversion Imtitatives 72 Million American Legionhnternational Labor Union Veterans Training 1.4 Million Southeast Regional College Network Florida 3 Million Investigation of the Feasibility of Retrofitting Naval Helicopters Navy San Gabriel Valley Community Development Corporation 1.3 Million San Diego State University Conversion Center 10 Million Amronriations for t h e District of Columbia Total Recommended in the Bill 712.0 Million Advisory Neighborhood Commissions 1.2 Million Statehood Commission 1 50,000 Office of Tourism and Promotion 463,000 Education Licenser Commission 462,000 Taxicab Commission 1.3 Million Com m ission on the Arts and Humanities 3.3 Million Commission for Women 262,000 Office on Latino Mairs 1.1 Million Washington D.C. Convention Center 12.9 Million University of the District of Columbia 60.3 Million District of Columbia Law School 5.6 Million Ap p ropriations for Energy and Water Development Total Recommended in the Bill 20.7 Billion Army Corps of Engineers General Investigations and Planning 1 8 1.2 Million Muscle Shoals, AL 150,000 Hot Springs, AR 750,000 Huntington Beach, CA 133,000 Long Beach H a rbors, CA 2 Million Malibu Coastal Area, CA 200,000 Santa Barbara Harbor, CA 540,000 Daytona Beach Shores, FL 62,000 Lower Boise River and Tributaries, ID 261,000 Chicago River and Shoreline, IL 578,000 Indianapolis Central Waterfront, IN 4 Million Lewis a nd Clark Lake, ND 100,000 Dayton Miami River Basin, OH 300,000 Dallas Floodway Extension, TX 700,000 West Virginia Port Development, WV 800,000 Jackson Hole Restoration, WY 450,000 Presidents Climate Change Action Plan 600,000 Los Angeles County Drainage A rea, CA 500,000 Kawaihae Small Boat Harbor, HI 1.3 Million Maalaea Harbor, Maui, HI 1.2 Million Construction, General 983.7 Million 14 Casino Beach, IL 1 Million Des Moines Recreational River, IA 4 Million Chesapeake Bay Oyster Recovery, MI 500,000 Tropic a na and Flamingo Washes, NV 7 Million Sandy Hook to Barnegat Inlet, NJ 13.1 Million Acequias Irrigation System, NM 2.5 Million Grays Landing, Lock and Dam 7, PA 7 Million Myrtle Beach, SC 3 Million Sims Bayou, Houston, TX 1 5.1 Million Levisa and Tug Forks and Upper Cumberland River, WV 53.8 Million Robert C. Byrd Locks and Dam, WV 1 3 Million Winfield Locks and Dam, WV 5 1 Million Aquatic Plant control 9.5 Million Operation and Maintenance 1.65 Billion White River, AR 2.1 Million Sacramento River and Tribu t aries, CA 2.9 Million San Diego Harbor, CA 125,000 San Francisco Harbor and Bay, CA 6.7 Million Santa Barbara Harbor, CA 800,000 Cherry Creek Lake Flood Control, CO 800,000 Potomac and Anacostia Rivers Drift Removal, DC 730,000 Panama City Harbor, FL 394, 0 00 Honolulu Harbor, HI 1 19,000 Chicago River and Harbor, IL 2.6 Million Cape Cod Canal, MA 5.9 Million Hodges Village Dam Flood Control, MA 3.9 Million Mosquito Creek Lake Flood Control, OH 746,000 Sam Rayburn Dam and Reservoir, TX 3.9 Million Mt. Saint H elens, WA 454,000 Stonewall Jackson Lake, WV 904,000 Sturgeon Bay, WI 1 Million Jackson Hole Levees, WY 1.3 Million Black Warrior and Tombigbee Rivers, AL 20 Million Department of the Interior Central Utah Project 40.2 Million Bureau of Reclamation Genera l Investigations 14.2 Million TucsonRhoenix Water Conservation Study 300,000 General Planning Studies 2 Million Construction Programs 432.7 Million San Jose Water Reclamation, CA 1.8 Million Yakima Fish Passage, WA 160,000 Global Climate Change Study 525,0 0 0 Fish and Wildlife Facilities 3.4 Million Shasta Dam Temperature Control Device 25 Million Yampa River Water Supply Study 100,000 15 Department of Energy Energy Supply, Research and Development Activities 3.3 Billion Solar and Renewable Energy Programs 3 8 8.1 Million Biofbels Energy Systems Program 62.1 Million Short Rotation Woody Crops Program 4 Million Regional Biomass Program 5 Million Geothermal and Hydropower 38.6 Million Nuclear Energy Program 293.2 Million Biological and Environmental Research 437. 3 Million Magnetic Fusion 372.6 Million Power Marketing Administrations 272.5 Million Alaska Power Administration 6.5 Million Southeastern Power Administration 22.4 Million Southwestern Power Administration 2 1.3 Million Western Power Administration 222.3 M illion Electric Energy Systems and Storage 46.1 Million Independent Agencies Appalachian Regional Commission 282 Million Delaware River Basin Commission 82 1,000 Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin 5 1 1,000 Susquehanna River Basin Commission 606,000 Tennessee Valley Authority 142.9 Million Appropriations for Foreign Operations and Related Programs Total Recommended in the Bill 13.8 Billion Multilateral Economic Assistance Contribution to the International Bank for Reconstruction and Developme n t 1 13 Million Global Environment Facility 90 Million Contribution to the International Development Association 1.2 Billion Contribution to the Inter-American Development Bank 124.6 Million Enterprise For Americas Multilateral Investment Fund 75 Million C o ntribution to the Asian Development Fund 168.0 Million Contribution to the -can Development Fund 124.2 Million Contribution to the European Bank Reconstruction and Development 69.2 Million Bilateral Economic Assistance Agency for International Development , operating expenses 5 17.8 Million Development Assistance Fund 853 Million AIDS/HIV Prevention and Control 121 Million Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Initiative 750,000 Global Warming Initiative 55 Million 16 Replicable Renewable Energy Projects 2 0 Million Burmese Who Have Been Displaced 1 Million Sub-Sahara Africa Development Aid 802 Million Debt Restructuring 7 Million Office of Women in Development 13 Million Population, Development Assistance 450 Million Housing and Other Credit Guaranty Progr a m 27.3 Million Subsidy Appropriations 19.3 Million Operating Expenses 8 Million International Fund for Ireland 19.6 Million African Development Foundation 16.9 Million Inter-American Foundation 3 1 Million State Department International Narcotics Control 1 05 Million Peace Corps 219.7 Million Military Assistance International Military Education and Training 25.5 Million Foreign Military Financing Grants 3.2 Billion Voluntary Contributions to U.N. Peacekeeping Missions 75 Million Export Assistance Export-Imp o rt Bank of the United States 83 1.8 Million Subsidy Appropnation 786.6 Million Admmstrative Expenses 45.2 Million Overseas Private Investment Corporation 66.1 Million Subsidy Appropnation 33.9 Million Admrustrative Expenses 7.9 Million Non-credit Administ r ative Expenses 24.3 Million Trade and Development Agency 45 Million Appropriations for the Department of the Interior and Related Agencies Total Recommended in the Bill 13.65 Billion Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management 598.4 Million Wild H orse and BUKO Management 17.2 Million Land Acquisition 14.8 Million Oregon and California Grant Lands 97.6 Million United States Fish and Wildlife Service 5 13.8 Million Construction 53.9 Million Hawmi Refbges, HI - Fencing 500,000 National EducatiodTrain i ng Center, WV 26 Million Land Acquisition 67.4 Million Archie Carr Wildlife Refbge, FL 2 Million Edwin B. Forsythe Wildlife Refuge, NJ 4 Million 17 Oklahoma Bat Caves, OK 300,000 San Francisco Bay, CA 4 Million Silvio Conte Wildlife Refuge (planning 400,0 0 0 Stewert B. McKinney Wildlife Preserve, CT 2 Million Wallkill Wildlife Refuge, NJ 1 .8 Million National Biological Survey 1 67.2 Million National Park Service 1 1 Billion National Recreation and Preservation 43 Million Dayton Aviation Heritage Commission 50,000 Blackstone River Corridor 342,000 Steel Industry Heritage 400,000 Southwestern Pennsylvania Heritage Preservation Commission 800,000 Illinois and Michigan Canal National Heritage Corridor Commission 250,000 National Center for Historic Preservation , Wheeling, WV 2.5 Million Native Hawaiian Culture and Art Program 1.5 Million Mississippi River Corridor Heritage Commission 149,000 Construction 184.9 Million Rehabilitatioddevelopment, Cuyahoga Valley, OH 5.2 Million Goodfellow Camp, Indiana Dunes IN 79 1,000 Boston National Historic Preservation 4.2 Million Urban Park and Recreation Fund 7.5 Million Land Acquisition and State Assistance 87.9 Million Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area 2 Million Golden Gate National Recreation Area 5.3 Million India n a Dunes National Land 750,000 Santa Monica Mountain Recreation Area 5 Million South Florida Restoration Grant 4.8 Million U.S. Geological Survey 572.6 Million National Mapping, Geography and Surveys 123.8 Million Geologic and Mineral Surveys and Mapping 2 13.3 Million Water Resources Investigation 1 84.4 Million Bureau of Mines 1 52.7 Million Territorial and International Mairs 124.7 Million Guam 2.5 Million Northern Manana Islands 27.7 Million Virgin Islands Crime Control 1 Million Brown Tree Snake 595,00 0 Rainwater Basin, NE 500,000 Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest Research 200.1 Million State and Private Forestry 161.3 Million Forest Legacy Program 6.7 Million Urban and Community Forestry 28.4 Million Chicago Urban Forestry 1 Million Ohio A rbor Forestry 1 Million Tacoma, Washington 50,000 18 Bremerton, Washington 50,000 Port Orchard, Washington 50,000 Lake States Forestry Alliance 330,000 International Forestry 7 Million Construction 203 Million Timber and Recreation Road Construction 99.1 M illion National Forest System 1.3 Billion Land Acquisition 65.4 Million Flathead National Forest, MT 750,000 Roosevelt National Forest, CO 1.5 Million San Bernardino National Forest, CA 1 Million Department of Energy Fossil Energy Research and Development 442.6 Million Advanced Pulverized Coal-Fired Powerplant 7.6 Million Energy Conservation 793.2 Million International Market Development 2.9 Million Energy Conservation Grant Programs 278.4 Million Weatherization Assistance Program 226.8 Million State Energ y Conservation Programs 22.5 Million Alternative Vehicle Fuels Program 67.7 Million Alternative Feedstocks Program 4.7 Million Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves 187.4 Million Molten Carbonate Systems 30.1 Million Related Agencies National Endowment fo r the Arts 1 83.9 Million National Endowment for the Humanities 1 77.4 Million Salaries and Expenses 834,000 National Capital Arts and Cultural Mairs 7.5 Million Advisory Council on Historic Preservation 3 Million National Capital Planning Commission 5.7 M i llion Pennsylvania Avenue Development Corporation 6.8 Million Commission for the Fine Arts Appropriations for the Departments of Justice, Commerce State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies Total Recommended in the Bill 26.8 Billion Department of Justice N ew Programs Authorized by 1994 Crime Bill 2.345 Billion Community Policing 1.3 Billion Drug Courts 29 Million Including 19 Ounce of Prevention Council 1.5 Million Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (JJDP) program 144 Million National, Coordinated Law Related Education programs 3.5 Million North Omaha Bears project 300,000 State Advisory Groups (SAGS 600,000 Department of Commerce National Institute of Standards and Technology 790 Million Industrial Technology Services 525 Million Advanced Technolo g y Program 43 1 Million Manufacturing Extension Centers 69 Million National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOM 1.8 Billion Charleston, SC, Special Area Management Plan 1 Million Aquaculture 2.5 Million Interstate Fish Commissions 4.0 Million Fishe r ies Trade Promotion Activities 1.5 Million Hawaiian Fisheries Development 750,000 Oceanic and Atmospheric Research 259 Million Sea Grant Zebra Mussels 2.8 Million Sea Grant Oyster Disease 1.5 Million National Weather Service 66 1 Million Agriculture and F r uit Frost Program 2.3 Million Construction 97.6 Million National Marine Fisheries Service 269 Million GLERLJZebra Mussel 911,000 Including 2.5 million to Kansas City, Missouri, for the development of a weather and environment information and demonstration center 1 million to Mystic Seaport in Mystic, Connecticut for a maritime education center 3.5 million for a Multispecies Aquaculture Center in the State of New Jersey 2 million to the Massachusetts Biotechnology Center Research Institute in Boston 5.2 mil lion for the Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Education in Indiana.
Fishing Vessel Subsidy Funding 250,000 International Trade Administration 266 Million Including 1 million for a grant to the Emerging Technologies Institute
TI) in Sacramento Ca lifornia 930,000 to the Michigan Biotechnology Institute 1.7 million to the Massachusetts Biotechnology Research Institute in Worcester 1.2 million to the Center for Global Competitiveness in Loretto and Latrobe Pennsylvania; and 3.4 million for the Texti le Clothing Technology Corporation.
Minority Business Development Center 43.9 Million 20 Including 200,000 to fund the U.S African Trade and Technology Center at Savannah L_ State College in Georgia.
United States Travel and Tourism Administration 16.4 Mi llion Information Mastructure Grants 70 Million Economic Development Administration 408 Million Public Works Grants Including provisions for 1) the Mountain Arts and Education Center to develop tourism in Southern Kentucky 2) the 10th Street conversion pr o ject in Miami Beach, Florida; 3 the development of the Chicago Wholesale Food Market; 4) the Cleveland Technology District Industrial Park Development on the citys east side 5) the revitalization of the San Elizario Plaza in El Paso County, Texas 175 Mill i on Defense Economic Conversion 120 Million Trade Adjustment Grants 45 Million Small Business Admmstration 258 Million Small Business Development Center (SBDC 74 Million SBDC central Europe 1 Million SBDC Defense Economic Transition 3.3 Million Advocacy Re s earch 1.5 Million White House Conference 2.49 Million Natural Resources Development Program 15 Million Pittsburgh District Video Production 150,000 Earmarked Grants 27.3 5 Million Including 750,000 to the North Carolina Biotechnology Center 500,000 to the Van Emmons Population Marketing Analysis Center, Towanda, Pennsylvania 1 million to the Genesis Small Business Incubator Facility, Fayetteville, Arkansas 1 million to the Center for Entrepreneurial Opportunity in Greensburg, Pennsylvania 1.5 million to a c onsortium in Buffalo, New York 500,000 to the New York City Public Library 200,000 to the Small Business Institute program of the Small Business Administration to operate a National Data Center Small Business Institute program in Conway, Arkansas; and 500 , 000 to the Mississippi Delta Small Business Technology Project in Little Rock, Arkansas Department of State Contributions to International Organizations 877 Million International Boundary and Water Commission 19.4 Million Related Agencies Japan United Sta t es Friendship Commission 1.2 Million East-West Center 24.5 Million NortWSouth Center 4 Million 21 Appropriations for the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies Total Recommended in the Bill 247 Billion Department o f Labor Job Training Partnership Act 5.3 Billion Adult Training 1 Billion Youth Trmg 598.7 Million Summer Youth Employment 1.1 Billion Dislocated Workers 1.3 Billion Samoa, Pacific Islander and Asian American employment and training initiative 5 Million J o b Corps 1. 1 Billion National Skills Standards Advisory Board 6 Million Glass Ceiling Commission 738,000 Women in Apprenticeship 744,000 Office of the American Workplace 3 1.5 Million Department of Health and Human Services Native Hawaiian Health Care 4.5 Million Podiatric Medicine 61 5,000 Chiropractic Demonstration Grants 936,000 Health Professions Data Systems 637,000 Health Education Assistance Loans Programs (H.E.A.L 29.2 Million National Youth Sports Block Grant 12 Million Family Planning 193.4 Milli o n Department of Education Arts in Education 12 Million Law-related Education 5.9 Million Education for Native Hawaiians 12 Million Bilingual and Immigrant Education 245 Million Vocational and Adult Education 1.47 Billion Basic Grants 972.8 Million Consume r and Homemaking Education 34.4 Million Tech-Prep Education 108 Million Tribally Controlled Postsecondary Vocational Institutions 2.9 Million State Councils on Vocational Education 8.8 Million Federal Work-Study 6 16.5 Million State Student Incentive Grant s 63.4 Million Higher Education 962.8 Million Strengthening Institutions 80 Million Innovative Projects for Community Service 1.4 Million Alaskan Native Culture and Arts Development 1 million Law School Clinical Experience 14.9 Million 22 Byrd Honors Schol a rships 29.1 Million Teacher Corps 1.9 Million Javits Fellowships 7.8 Million Harris Graduate Fellowships 20.2 Million College Housing and Academic Facilities Loan Program 1.2 Million Civics Education 4.5 Million Star Schools 30 Million National Difision N e twork 14.5 Million Ready to Learn Telewsion 7 Million Fund for the Improvement of Education 36.75 Million Environmental Science Education 1.5 Million Model Arts Education 1 Million Elementary School Counseling Demonstration 2 Million National Student and P arent Mock Election 125,000 Partnerships in Character Education 750,000 Promoting Scholar-Athlete Competitions 400,000 Middle School-Workplace-Community Partnerships 1 Million Related Agencies Domestic Volunteer Service Programs 214.7 Million Volunteers i n service to America (VISTA 47.7 Million National Senior Volunteer Corps 13 5.8 Million Corporation for Public Broadcasting 285.6 Million United States Institute of Peace 1 1.5 Million Appropriations for Military Construction Total Recommended in the Bill 8 .8 Billion In Selected States and Countries Alabama 52.5 Million Air Force: Student Dormitones 9.6 Million Army: Physical Fitness Center 2.6 Million Arkansas 13.7 Million Air Force: Dormitory in Little Rock 4.8 Million Army National Guard: Organizational M aintenance Shop 802,000 California 1 53.7 Million Navy: Dredging at North Island 1 8.8 Million Navy: Blast and Paint Spray Facility 4.9 Million Navy: Personal Hygiene Facilities 1.1 Million Air Force: Dormitories 2.3 Million Colorado 1 1.2 Million Army Na t ional Guard: Armory, Denver 5 Million Army National Guard: Armory, Englewood 2.7 Million Delaware 1 0.5 Million Air Force: Passenger Processing Terminal 5.9 Million 23 Florida 66.8 Million Air Force Reserve: Renovated Dining Facility 2.7 Million Air Force Reserve: Physical Fitness Center 1.4 Million Georgia 149.2 Million Army: Central Vehicle Wash Facility 1.7 Million Air Force: Expand Flight Kitchen 1.9 Million Navy Reserve: Training Building 2.7 Million Air Force Reserve: Training Center Addition 4.6 Mil l ion Hawaii 36.1 Million Army: Barracks Renewal (phase I 20.7 Million Army Reserve: Center at Fort Shafter 9.5 Million Idaho 18.8 Million Air Force: Dormitory 5 Million Indiana 32.4 Million Air Force Reserve: Environmental Compliance 2.2 Million Michigan 1 3 .1 Million Army National Guard: Renovate Armory 120,000 Air National Guard: Firefighter Training Facility 750,000 Air National Guard: Repair Roads and Parking Lot 2 Million Air National Guard: Upgrade Heating Systems 5.4 Million Mississippi 37.6 Million A r my National Guard: Armory at Crystal Springs 2.3 Million Army National Guard: Armory at Winona 1.7 Million Navy: Potable Water Distribution System 3 Million Air Force: Dormitories 10.3 Million New York 46.8 Million Army: Renovate Food Processing Facility 2 8 Million North Carolina 1 74.5 Million Army: Dredge Terminal Entrance 16.5 Million Oklahoma 69.2 Million Army: Whole Barracks Renewal 18 Million Air Force: AddAlter Dormitory 3.8 Million Air Force: Alter Dormitories 2.3 Million Army National Guard: Barra c ks and Classrooms 4.5 Million Mode Island 24.5 Million Navy: Maritime Research Center (phase I 10 Million South Carolina 6 1.4 Million Navy: Child Development Center 2.6 Million Navy: Recruit Training Facility 5.8 Million Air Force: Altered Domtones 9.9 M i llion Texas 1 1 1.6 Million Army: Whole Barracks Renewal 29 Million Air Force: Directed Energy Facility 6.5 Million Air Force: Alter Recruit Dormitory 3.4 Million Virgima 228.6 Million Air Force Reserve: Renovated Barracks 2.6 Million New Jersey 36.6 Mill i on Navy: Cyrogenics Facility 2.1 Million 24 Army: Soldiers One Stop Center 4.6 Million Navy: Land Acquisition 4.9 Million Navy: Bachelor Enlisted Quarters 6.5 Million Navy: Bachelor Enlisted Quarters 16.4 Million Defense Wide: Dependent School Addition 1. 6 Million Defense Wide: Child Development Centers 12.9 Million Washington 14 1 .9 Million Navy: Bachelor Enlisted Quarters 7.5 Million Navy: Child Development Center 2.9 Million Navy: Fleet Recreation Center 3 Million Navy: Physical Fitness Facilities 6.8 M illion Italy 42.2 Million Navy: Quality of Life Facilities 9.1 Million Army: Cover Raw Water Tanks 5.2 Million Navy: Bachelor Enlisted Quarters 33.1 Million Kwajalein 6.4 Million Appropriations for the Department of Transportation and Related Agencies Tot a l Recommended in the Bill 14.3 Billion Department of Transportation Payments to Air Carriers (Essential Air Service 33.4 Million Coast Guard 3.7 Billion Boat Safety 25 Million Acquisition, Construction and Improvements 363 Million Polar Icebreaker Reliabi l ity Improvement 7.9 Million Federal Aviation Administration 6.9 Billion Grants-in-Aid for Airports 1.5 Billion Orlando International Airport 22.5 Million Philadelphia International Airport 10 Million Detroit City Airport 2 Million Luis Munoz Marin Airport , San Juan, PR 7 Million Federal Highway Administration 19.9 Billion Federal-Aid Highways 17.2 Billion Contract Programs 525.3 Million Long Term Pavement Performance 9 Million Local Rural Technical Assistance 3.1 Million National Highway Institute 4.5 Mill i on Highway R&D 55.2 Million Motor Carrier Research (including research on the feasibility of devices to continually monitor truck drivers fitness for duty and carrier cab black boxes 2.5 Million Intelligent Vehicle Highway System 1 14.5 Million Guidestar: Minnesota 6.8 million 25 Fast-Trac: Oakland County, Michigan 15 Million CARAT: Charlotte, North Carolina 4.5 Million Houston, Texas 2.2 Million Lower Hudson Valley 1.5 Million 1-95 Corridor 7.5 Million Bronx-Northern Manhattan 2.2 Million University ofNor t h Dakota 750,000 Detroit, Michigan (SMART 7.5 Million National Transportation Center, Oakdale NY 1 Million Surface Transportation Projects 352 Million 96th Street Upgrade; Indianapolis IN 1 Million Airport Access Road; Jacksonville FL 2 Million Bristol St r eet Improvement; Santa Ana, CA 2 Million CA 1 13 Railroad Grade Separation; CA 2 Million Old Nashville Highway Bridge TN 1 Million McLellan Avenue; Marquette, MI 2 Million Fairfa County Expressway, VA 1 Million Arden Garden Connector; Sacramento, CA 3 Mil l ion City of Columbus Front Door; IN 1 Million Peace Street; Thomasville, NC 625,000 Unity Street; Thomasville, NC 625,000 Hoosier Heartland Corridor, IN 3 Million Intermodal Terminal, Fearing Blvd Toledo, OH 2 Million Fuller Warren Bridge, Jacksonville, F L 15 Million Port of Palm Beach Intermodal Facility; FL 500,000 Saddle Road; HI 1 Million Kihei Road; Maui, HI 2.5 Million Railroad Relocation; Brownsville, TX 6 Million 6th and 7th Streets Improvements; Brownsville, TX 500,000 Sunport Boulevard; Albuquerq u e, NM 4.6 Million Corridor H; WV 1 10 Million Safety Information Needs 300,000 Federal Railroad Administration 1.1 Billion Local Rail Freight Assistance 17 Million Railroad Research and Development 20.5 Million Maglev Systems Evaluation 400,000 Oregon Gra d uate Institute 100,000 Northeast Corridor Improvement Program 200 Million Modal Preference 1.5 Million Rhode Island Railroad Development 5 Million Next Generation High Speed Rail 20 Million Pennsylvania Station Redevelopment Project 40 Million Amtrak Subs i dies 772 Million Federal Transit Administration 4.6 Billion University Transportation Centers 6 Million Formula Grants 2.5 Billion National Academy of Sciences Study of Motor Vehicle Survey of Northeast Corridor Ridership to Determine 26 Urban Areas with o ver 1 million people 1.7 Billion Urban Areas with over 200,000 people G383.3 Million Transit Planning and Research 92.3 Million Team Transit Program in Minnesota 500,000 Bus and Bus Facilities 353.3 Million Urban Areas with over 50,000 people 220.3 Millio n Triangle Transit Authority in North Carolina 250,000 Detroit, MI: Passenger Internodal Center 4 Million Herndon-Reston, VA; Park-n-Ride 7.5 Million Santa Cruz, CA; Bus Facility 1 Million Kauai, HI; Imlu Express 1.5 Million King County/Seattle, WA; Buses 3 Million Long Beach, CA; Buses 1 Million Orlando, FL; Oscar 6.5 Million New Jersey transit; Buses 1 3 Million Northern Virginia-Dulles; Corridor Express Bus 950,000 Philadelphia, PA; Erie Avenue Internodal Center 2.5 Million Tucson, AZ; Alternatively Fuel e d Buses 1.9 Million Westchester County, NY; Buses 1 .5 Million Worcester, MA; InterModal Center 3 Million Fixed Guideway Systems 646.6 Million Boston, MA, South Boston piers Transitway 24 Million Santa Barbara, CA, Buses 1 Million Chicago, E; Central Area Circulator 25 Million Los Angeles, CA, MO-2 and MOS-3 165 Million New Jersey; Urban Core 107 Million Portland, OR; Westside LRT Project 98 Million New Jersey; West Shore Line 4 Million San Juan, PR, Tren Urban0 5 Million Salt Lake City Light Rail Project 5 Million Washington Metropolitan Transit Authority 200 Million New Jersey Urban Core 107 Million Los Angeles Commuter Rail 165 Million Interstate Commerce Commission 30 Million Appropriations for Department of Treasury Postal Service, Executive Office of t he President General Government, and Certain Independent Agencies Total Recommended in the Bill 23.5 Billion General Services Administration Federal Buildings Fund 5.2 Billion Motgomery, AL; Courthouse Annex 40.5 Million New Construction 27 Tucson, AZ; Hi s torical Documents Foundation 2 Million University of Hawaii-Hilo; Consolidation 1 12 Million Kansas City, MO; Building and Courthouse 85 Million St. Louis, MO; Building and Courthouse 17 1.9 Million Albuquerque NM; Courthouse 44.3 Million Long Island NY; C ourthouse 23.2 Million Greeneville TN; U. S. Courthouse 2.9 Million Blaine, WA; Border Station 4.5 Million Point Roberts WA; Border Station 698,000 Martinsburg, WV; IRS Computer Center 7.4 Million Los Angeles, CAY Courthouse 22.4 Million Washington, DC; A r iel Rios 3.6 Million Chicago IL; Federal Center 47.7 Million Holtsville NY; IRS Service Center 19.2 Million Cleveland, OH; Anthony Celebreeze Building 1 1 Million Harrisburg, PA; Federal Building and Courthouse 15.2 Million Philadelphia, PA, Bryne-Green C o mplex 30.6 Million Lubbock, TX; Building and Courthouse 12.2 Million Walla Walla, WA; Corps of Engineers Facility 2.8 Million Chlorofluorocarbons Program (nation-wide 90 Million Energy Program (nation-wide 45.7 Million Paralympiad Technical Support 1 Mill i on John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Review Board 2.2 Million Morris K. Udal1 Scholarship for Excellence in Environmental Policy 10 Million Gang Resistance Education and Training 9 Million Committee For Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely D i sabled 1.7 Million Repairs and Alterations Appropriations for the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development and Independent Agencies Total Recommended in the Bill 90.6 Billion Department of Veterans Affairs Construction of Medical C are Facilities 16.2 Billion Outpatient Clinic in Belmont, OH 300,000 Outpatient Clinic in Monroe, LA 1 Million Counseling Center in Washington 303,000 Installation of bedside telephones 5 Million Community-based Outpatient Clinic in North Platte, NE 1 Mil l ion Blind Rehabilitation Services 5 Million General Operating Expenses 890.6 Million Design of National Cemetery in Dallas, TX 1 Million Ambulatory Care in San Juan, Puerto Rico 34.8 Million 28 Department of Housing and Urban Development Annual Contributi o ns for Assisted Housing 1 1.6 Billion General Public Housing Development ($85,428/unit 598 Million Indian Housing Development 96,869/unit 263 Million Housing for the Elderly and Disabled 134,298/unit 1.5 Billion Housing for Persons with AIDS 1 75,803/unit 1 86 Million Special Purpose Grants 290 Million 2 1 st Street Corridor Project in Wichita, KS 1.5 Million Environmental Modifications in Portland, ME 500,000 Restoration of Union Station in Kansas City, MO 2.5 Million Energy Efficiency in Public Housing i n Butte, MT 1 Million Clinical Lab Space in Billings, MT 1.5 Million Renovations to the Boston Public Library in Boston, MA 1 Million Renovations to Public Facilities in Buffalo, NY 3 Million Expansion of St. Marys Community College in Maryland 1 Million C i ty Farmers Market Renovations in Toledo, OH 2 Million Construction of a Youth Shelter in Hollywood, CA 1 Million Revitalization of Windsor Park Neighborhood in Las Vegas, NV 3 Million Library Construction in Beckley, WV 5 Million Youth Sports Activities t h roughout Illinois 1 Million Infrastructure Improvements in Clinton, TN 1 Million Community Center in Lackawanna County, PA 600,000 General Grants for Preston County, WV 900,000 Arthurdale Heritage, Inc 300,000 Tunnelton fistoncal Society 100,000 Kingwood M ainstreet program 500,000 Grant to Pembroke State University, NC 2 Million Distance Learning Programs in Storm Lake, IA 2 Million Community Development in Little Rock, AR 1.7 Million Service Coordination Activities in Little Rock, AR 835,000 Independent A g encies American Battle Monuments Commission 20.3 Million Corporation for National and Community Service 575 Million Americorps Grants 250 Million National Civilian Community Corps 26 Million Points of Light Foundation 6.5 Million Environmental Protection A gency 7 Billion Research and Development 1.6 Billion Continued Indoor Air Research 7.6 Million Drinking Water Research 1 2.3 Million Rural Drinking Water Demonstration Model, VA 300,000 Abatement, Control and Compliance 1.4 Billion Earthvision Actiwties 1 . 2 Million Grand Canyon Visibility Transport Commission 225,000 Studies of the Potential Effects of the European Ruffe a Non-indigenous Fish to Lake Superior 70,000 29 Water Infrastructure State Fund 33 Billion Sewage Treatment in Boston, MA lo0 Million Wa s tewater Treatment in Waterloo, IA 37 Million Hogg Creek Interceptor in Flowood MS 3.7 Million Wastewater Treatment in Lackawanna, PA 30 Million Wastewater Treatment in New York, NY 70 Million Sanitation Projects in Los Angeles, CA 100 Million National Aer onautics and Space Administration (NASA 14 Billion Space Station Program 2.1 Billion 30