The Heritage Foundation

Asian Backgrounder #79

July 29, 1988

July 29, 1988 | Asian Backgrounder on

The U.S. and Asia: A Statistical Handbook, 1988 Edition

(Archived document, may contain errors)

N6. 79 July 29, 1988 1

THE U.S. AND ASIA: A STATISTICAL HANDBOOK 1988 EDITION

INTRODUCTION Economic and political changes in 1987 once again draw the world?s attention to the dynamism of the Asia/Pacific region. U.S. trade patterns continue the trend of recent years - in 1987 U.S. trade with Europe amounted to $169.6 billion, while that with Asia topped $240.8 billion. Meanwhile, significant political developments show -that the rapid economic growth of many Asian countries is complemented by evolving democratization. South Korea bad the first peaceful transfer of presidential power in its history, following a four-man presidential election in December. The Republic of China on Taiwan continued the democratization efforts begun by its late President Chiang Ching-kuo. The People's Republic of China slowly expanded its own cautious economic and political reforms. Even communist Vietnam began to experiment modestly with greater economic freedoms and decentralization of government power last year.

To enable policy makers and the public to better understand the prevailing conditions in the countries of this vital area, The Heritage Foundation has compiled relevant statistics on 34 countrie's and territories in Asia. This third annual handbook published by the Foundation's Asian Studies Center updates Asian Studies Backgrounder No. 63,"The U.S. and Asia: A Statistical Handbook, 1987 Edition." This year New Caledonia has been added as events thrust it into the evolving political dynamic of the South Pacific. Three categories have been added: Infant Mortality,- a useful measure of the living standard; Foreign Military Personnel, the number of foreign troops stationed in or occupying the country; and Armed Opposition Groups, indicating the level of domestic unrest. -

The sources used in compiling this year's handbook are essentially unchanged from last year, and include: the Far Eastern Economic Yearbook, the International Institute of Strategic Studies' 7he Military Balance, the International Monetary Fund's International Financial Statisdcs Yearbook and Direction of Trade Statistics Yearbook, and the Central Intelligence Agency's World Factbook and Handbook ofEconomic Statistics. In addition, newspaper and magazine articles, foreign research organizations and foreign government reports filled the gaps in information. The U.S. Department of Commerce, the International Trade Administration, and the State Department's Office of Economic Policy were very helpful in providing needed information.

Economic statistics are based, as much as possible, on year-end 1987; population estimates are for July 1987, and political information is as current as possible.

Thomas J. Timmons, Research Associate

CPI: Consumer Price Index - measures the cost of living. GNP: Gross National Product - measures productivy capacity of a given country. Infant Mortality - number of deaths prior to one year of age per, 1,000 live births. Literacy - percentage of adults with a functional reading ability. 1 Per Capita GNP: GNP divided by the population - measures average personal income. Numbers in Bold print are estimates. Last names (familial) are in CAPITAL letters.

THE ASIA/PACIFIC REGION.

Mongolia

13 Pakista people's Republic Tapan of China 14

1 India 3 Republic 4 6 1112 of China 3 The 7 Viet Philippines Sri nam/ Lanka 10 9 Papau The Maldives Guinea dones is 4P

-V -Oft-., 0 Vanua@u 00 % 00 Western A I" '%I I Samoa Australia I

New Zealand

1) Nepal 2) Bhutan 3) Bangladesh 4) Burma 5) Thailand 6) Laos 7) Cambodia 8) Malaysia 9) Singapore 10) Brunei 11) Macau' 12) Hong Kong 13) North Korea 14) South Korea 15) Solomon Islands 16) New Caledonia

3 Ne 4@pZe

Life Expectancy

Japan Australia Hong Kong ROC Malaysia PRC Vietnam Philippines Thailand India Indonesia Pakistan io do k do do YO do Years U.S. is 74 years

U.S. Total Trade with U Selected Asian Countries S 35 . .................................................................................................... $ 30 . ........................................................................................ ....... ROC South Korea 25 . ......................................................................... .............. B Hong Kong 20 . .............................. .. .............. PRC 15 . .................. ... ...... Australia . ............................. Indonesia 10 ................... ................................................. India 0 5

0 ROC Is Republic of China s 1 1 1 d82 1 d83 I d84 1 d85 1486 1 d87 PRC is People's Republic of China

Heritage InfoCharts Ill .@020Comparable Levels of Political Fteedom

and Civil Liberties

Philippines India Hong Kong Thailand Malaysia South Korea Singapore ROC Pakistan Indonesia PRC Vietnarn North Korea lb 112 (114 is least free, 2 is most free) Source: Freedom House 1987

Defense Spending as a Percent of GNP

Vietnam (est.) North Korea ROC Pakistan Sing9pore South Korea Malaysia Thailand India Australia Indonesia PRC Japan 6 t ib 115 io

Percent *U.S. is 6.0 percent Heritage InfoCharts Total Armed Forces - Active and Reserve

(Excluding Militias)

South Korea North Korea ROC India Indonesia Pakistan Thailand Japan Malaysia Australia United States Vietnam PRC

Millions of Men

Per Capita GNP, 1986

Japan Australia Hong Kong Singapore ROC South Korea North Korea Indonesia Philippines Pakistan India PRC Vietnam b lb 1'2 14 6

US$ Thousands i

*U.S. Is 17390 Heritage InfoCharts Gross National Product, 1986

R P iMia Australia South Korea Indonesia ROC Thailand Hong Kong Pakistan *U!S. is $4,90 billion:: 6 Philippines *,10pan is $1,980 billion North Korea Vietnam do 16o 160 260 260 360 US$ Billions

Infant Mortality

Pakistan India Indonesia PRC Thailand Vietnam North Korea South Korea Australia Singapore ROC Hong Kong Japan ib Al 8b 16o ik --- 11o *U.S. Is 10.6 Deaths per 1 000 Live Births @50 1

@2"'O Heritage InfoCharts Annual Population Growth, 1987

Pakistan Philippines .North Korea Vietnam India Indonesia Thailand South Korea Emma Hong Kong ROC Australia PRC Japan 0 1MO 1'5 260 Y5 3.0 *U.S. Population Growth is 0.92% Percent

Heritage InfoCharts @O 0@.51.0 AUSTRALIA

LAND Area: 2,966,200 square miles Cultivated: 2.5% Forest: 5.4% Pasture: 61% Resources: bauxite, coal, copper, iron ore, tin, silver, uranium, nickel, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, oil

POPULATION 1987 Estimate: 16,072,986 Annual Population Growth: 1.21% Projected Population in 2000: 17,200,000 Life Expectancy: 75.4 years Literacy: 98.5% Infant Mortality: 9.9 Ethnic Divisions: Caucasian: 96%, Asian and Aboriginal: 4% Religions: Anglican: 26.1%, Catholic: 26.0%, other Christian: 24.3%

Woikforce: 7,000,000 Commerce and Services: 65.8% Manufacturing: 16.2% Agriculture and Fishing: 6% Construction: 7.1% - Government and Public Authorities: 4.8% Students: Primary: 1,700,00 Secondary: 1,300,000 Tertiary: 1,700,000

ECONOMY Economic System: free enterprise Currency: Australian dollar (100 cents), I US$ = 1.383 A$ Major Industries: mining, iron and steel, industrial and transportation, equipment, food processing, textiles, aircraft, ships, chemicals Major Agricultural Products: wheat, barley, oats, corn, hay, lamb, beef, sugar, dairy products, wine, fruit, vegetables Major Imports: machinery, manufactures, transportation equipment, chemicals, petroleum, metal goods, textiles and clothing Major Exports: wheat, coal, wool, iron ore, metal manufactures, meat, dairy products, petroleum, machinery Per Capita GNP: US$ 12,100 (1987) Economic Statistics (Billions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

1981 1982 19R3 1984 1985 1986 1997 GNP 159.67 154.61 154.60 169.39 153.29 167.40 199.83 GNP Growth 3.5% 0.1% 0.7% 6.9% 4.2% 3.0% 4.4% CPI Rise 9.7% 11.1% .10.1% 4.0% 6.7% 7.8% 7.1% Exports 21.796 22.077 20.651 23.875 22.611 22.541 26.433 to U.S. 2.707 2.552 2.442 2.899 3.068 2.872 3.287 Imports 23.763 24.073 19.420 23.423 23.499 23.916 29.350 from U.S. 5.242 4.534 3.954 4.193 5.440 5.551 5.495 Australia is the 17th largest U.S. trading partner. POLITICAL Offlcial Name of Country: COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA Capital: Canberra Type of Government: Federal Parliamentary State T@pe of Chief of State: British Monarch Name of Chief of State: Queen Elizabeth II Name of Head of Government: Prime Minister Robert HAWKE'l Foreign Minister: William HAYDEN

1987 Freedom House Index (I is most free, 7 is least) Political Freedom: 1 Civil Liberties: 1 Status of Freedom: Free 1987 Voting with U.S. at United Nations: 52.3%

Fiscal 1987 U.S. Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: none Military: none

MILITARY 1986/7 Military Budget: US$ 4,800,000,000 Increase over 1985/6: 2.7% Expenditure as a percentage of GNP: 2.9% Percentage of Government Spending: 9.7%

Total Regular Forces: 70,500 Army: 32,000 Reserves: 26,112 Navy: 15,700 Airforce: 22,800

Combat Aircraft: 148 Naval Vessels: 6 Attack Submarines, 3 Destroyers, 9 Frigates, 20Large Patrol Craft, 2 Minehunters

Security Alliance with U.S.: ANZUS (without New Zealand) U.S. Military Installations: U.S. Navy has access to Cockburn Sound Naval facilities, joint Australian-U.S. communicationfintelligence facilities at Northwest Cape, Nurrungar and Pine Gap. U.S. Military Personnel: 250 Air-Force, 600 Navy Armed Opposition Groups: none

INVESTMENT 1987 U.S. Direct Investment: US$ 10,988,000,000 1987 Australian Direct Investment in the U.S.: US$ 6,373,000,000 BANGLADESH

LAND Area: 55,813 square miles Cultivated: 59.7% Forest: 14.8% Pasture: 5.4% Resources: natural gas, uranium, offshore oil

POPULATION 1987 Estimate: 107,087,586 Annual Population Growth: 2.70% Projected Population in 2000: 144,700,000 Life Expectancy: 53.9 years Literacy: 23% Infant Mortality: 140 Ethnic Divisions: Bengali: 98%, Bihari and tribal groups: 2% Religions: Muslim: 83%, Hindu: 16%, Buddhist, Christian, other: 1%

Workforce: 32,000,000 Commerce and Services: 16.2% Manufacturing: 10.2% Agriculture and Fishing: 60.6% Construction: 2.9% Government and Public Authorities: 10.1% Students: Primary: 9,120,000 Secondary: 2,660,000 Tertiary: 670,000

ECONOMY Economic System: regulated free. enterprise Currency: Taka (100 poisha), 1 US$ 29 Taka Mzijor Industries: jute manufactures, food processing, cotton textiles Major Agricultural Products: jute, rice, fish Major Imports: capital equipment, foodgrains, petroleum, raw cotton, fertilizer, manufactured products Major Exports: raw and manufactured jute, leather, tea Per Capita GNP: US$ 136 (1986)

Economic Statistics (Billions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 19R6 1997' GNP 11.75 11.01 11.53 13.48 12.83 14.34 15.2 GNP Growth 6.8% 0.8% 3.6% 4.2% 3.1% 4.0% 4.4% CPI Rise 16.2% 12.5% 9.4% 10.5% 10.7% 9.94% 10.36% Exports 0.791 0.768 0.724 0.931 0.998 0.888 1.100 to U.S. 0.105 0.088 0.109 0.159 0.227 0.264 0.419 Imports 2.651 2.418 2.291 2.692 2.526 2.501 2.714 from U.S. 0.158 '0.227 0.190 0.303 0.219 0.165 0.193

Bangladesh is a minor U.S. trading partner., POLITICAL Official Name of Country: PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF BANGLADESH Capital: Dhaka Type of Government: Republic Type of Chief of State: President Name of Chief of State: Hossain Mohamad ERSHAD Name of Head of Government: same Foreign Minister: Humayan Rasheed CHOWDHURY

1987 Freedom House Index (I is most free, 7 is least) Political Freedom: 4 Civil Liberties: 5 Status of Freedom: Partly Free 1987 Voting with U.S. at United Nations: 12.6%

Fiscal 1987 U.S. Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: US$ 164,701,000 Military: US$ 295,000

MILITARY 1986/7 Military Budget: US$ 216,750,000 Increase over 1985/6: 29.4% Expenditure as a percentage of GNP: 1.40% Percentage of Government Spending.- 20.9%

Total Regular Forces: 101,500 Army: 90,000 Reserves: 30,000 Navy: 7,500 Airforce: 4,000

Combat Aircraft: 55 Naval Vessels: 3 Frigates, 4 Fast-Attack Craft (missile), 16 Fast-Attack Craft (patrol), 4 Fast-Attack Craft (torpedo), 6 Large Patrol Craft, 5 River Patrol Boats Security Alliance with U.S.: none U.S. Military Installations: none U.S. Military Personnel: none Armed Opposition Groups: Shanti Bahini, 8,000

INVESTMENT 1987 U.S. Direct Investment: US$ 12,000,000 1987 Bangladeshi Direct Investment in the U.S.: none BHUTAN

LAND Area: 17,800 square miles Cultivated: 8.8% Forest: 68.7% Pasture: 1.9% Resources: timber, hydroelectric power

POPULATION 1987 Estimate: 1,472,911 Annual Population Growth: 2.03% Projected Population in 2000: 1,900,000 Life Expectancy: 43 years Literacy: 5% Infant Mortality: 142 Ethnic Divisions: Bhote: 60%, Nepalese: 25%, Tribal groups: 15% Religions: Lamaistic Buddhism: 75%, Hinduism: 25%

Workforce: 650,000 Commerce and Services: 3.6% Manufacturing: 0.7% Agriculture and Fishing: 93% Construction: 0.7% Government and Public Authorities: 2% Students: Primary: 53,643 Secondary: 3,040 Tertiary: 604

ECONOMY Economic System:'free enterprise Currency: Ngultrum (100 chetrum), I US$ = 13 Ngultrum Major Industries: cement, wood products, chemical products, mining distilling, food processing, handicrafts Major Agricultural Products: maize, rice,. oranges, potatoes, wheat Major Imports: aircraft, ftiel, rice, motor vehicles, textiles, machinery Major Exports: cement, talc powder, agricultural products, sawed timber, potatoes Per Capita GNP: US$ 140 (1986)

Economic Statistics (Millions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

1981 1982 19R3 1984 19R5 1996 1997 GNP 113.0 120.0 120.0 130.0 155.6 156.0 186.0 GNP Growth 6.4% 6A% 6A% 6A% 6.45/6 6.0% 6.5% CPI Rise na na 8.4% 10.0% 10.1% 13.0% na Exports na 17.70 14.04 15.6 17A 22.2 25.3 to U.S. na na na na na na na Imports na 54.86 39.40 80A 69A- 75.7 88.0 from U.S. na na na na na na na

Bhutan is a minor U.S. trading partner. POLITICAL Official Name of Country: KINGDOM OF BHUTAN Capital: Thimpu Type of Government: Monarchy Type of Chief of State: King Name of Chief of State: Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK Name of Head of Government: same Foreign Minister: Lyonpo Dawa TSERING

1987 Freedom House Index (1 is most free, 7 is least) Political Freedom: 5 Civil Liberties: 5 Status of Freedom: Partly Free 1987 Voting with U.S. at United Nations: 10.5%

Fiscal 1987 U.S. Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: none Military: none

MILITARY 1986/7 Military Budget: na, Increase over 1985/6: na Expenditure as a percentage of GNP: na Percentage of Government Spending: na

Total Regular Forces: na Army: na Reserves: na Navy: na Airforce: na

Combat Aircraft: na, Naval Vessels: 0

Security Alliance with U.S.: none U.S. Military Installations: none' U.S. Military Personnel: none Armed Opposition Groups: na

INVESTMENT 1987 U.S. Direct Investment: na 1987 Bhutanese Direct Investment in the U.S.: na

BRUNEI

LAND Area: 21,226 square miles Cultivated: 1% Forest: 85% Pasture: 1% Resources: oil, natural gas, timber

POPULATION 1987 Estimate: 249,961 Annual Population Growth: 3.67% Projected Population in 2000:300,000 Life Expectancy: 73.7 years Literacy: 45% Infant Mortality: 12 Ethnic Divisions: Malay: 64%, Chinese: 20%, other: 16% Religions: Muslim: 60%, Christian: 8%, Buddhist and local: 32%

Workforce: 90,000 Commerce and Services: 25% Manufacturing: 4% Agriculture and Fishing: 5% Construction: 19% Government and Public Authorities: 47% Students: Primary: 34,373 Secondary: 18,565 Tertiary: 1,192

ECONOMY Economic System: free enterprise Currency: Brunei dollar (100 cents), I US$ = 2.04 B$ MEdor Industries: crude petroleum, liquefied natural gas, construction Major Agricultural Products: rice, pepper, timber Major Imports: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, chemicals Major Exports: crude petroleum, petroleum products, liquefied natural gas Per Capita GNP: US$ 15,556 (1986)

Economic Statistics (Billions of US$, percentages where! appropriate)

1981 1982 1983 19R4 19R5 1996 1987' GNP 4.63 4.09 4.16 3.89 3.97 3.42 3.4 GNP Growth na 11.7% 3.0% 2.0% -10.0% -10.0% -10.0% CPI Rise 9.1% 6.4% 0.3% 3.1% 4.0% 2.3% na Exports 4.001 3.785 3.366 3.183 2.934 2.156 2.32 to U.S. 0.343 0.219 0.019 0.011 0.002 0.064 0.016 Imports 0.589 0.731 0.724 0.621 0.605 1.114 1.16 from U.S. 0.045 0.79 0.058 0.034 0.051 0.202 0.93

Brunei is a minor U.S. trading partner.

15

POLITICAL OMcial Name of Country: STATE OF BRUNEI DARUSSALAM Capital: Bandar.Seri Begawan Type of Government: Sultanate Type of Chief of State: Sultan Name of Chief of State: Sir Hassanal BOLKIA Name of Head of Government: same Foreign Minister: Prince Mohamed BOLKIA

1987 Freedom House Index (I is most free, 7 is least) Political Freedom: 6 Civil Liberties: 5 Status of Freedom: Partly Free 1987 Voting with U.S. at United Nations: 13A%

Fiscal 1987 U.S. Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: none Military: none

MILITARY 1986 Military Budget: US$ 232,420,000 Increase over 1985: 13.12% Expenditure as a percentage of GNP: 7. 1 % Percentage of Government Spending: 41.3%

Total Regular Forces: 4,050 Army: 3,380 Reserves: 0 Navy: 470 Airforce: 200

Combat Aircraft: 2 Naval Vessels: 3 Fast-Attack Craft (missile), 6 Patrol Craft

Security Alliance with U.S.: none U.S. Military Installations: none U.S. Military Personnel: none British Military Personnel: 900 Army (including Gurkhas) Armed Opposition Groups: none

INVESTMENT 1987 U.S. Direct Investment: US$ -30,000,000 1987 Bruneian Direct Investment in the U.S.: US$ 500,000

16

BURMA

LAND Area: 261,149 square miles Cultivated: 12.2% Forest: 47.6% Pasture: 3.3% Resources: oil, copper, asbestos, marble, limestone, teak, gemstones

POPULATION 1987 Estimate: 38,822,484 Annual Population Growth: 2.08% Projected Population in 2000:48,200,000 Life Expectancy: 57 years Literacy: 78% Infant Mortality: 103 Ethnic Divisions: Burmese: 68%, Shan: 9%, Karen: 7%, Raljiome: 4% Chinese: 3%, Indian: 2%, other: 7% Religions: Buddhist: 85%, Christian, Muslim, other: 15%

Workforce: 15,130,000 Commerce and Services: 13% Manufacturing: 8.5% Agriculture and Fishing: 64.7% Construction: 1.6% Government and Public Authorities: 6.1% Students: Primary: 5,020,000 Secondary: 1,290,000 Tertiary: 212,000

ECONOMY Economic System: socialist Currency: Kyat, 1US$ = 63.5 Kyat MEijor Industries: agricultural processing, textiles and footwear, wood and wood processing, petroleum refining, copper, tin Major Agricultural Products: rice, cotton, pulses, sugarcane, beans, peanuts, teak, and hardwoods Major Imports: machinery and transportation equipment, building materials, oil equipment, consumer goods, capital goods Major Exports: teak, rice, pulses, beans, base metals, ores, gems Per Capita GNP: US$ 200 (1987)

Economic Statistics (Billions of US$, percentages where, appropriate)

1991 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 GNP 5.800 6.020 6.054 6.175 6.371 7.07 7.5 GNP Growth 6.4% 5.7% 4.8% 6.6% 3.2% 6.2% 2.0% CPI Rise 0.3% 5.3% 5.7% 4.8% 6.8% 28.3% 10% Exports 0.446 0.502 0.557 0.525 0.503 0.505 0.500 to U.S. 0.016 0.018 0.012 0.015 0.015 0.015 0.012 Imports 0.823 0.894 0.724 0.622 0.652 0.668 0.620 from U.S. 0.034 0.034 0.015 0.016 0.010 0.016 0.008 Burma is a minor U.S. trading partner. POLITICAL Offlcial Name of Country: SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF THE UNION OF BURMA Capital: Rangoon Type of Government: Constitutional Dictatorship Type of Chief of State: President Name of Chief of State: U SAN YU Name of Head of Government: Party Chairman NE WIN Foreign Minister: U YE GAUNG

1987 Freedom House Index (1 is most free, 7 is least) Political Freedom: 7 Civil Liberties: 7 Status of Freedom: Not Free 1986 Voting with U.S. at United Nations: 13.5%

Fiscal 1987 U.S. Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: US$ 17,417,000 Military: US$ 344,000

MILITARY 1987/8 Military Budget: US$ 283,880,000 Increase over 1986/7: 12.4% Expenditure as a percentage of GNP: 3.46% Percentage of Government Spending: 22% (est.)

Total Regular Forces: 186,000 Army: 170,000 Reserves: 0 Navy: 7,000 Airforce: 9,000

Combat Aircraft: 20 Naval Vessels: 4 Corvettes, 30 Gunboats, 36 River Patrol Craft

Security Alliance with U.S.: none U.S. Military Installations: none U.S. Military Personnel: none Armed Opposition Groups: (Partial Listing) Communist Party of Burma, 10,000; Kachin Independence Organization, 4,000; Shan State Progress Party, 2,500; Karen National Liberation Army: 3,600; Chang Shee Fu [private army], 2,100; United Revolutionary Army [private army], 1,000; Loi Maw Rebels, 3,000

INVESTMENT 1987 U.S. Direct Investment: na 1987 Burmese Direct Investment in the U.S.: na

18

CAMBODU

LAND Area: 69,900 square miles Cultivated: 11% Forest: 74% Pasture: 3% Resources: timber, gemstones, iron ore, manganese, phosphates

POPULATION 1987 Estimate: 6,536,079 Annual Population Growth: 2.26% Projected Population in 2000: 8,500,000 Life Expectancy: 43.5 years Literacy: 48% Infant Mortality: 160 Ethnic Divisions: Khmer: 90%, Chinese: 5%, other: 5% Religions: T'herevada Buddhism: 95%, other: 5%

Workforce: 2,740,000 Commerce and Services: na Manufacturing: na Agriculture and Fishing: 80% Construction: na Government and Public Authorities: na Students: Primary: 1,300,000 Secondary: 369,000 Tertiary: na

ECONOMY Economic System: socialist Currency: Riel, I US$ = 30 Riel Major Industries: textiles, cement, fishing, wood and wood products Major Agricultural Products: rice, rubber, corn Major Imports: fuel, consumer goods, raw materials, fertilizer, international food aid, Soviet bloc economic assistance Major Exports: rubber, rice, pepper Per Capita GNP: US$ 90 (1986, est.)

Economic Statistics (Millions of US$, percentages where appropriate) -

19R1 19R2. 1983 1984 1985 19R6 1987 GNP na na na 630.0 na 640.0 na GNP Growth na na na na na na na CPI Rise na na na na na na na Exports na na 2.55 4.4 3.21 na na to U.S. 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.5 0.4 Imports na na 54.4 47.9 27.6 na na from U.S. 12.0 2.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 0.20 0.1

Cambodia is a very minor U.S. trading partner. POLITICAL Official Name of Country: PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF KAMPUI CHEA Capital: Phnom Penh Type of Government: Communist State Type of Chief of State: President Name of Chief of State: Heng SAMRIN Name of Head of Government: Prime Minister Hun SEN Foreign Minister: Kong KORM

1987 Freedom House Index (I is most free, 7 is least) Political Freedom: 7 Civil Liberties: 7 Status of Freedom: Not Free 1987 Voting with U.S. at United Nations: 15.5% (The United Nations recognizes the Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea, CGDK, led by Prince Norodom SIHANOUK, Son SANN, and Khieu SAMPHAN, as the legitimate government of Cambodia, not the Heng SAMRIN tegime.)

Fiscal 1987 U.S. Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: US$ 3,350,000 (to the CGDK) Military: none

MILITARY 1987 Military Budget: na Increase over 1986: na Expenditure as a percentage of GNP: na Percentaie of Government Spending: na

Total Regular Forces: 50,000 Army: 30,000 Reserves: 20,000 (provincial forces) Navy: na Airforce: na

Combat Aircraft: 12 Naval Vessels: na

Security Alliance with U.S.: none U.S. Military Installations: none Soviet Military Installations: The Soviets are expanding and upgrading Kompong Som and Ream Naval Bases Soviet Military Personnel: 200 Vietnamese Military Personnel: 140,000 occupation troops Armed Opposition Groups: Khmer Rouge, 40,000; Kampuchean People's National Liberation Force, 6,000; Armee Nationale Sihanoukienne, 10,000

INVESTMENT 1986 U.S. Direct Investment: na 1986 Cambodian Direct Investment in the U.S.: na

20

CHINA, PEOPLE9S REPUBLIC OF

LAND Area: 3,691,521 square miles Cultivated: 10.1% Forest: 12.5% Pasture: 33.3% Resources: coal, iron, petroleum, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, uranium, hydroelectric potential

POPULATION 1987 Estimate: 1,064,147,038 Annual Population Growth: 0.99% Projected Population in 2000: 1,190,000,000 Life Expectancy: 68 years Literacy: 7501o Infant Mortality: 61 Ethnic Divisions: Han Chinese: 93.3%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Mioa, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and others: 6.7% Religions: officially atheistic, but important elements include: Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Muslim, Christian

Workforce: 499,000,000 Commerce and Services: 12.2% Manufacturing: 16.7% Agriculture and Fishing: 62.5% Construction: 4.2% Government and Public Authorities: 1.6% Students: Primary: 133,700,000 Secondary: 51,700,000 Tertiary: 1,730,000

ECONOMY Economic System: socialist, undergoing limited reforms Currency: Yuan, 1 US$ = 3.722 Major Industries: iron, steel, coal, machine building, armaments,: textiles, light industrial products, petroleum Major Agricultural Products: rice, wheat, soybeans, oilseed, cotton Major Imports: grain, chemical fertilizer, steel, industrial raw materials, machinery, equipment Major Exports: manufactured goods, agricultural products, oil, minerals Per Capita GNP: US$ 250 (1986) Economic Statistics (Billions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

1991 1982 1983 19R4 1985 19R6 1997 GNP 170.0 184.4 201.1 225.2 252.2 271.9 293.4 GNP Growth 4.9% 8.3% 9.1% 12.0% 12.0% 7.8% 9.4% CPI Rise 2.5% 2.0% 2.0% 2.7% 7.7% 7.5% 9.1% Exports 21.476 21.865 22.096 24.824 27.529 31.366 39.460 to U.S. 2.062 2.502 2.477 3.381 4.224 5.241 6.910 Imports 21.631 18.920 21.313 25.953 42.534 43.503 43.497 from U.S. 3.603 2.912 2.173 3.004 3.856 3.106 3.497 The PRC is the 15th largest U.S. trading partner.

POLITICAL Official Name of Country: PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA! Capital: Beijing Type of Government: Communist State Type of Chief of State: President' Name of Chief of State: LI Xiannian Name of Head of Government: General Secretary ZHAO Ziyang Foreign Minister: WU Xueqian

1987 Freedom House Index (1 is most free, 7 is least) Political Freedom: 6 Civil Liberties: 6 Status of Freedom: Not Free 1987 Voting with U.S. at United Nations: 13.3%

Fiscal 1987 U.S. Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: none Military: none

MILITARY 1987 Military Budget: US$ 5,470,000,000 Increase over 1986: -5.6% Expenditure as a percentage of GNP: 2% Percentage of Government Spending: 9%

Total Regular Forces: 3,200,000 Army: 2,300,000 Reserves: 42400,000 Navy: 340,000 Airforce: 470,000

Combat Aircraft: 6180 Naval Vessels: 2 Ballistic Missile Submarines, 3 Cruise Missile Submarines, 112 Attack Submarines, 20 Destroyers, 33 Frigates, 13 Patrol Escorts, 81 Large Patrol Craft, 89 Coastal/River Patrol Craft, 233 Fast-Attack Craft (missile), 355 Fast-Attack Craft (gun), 190 Fast-Attack Craft (torpedo), 33 Minesweepers.

Security Alliance with U.S.: none U.S. Military Installations: none U.S. Military Personnel: none Armed Opposition Groups: none

INVESTMENT 1986 U.S. Direct Investment: US$ 213,000,000 1986 PRC Direct Investment in the U.S.: US$ 10,000,000

CHINA, REPUBLIC OF (TAPNAN)

LAND Area: 13,814 square miles Cultivated: 25% Forest: 64% Pasture: 5% Resources: small deposits of coal, natural gas, limestone marble, asbestos

POPULATION 1987 Estimate: 19,768,035 Annual Population Growth: 1.24% Projected Population in 2000: 22,300,000 Life Expectancy: 72.4 years Literacy: 94% Infant Mortality: 8.9 Ethnic Divisions: Taiwanese: 84%, Mainland Chinese: 14%, Aboriginal: 2% Religions: Buddhist, Confucian and Taoist: 93%, Christian: 4.5%

Workforce: 7,700,000 Commerce and Services: 35.3% Manufacturing: 33.8% Agriculture and Fishing: 17% Construction: 6.8% Government and Public Authorities: 7% Students: Primary: 2,360,000 Secondary: 1,680,000 Tertiary: 442,648

ECONOMY Economic System: free enterprise Currency: New Taiwan Dollar, 1 US$ = 28.8 NT$ Major Industries: textiles, clothing, chemicals, electronics, food processing, plywood, sugar milling, cement, shipbuilding Major Agricultural Products: rice, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, bananas, pineapples, citrus fruits Major Imports: machinery and equipment, crude oil, chemicals, chemical products, basic metals, foodstuffs, machine tools Major Exports: textiles, electronic machinery, general machineryi telecommunications equipment, basic metals, foodstuffs, plywood Per Capita GNP: US$ 4,925 (1987)

Economic Statistics (Billions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

19gi 1982 1983 19R4 19R5 1996 1987 GNP 49.3 51.0 54.1 57.7 60.08 73.25 97.20 GNP Growth 5.5% 3.8% 7.5% 10.9% 4.3% 10.8% 11.5% CPI Rise 16.3% 3.1% 1.4% 0.0% -0.2% 0.7% 0.35% Exports 22.52 22.09 25.09 30.42 30.69 39.8 52.100 to U.S. 8.631 9.586 12.110 16.088 17.761 21.252 26.407 Imports 21.13 18.81 20.31 21.99 20.12 24.2 33.000 from U.S. 4.304 4.367 4.667 5.003 4.699 5.524 7.413 The Republic of China is the Sth largest U.S. trading partner.

POLITICAL Official Name of Country: REPUBLIC OF CHINA Capital: Taipei Type of Government: One-Party Dominant Republic Type of Chief of State: President Name of Chief of State: LEE Teng-hui Name of Head of Government: Prime Minister YU Kuo-hwa Foreign Minister: DING Mou-shih

1987 Freedom House Index (1 is most free, 7 is least) Political Freedom: 5 Civil Liberties: 4 Status of Freedom: Partly Free 1987 Voting with U.S. at United Nations: Not a member of the General Assembly

Fiscal 1987 U.S. Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: none Military: none

MILITARY 1987/8 Military Budget: US$ 5,660,000,000 Increase over 1986/7:24.66% Expenditure as a percentage of GNP: 8.4% Percentage of Government Spending: 35.3%

Total Regular Forces: 424,000 Army: 270,000 Reserves: 1,457,500 Navy: 77,000 Airforce: 77,000

Combat Aircraft: 562 Naval Vessels: 4 Attack Submarines, 26 Destroyers, 9 Frigates, 4 Corvettes, 57 Fast-Attack Craft (missile), 28 Patrol Craft, 13 Minesweepers

Security Alliance with U.S.: 1954 Mutual Defense Treaty (abrogated by President Carter in 1979), security guarantees in the 1979 Taiwan Relations Act. U.S. Military Installations: none U.S. Military Personnel: none Armed Opposition Groups: none

INVESTMENT 1987 U.S. Direct Investment: US$ 1,312,000,000 1987 ROC Direct Investment in the U.S.: US$ 138,000,000

FIJI

LAND Area: 7,056 square miles Cultivated: 15% Forest: 65% Pasture: 3% Resources: timber, fish, gold, copper

POPULATION 1987 Estimate: 727,902 Annual Population Growth: 2.25% Projected Population in 2000: 900,000 Life Expectancy: 72 years Literacy: 80% Infant Mortality: 18.5 Ethnic Divisions: Indian: 50%, Fijian: 45%, others: 5% Religions: Christian: 49%, Hindu: 40%, Muslim, others: 11%

Workforce: 81,000 Commerce and Services: 12.4% Manufacturing: 6.0% Agriculture and Fishing: 50% ' Construction: 2.6% Government and Public Authorities: 11.1% Students: Primary: 131,221 Secondary: 42,206 Tertiary: 3,940

ECONOMY Economic System: free enterprise Currency: Fiji dollar (100 cents), 1 US$ = 1.51 F$ Major Industries: sugar refining, tourism, gold, lumber,small industries Major Agricultural Products: sugar, copra, ginger, rice Major Imports: manufactured goods, machinery,.foodstuffs, fuel Major Exports: sugar, copra Per Capita GNP: US$ 1,254 (1986)

Economic Statistics (Billions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

1981. 19R2 1983 1984 19R5 1986 1987. GNP 1.254 1.212 1.139 1.249 1.201 1.200 1.170 GNP Growth 6.0% -1.1% -4.4% 9.4% -3.0% 1.8% 11.0% CPI Rise 11.2% 7.0% 6.8% 5.3% 4.4% 1.8% 5.7% Exports 0.311 0.283 0.239 0.255 0.229 0.246 0.280 to U.S. 0.032 0.027 0.020 0.025 0.011 0.012 0.055 Imports 0.631 0.509 0.484 0.449 0.441 0.379 0.390 from U.S. 0.045 0.019 0.019 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.020

Fiji is a minor U.S. trading partner.

POLITICAL Official Name of Country: FIJI Capital: Suva Type of Government: Republic Type of Chief of State: President Name of Chief of State: Ratu Sir Penaia GANIIAU Name of Head of Government: Prime Minister Ratu Sir Kamises MARA Foreign Minister: Filipe BOLE 1 1987 Freedom House Index (I is most free, 7 is least) Political Freedom: 6 Civil Liberties: 5 Status of Freedom: Partly Free 1987 Voting with U.S. at United Nations: 20.0%

Fiscal 1987 U.S. Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: US$ 1,802,000 (U.S. Assistance was frozen in 1987 after Lt. Col. Rabuka's coup) Military: US$ 829000

MILITARY 1987 Military Budget: US$ 12,940,000 Increase over 1986: -10.26% Expenditure as a percentage of GNP: 1.17% Percentage of Government Spending: 4.04%

Total Regular Forces: 2,600 Army: 2,500 Reserves: 5,000 Navy: 100 Airforce: 0

Combat Aircraft: none Naval Vessels: 3 Minesweepers

Security Alliance with U.S.: none U.S. Military Installations: none U.S. Military Personnel: none Australian Military Personnel: small number of advisors Armed Opposition Groups: none, but military coups remain a constant threat

INVESTMENT 1987 U.S. Direct Investment: na 1987 Fijian Direct Investment in the U.S.: na

HONG KONG

LAND Area: 404 square miles Cultivated: 8.8% Forest: 12% Pasture: 1% Resources: none

POPULATION 1987 Estimate: 5,608,610 Annual Population Growth: 1.32% Projected Population in 2000: 6,400,000 Life Expectancy: 75 years Literacy: 75% Infant Mortality: 7.5 Ethnic Divisions: Chinese: 98%, other: 2% Religions: local religions: 90%, Christian: 10%

Workforce: 2,775,000 Commerce and Services: 37.3% Manufacturing: 33.8% Agriculture and Fishing: 1.6% Construction: 8.0% Government and Public Authorities: 18% Students: Primary: 531,993 Secondary: 455,738 Tertiary: 32,831

ECONOMY Economic System: free enterprise Currency: Hong Kong Dollar (100 cents), 1 US$ = 7.8 HK$ Major Industries: textiles and clothing, tourism, electronics, plastics, toys, watches and clocks Major Agricultural Products: small amounts of rice and vegetables Major Imports: raw materials and semi-manufactured goods, fuel, consumer goo capital goods, foodstuffs Major Exports: many re-exports: clothing and textiles, electrical apparatus, electronics, footwear, machinery, telecommunications Per Capita GNP: US$ 8,227 (1987)

Economic Statistics (Billions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

1981 1982 1983 19R4 19R5 1986 1987 GNP 24.6 30.4 28.2 31.85 34.1 38.43 46.17 GNP Growth 9.4% 2.4% 5.2% 6.0% 0.6% 8.7% 14.6% CPI Rise 13.8% 10.6% 9.9% 8.5% 3.4% 3.6% 5.5% Exports 21.796 20.996 21.953 28.318 30.185 35.452 48.461 to U.S. 5.757 5.895 6.824 8.899 8.994 9.474 10.490 Imports 24.694 23.544 24.011 28.563 29.705 35.379 48.448 from U.S. 2.635 2.452 2.563 3.062 2.786 3.030 3.983

Hong Kong is the 10th largest U.S. trading partner.

POLITICAL Offlcial Name of Country: BRITISH CROWN COLONY OF HONG KONG Capital: Victoria Type of Government: British Dependent Territory, scheduled to revert to Chinese control in 1997 Type of Chief of State: British Monarch Name of Chief of State: Queen Elizabeth H Name of Head of Government: Sir David WILSON Foreign Minister: under the auspices of Britain

1987 Freedom House Index (I is most free, 7 is least) Political Freedom: 4 Civil Liberties: 2 Status of Freedom: Partly Free 1987 Voting with U.S. at United Nations: Not a member of the United Nations

Fiscal 1987 U.S. Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: none Military: none

MILITARY 1987 Military Budget: US$ 208,000,000 Increase over 1986: 9.9% Expenditure as a percentage of GNP: 0.6% Percentage of Government Spending: 3.8% Total Regular Forces: 6,666 (combined British, Gurkha, and Chinese) Army: 5,729 Reserves: 1,335 Navy: 668 Airforce: 269

Combat Aircraft: none Naval Vessels: 5 Patrol Craft, plus 12 Patrol Boats in local service

Security Alliance with U.S.: none U.S. Military Installations: none U.S. Military Personnel: none British Military Personnel: 5,792 Army (British 1,842, Gurkha 3,950); 272 Navy/Marines; 269 RAF Armed Opposition Groups: none

INVESTMENT 1987 U.S. Direct Investment: US$ 5,453,000,000 1987 Hong Kong Direct Investment in the U.S.: US$ 699,000,000

INDIA

LAND Area: 1,269,420 square miles Cultivated: 50.3% Forest: 11.3% Pasture: 4.5% Resources: coal, iron ore, manganese, bauxite, chromite, natural gas

POPULATION 1987 Estimate: 800,325,817 Annual Population Growth: 2.07% Projected Population in 2000: 1,013,300,000 Life Expectancy: 55 years Literacy: 36% Infant Mortality: 101 Ethnic Divisions: Indo-Aryan: 72%, Dravidan: 25%, Mongoloid and other: 3% Religions: Hindu: 83.5%, Muslim: 11%, Christian: 2.6%, Sikh: 2%, Buddhist: 0.7%, other: 0.2%

Workforce: 292,000 Commerce and Services: 10.5% Manufacturing: 6.5% Agriculture and Fishing: 52.3% Construction: 7.2% Government and Public Authorities: 6.5% Students: Primary: 123,900,000 Secondary: 19,700,000 Tertiary: 3,700,000

ECONOMY Economic System: regulated free enterprise Currency: Rupee (100 paise), 1 US$ = 15.0 Rs. Major Industries: textiles, food processing, steel, machinery, transportation equipment, cement, jute manufactures Major Agricultural Products: rice, cereals, pulses, oilseeds, cotton, jute, sugarcane, tobacco, tea, coffee Major Imports: machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum edible oils, fertilizer Major Exports: engineering goods, textiles, clothing, tea Per Capita GNP: US$ 260 (1986)

Economic Statistics (Billions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

1981 19R2 1983 19R4 1985 1996 1987 GNP 99.02 114.55 126.55 136.93 165.80 172.48 189.7 GNP Growth 5.8% 3.6% 7.6% 3.6% 3.7% 5.1% 2.5% CPI Rise 13.0% 7.9% 11.9% 8.3% 5.1% 8.9% 7.5% Exports 6.827 9.754 9.814 10.621 10.050 10.317 11.9 to U.S. 1.325 1.522 2.334 2.737 2.478 2.465 2.725 Imports 14.55 15.975 15.964 17.587 17.555 18.830 21A from U.S. 1.748 1.599 1.828 1.570 1.642 1.536 1.463

India is the 26th largest U.S. trading partner.

29

POLITICAL Offlcial Name of Country: REPUBLIC OF INDIA Capital: New Dehli Type of Government: Federal Republic Type of Chief of State: President Name of Chief of State: R. VENKATARAMANAN Name of Head of Government: Prime Minister Rajiv GANDIII Foreign Minister: same

1987 Freedom House Index (1 is most free, 7 is least) Political Freedom: 2 - Civil Liberties: 3 Status of Freedom: Free 1987 Voting with U.S. at United Nations: 8.4%

Fiscal 1987 U.S. Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: US$ 137,753,000 Military: US$ 270,000

MILITARY 1987 Military Budget: US$ 9,730,000,000 Increase over 1986: 22.08% Expenditure as a percentage of GNP: 3.5% Percentage of Government Spending: 20.9%

Total Regular Forces: 1,262,000 Army: 1,100,000 Reserves: 200,000 Navy: 47,000 Airforce: 115,000

Combat Aircraft: 722 Naval Vessels: 1 Cruise Missile Submarine, 11 Attack Submarines, 2 Aircraft Carriers, 21 Frigates, 4 Corvettes, 14 Fast-Attack Craft (missile), 9 Patrol Craft, 18 Minehunters

Security Alliance with U.S.: none U.S. Military Installations: none Soviet Military Personnel: 200 advisors and technicians Armed Opposition Groups: Khalikistan Commando Force (Sikh separatists); Gurkha National Liberation Front, relatively inactive groups in Manipur, Nagaland, Tripura, and Mizoram

INVESTMENT 1987 U.S. Direct Investment: US$ 466,000,000 f987 Indian Direct Investment in the U.S.: US$ 11,000,000

INDONESM

LAND Area: 741,101 square miles Cultivated: 14% Forest: 67% Pasture: 7% Resources: oil, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper

POPULATION 1987 Estimate: 180,425,534 Annual Population Growth: 2.05% Projected Population in 2000:219,800,000 Life Expectancy: 54 years Literacy: 62% Infant Mortality: 88 Ethnic Divisions: Javanese: 45%, Sundanese: 14%, Madurese: 7.5%, Coastal Malay: 7.5%, other: 26% Religions: Muslim: 88%, Protestant: 6%, Catholic: 3%, Hindu: 2%

Workforce: 63,820,000 Commerce and Services: 18.21% Manufacturing: 9.08% Agriculture and Fishing: 53.49% Construction: 3.27% Government and Public Authorities: 13.02% Students: Primary: 30,800,000 Secondary: 9,760,000 Tertiary: 1,270,000

ECONOMY Economic System: free enterprise Currency: Rupee (100 paise), 1 US$ = 1,550 Rs. Major Industries: petroleum, textiles, mining, cement, chemical fertilizer, timber Major Agricultural Products: rice, cassava, rubber, copra Major Imports: rice, wheat, flour, cereals, textiles, chemicals iron and steel products, machinery, transport equipment Major Exports: petroleum, liquified natural gas, timber, rubber, coffee, tin, palm oil, tea, copper Per Capita GNP: US$ 530 (1986)

Economic Statistics (Billions of US$, percentages where, appropriate)

1981 '1982 19R3 19R4 1985 1986 1987 GNP 85.518 90.159 81.052 83.741 87.616 94.2 104.0 GNP Growth 7.9% 2.2% 4.2% 6.5% 1.6% 1.9% 3.0% CPI Rise 12.2% 9.5% 11.8% 10.5% 4.7% 6.04% 8.0% Exports 23.810 22.329 21.146 21.881 18.580 14.824 17.601 to U.S. 6.413 4.509 5.657 5.867 4.933 3.657 3.719 Imports 13.270 16.859 16.351 13.880 10.226 10.724 13.100 from U.S. 1.302 2.025 1.466 1.216 0.795 0.946 0.767

Indonesia is the 24th largest U.S. trading partner.

POLITICAL Official Name of Country: REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA Capital: Jakarta Type of Government: Republic Type of Chief of State: President Name of Chief of State: Suharto Name of Head of Government: same Foreign Minister: Mochtar KUSAMAATMADJA

1987 Freedom House Index (1 is most free, 7 is least) Political Freedom: 5 Civil Liberties: 6 Status of Freedom: Partly Free 1987 Voting with U.S. at United Nations: 11.2%

Fiscal 1987 Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: US$ 128,255,000 Military: US$ 12,000,000

MILITARY 1987 Military Budget: US$ 1,330,000,000 Increase over 1986: -18.90% Expenditure as a Percentage of GNP: 2.4% (est.) Percentage of Government Spending: 11.8%

Total Regular Forces: 284,000 Army: 216,000 Reserves: 800,000 Navy: 42,000 Airforce: 26,000

Combat Aircraft: 98 Naval Vessels: 2 Attack Submarines, 12 Frigates, 3 Corvettes, 4 Fast-Attack Craft (missile), 2 Fast-Attack Craft (torpedo), 2 Fast-Attack Craft (patrol), 30 Patrol Craft, 2 Minesweepers

Security Alliance with U.S.: none U.S. Military Installations: none U.S. Military Personnel: none Australian Military Personnel: small number of advisors Armed Opposition Groups: Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor, 1,500; Free Papua Movement, 100

INVESTMENT 1987 U.S. Direct Investment: US$ 3,929,000,000 1987 Indonesian Direct Investment in the U.S.: US$ 40,000,000

32

JAPAN

LAND Area: 147,470 square miles Cultivated: 15.5% Forest: 66.4% Pasture: 1.7% Resources: negligible mineral resources, fish

POPULATION 1987 Estimate: 122,124,293 Annual Population Growth: 0.55% Projected Population in 2000: 126,600,000 Life Expectancy: 77 years Literacy: 99% Infant Mortality: 5.5 Ethnic Divisions: Japanese: 99.4%, other (mostly Korean): .6% - Religions: Shinto and Buddhist: 84%, Christian: 0.8%, other: 15.2%

Workforce: 58,500,000 Commerce and Services: 53.9% Manufacturing: 24.7% - Agriculture and Fishing: 8.5% Construction: 9. 1 % Government and Public Authorities: 3.4% Students: Primary: 10,200,000 Secondary: 6,100,000 Tertiary: 5,400,000

ECONOMY Economic System: free enterprise Currency: Yen (Y), 1 US$ = 124 Y Major Industries: machinery, autos, metallurgy, engineering, electrical and electronics, textiles, chemicals Major Agricultural Products: rice, sugar, vegetables, fruit, fish Major Imports: fuel, manufactures, foodstuffs, machinery, wood,, coal Major Exports: machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, metals, chemicals, textiles Per Capita GNP: US$ 16,103 (1086)

Economic Statistics (Billions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

1981 19R2 19R3 1994 19R5 19R6 1987 GNP 1164.4 1082.7 1181.2 1257.1 1331.5 1983.7 2384.5 GNP Growth 3.7% 3.1% 3.2% 5.1% 4.5% 2.5% 4.2% CPI Rise 4.9% 2.6% 1.8% 2.3% 2.0% 0.6% 0.1% Exports 151.500 138.443 146.982 169.748 177.189 210.804 229.100 to U.S. 39.904 39.931 43.559 60.371 72.380 85.456 88.07 Imports 142.868 131.566 126.520 136.142 130.516 127.660 149.200 from U.S. 21.823 20.966 21.894 23.575 22.630 26.881 28.25

Japan is the 2nd largest U.S. trading partner.

33

POLITICAL Official Name of Country: JAPAN Capital: Tokyo Type of Government: Constitutional Monarchy Type of Chief of State: Emperor Name of Chief of State: HIROHITO Name of Head of Government: Prime Minister Noboru TAKESHITA Foreign Minister: Sosuke UNO

1987 Freedom House Index (1 is most free, 7 is least) Political Freedom: 1 Civil Liberties: 1 Status of Freedom: Free 1987 Voting with U.S. at United Nations: 60.0%

Fiscal 1987 Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: none Military: none

MILITARY 1987 Military Budget: US$ 24,000,000,000 Increase over 1986: 14.66% Expenditure as a Percentage of GNP: 1.1% Percentage of Government Spending: 6.5%

Total Regular Forces: 246,000 Army: 156,000 Reserves: 44,900 Navy: 45,000 Airforce: 45,000

Combat Aircraft: 473 Naval Vessels: 15 Attack Submarines, 36 Destroyers, 18 Frigates, 5 Fast-Attack Craft (torpedo), 10 Patrol Craft, 45 Mine Counter-Measure Vessels

Security Alliance with U.S.: Mutual cooperation and security treaties 1951, 1960 U.S. Military Installations: Yokosuka Naval Base, Yokohama Naval Base, Atsugi Naval Air Facility, Sasebo Naval Base, Futenma (Marines), Iwakuni Marine Air Base, Misawa Air Base, Kadena Air Base, Yokota Air Base, Camp Zama (Army), Camp Courtney (Marines), Camp Hansen (Marines), Camp Schwab (Marines), Zukeran Marine Air Base, Makiminato (Army), Atsugi Naval Air Facility, Kamiseya (Navy) U.S. Military'Personnel: 2,400'Army, 8,100 Navy, 16,200 Air Force, 38,150 Marines Armed Opposition Groups: none

INVESTMENT 1987 U.S. Direct Investment: US$ 14,278,000,000 1987 Japanese Direct Investment in the U.S.: US$ 33,361,000,000

KEMATI

LAND Area: 266 square miles Cultivated: 5% Forest: 3% Pasture: 0% Resourcesr copra, fish

POPULATION 1987 Estimate: 64,441 Annual Population Growth: 1.82% Projected Population in 2000: na Life Expectancy: na Literacy: 90% Ethnic Divisions: Micronesian: 100% Religions: Catholic: 48%, Protestant: 45%, other: 7%

Workforce: 7,870 Commerce and Services: na Manufacturing: na Agriculture and Fishing: na Construction: na Government and Public Authorities: na Students: na

ECONOMY Economic System: free enterprise Currency: Australian dollar, (100 cents), 1 US$ = 1.383 A$ Major Industries: fishing Major Agricultural Products: copra, subsistence vegetables, coconuts, melons, bananas MEijor Imports: foodstuffs, fuel, transportation equipment Major Exports: copra, fish Per Capita GNP: US$ 410 (198.5)

Economic Statistics (Billions of US$, percentages where- appropriate)

1981 1992 1993 1984 19RS 1996 1997 GNP na na na 25.0 25.8 na na GNP Growth na na na na na na na CPI Rise na na na na na na na Exports 2.0 2.0 4.0 11.0 4.0 4.1 na to U.S. na na , na na na na na Imports 11.03 23.0 20.0 21.0 18.0 32.64 na from U.S. na na na na na na na

Kiribati is a minor U.S. trading partner.

POLITICAL Official Name of Country: REPUBLIC OF KIRIBATI Capital: Tarawa Type of Government: Republic Type of Chief of State: President Name of Chief of State: Ieremia T. TA33AI Name of Head of Government: same Foreign Minister: same

1987 Freedom House Index (I is most free, 7 is least) Political Freedom: 1 Civil Liberties: 2 Status of Freedom: Free 1987 Voting with U.S. at United Nations: Not a member of the United Nations

Fiscal 1987 Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: US$ 242,000 Military: none

MILITARY

Kiribati has no military forces.

Security Alliance with U.S.: none U.S. Military Installations: none U.S. Military Personnel: none Armed Opposition Groups: none

INVESTMENT 1987 U.S. Direct Investment: na 1987 Kiribati Direct Investment in the U.S.: na

KORFA, NORTH

LAND Area: 47,077 square miles Cultivated: 19% Forest: 74% Pasture: 1% Resources: coal, lead, tungsten, zinc, graphite, magnesite, iron, copper, gold, phosphates, salt, fluorspar, hydroelectric power

POPULATION 1987 Estimate: 21,447,977 Annual Population Growth: 2.52% Projected Population in 2000: 28,400,000 Life Expectancy: 65 years Literacy: 95% (est.) Infant Mortality: 33 Ethnic Divisions: Korean: 100% Religions: religious activity almost nonexistent

Workforce: 8, 100,000 Commerce and Services: na Manufacturing: 39% Agriculture and Fishing: 43% Construction: na Government and Public Authorities: 18% Students: Primary: 2,500,000 Secondary: 2,500,000 Tertiary: 100,000

ECONOMY Economic System: socialist Currency: Won (100 jon), 1 US$. = 2.18 Won Major Industries: machine building, electric power, chemicals, mining, metallurgy, textiles, food processing Major Agricultural Products: corn, rice, vegetables Major Imports: petroleum, machinery and equipment, coking coal, grain Major Exports: minerals, metallurgical products, agricultural products, manufactures Per Capita GNP: US$ 1,123 (1986)

Economic Statistics (Billions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

19RI 19R2 1983 1984 1985 19R6 1987 GNP na 17.64 18.16 18.9 19.7 20.1 22.4 GNP Growth 9.8% 3.7% 0.9% 2.7% 4.0% 2.0% 2.0% CPI Rise na. na na na na na na Exports 0.682 0.737 0.654 0.693 0.643 0.684 na to U.S. 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Imports 1.026 1.019 0.981 0.822 0.832 0.820 na from U.S. 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Trade with North Korea is illegal.

POLITICAL Official Name of Country: DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF KOREA Capital: Pyongyang Type of Government: Communist State, one-man rule Type of Chief of State: President Name of Chief of State: KIM 11-Sung Name of Head of Government: same Foreign Minister: KIM Yong Nam

1987 Freedom House Index (I is most free, 7 is least) Political Freedom: 7 Civil Liberties: 7 Status of Freedom: Not Free 1987 Voting with U.S. at United Nations: Not a voting member of the United Nations

Fiscal 1987 Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: none Military: none

MILITARY 1987 Military Budget: US$ 4,450,000,000 Increase over 1986: 14.98% Expenditure as a Percentage of GNP: 23.8% Percentage of Government Spending: 31%

Total Regular Forces: 838,000 Army: 750,000 Reserves: 540,000 + Navy: 35,000 Airforce: 53,000

Combat Aircraft: 840 Naval Vessels: 27 Attack Submarines, 2 Frigates, 34 Fast-Attack Craft (missile), 136 Fast-Attack Craft (torpedo), 167 Fast-Attack Craft (gun), 65 Patrol Craft

Security Alliance with U.S.: none U.S. Military Installations: none U.S. Military Personnel: none Armed Opposition Groups: none

INVESTMENT 1987 U.S. Direct Investment: none 1987 North Korean Direct Investment in the U.S.: none

KOREA, SOUTH

LAND Area: 38,211 square miles Cultivated: 21.6% Forest: 65.8% Pasture: 12.6% Resources: coal, tungsten, graphite, iron ore, limestone, graphite

POPULATION 1987 Estimate: 41,986,669 Annual Population Growth: 1.53% Projected Population in 2000: 48,000,000 Life Expectancy: 67 years Literacy: 93% Infant Mortality: 30 Ethnic Divisions: Korean: 100%. Religions: Confucianism, Buddhism: 68%, Christian: 28%, other:1 4%

Workforce: 15,500,000 Commerce and Services: 22.4% Manufacturing: 24.7% Agriculture and Fishing: 23.6% Construction: 5.7% Government and Public Authorities: 23.6% Students: Primary: 4,800,000 Secondary: 4,900,000 Tertiary: 1,100,000

ECONOMY Economic System: free enterprise Currency: Won, 1 US$ = 740 won Major Industries: textiles and clothing, food processing, chemicals, steel, electronics, ship building, automobile production Major Agricultural Products: rice, barley, vegetables, legumes Major Imports: machinery, oil, steel, transportation equipment, textiles, organic chemicals, grains Mikjor Exports: textiles and clothing, electrical machinery, footwear, steel, ships, automobiles, fish Per Capita GNP: US$ 2,830 (1987)

Economic Statistics (Billions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

1981 1982 19R3 1984 1985 1986 1997 GNP 65.9 69.6 76.0 82.0 86.2 95.0 118.30 GNP Growth 6.9% 5.5% 11.9% 8.4% 5.4% 12.3% 12.6% CPI Rise 21.3% 7.3% 3.4% 2.3% 2.5% 1.7% 3.0% Exports 21.271 21.827 24.460 29.259 30.289 35.624 47.281 to U.S. 5.474 6.011 7.657 10.027 10.712 13.497 17.991 Imports 26.155 24.250 26.196 30.628 31.058 33.335 41.020 from U.S. 5.116 5.529 5.925 5.982 5.956 6.354 8.099

South Korea is the 7th largest U.S. trading partner.

POLITICAL Official Name of Country: REPUBLIC OF KOREA Capital: Seoul Type of Government: Republic, with strong executive Type of Chief of State: President Name of Chief of State: ROH Tae Woo Name of Head of Government: same Foreign Minister: CHOI Kwang-Soo

1987 Freedom House Index (I is most free, 7 is least) Political Freedom: 4 Civil Liberties: 4 Status of Freedom: Partly Free* *The index was compiled prior to the Presidential and National Assembly elections in December 1987 and March 1988, respectively. 1987 Voting with U.S. at United Nations: not a voting member

Fiscal 1987 Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: none Military: US$ 2,000,000

MILITARY 1986 Military Budget: US$ 5,110,000,000 Increase over 1985: 12.3% Expenditure as a Percentage of GNP: 5.2% Percentage of Government Spending: 31.4%

Total Regular Forces: 629,000 Army: 542,000 Reserves: 1,540,000 Navy: 54,000 Airforce: 33,000

Combat Aircraft: 476 Naval Vessels: 1 Attack Submarine, 6 Frigates, 11 Corvettes, 11 Fast-Attack Craft (missile), 127 Patrol Craft, 9 Minesweepers

Security Alliance with U.S.: Mutual Cooperation and Security, 1954 U.S. Military Installations: Kunsan Air Base, Uijong-Bu HQ, Tongduchon Army Base, Osan Air Base U.S. Military Personnel: 29,100 Army, 11,200 Air Force Armed Opposition Groups: none

INVESTMENT 1987 U.S. Direct Investment: US$ 1,018,000,000 1987 South Korean Direct Investment in the U.S.: US$ 210,000,000

IAOS

LAND Area: 91,428 square miles Cultivated: 4% Forest: 58% Pasture: 3% Resources: tin, timber, gypsum, hydroelectric power

POPULATION 1987 Estimate: 3,765,887 Annual Population Growth: 2.17% Projected Population in 2000: 5,000,000 Life Expectancy: 44 years Literacy: 85% Infant Mortality: 122 Ethnic Divisions: Uo: 48%, Kha: 25%, Tribal Thai: 14%, other: 13% Religions: Buddhist: 50%, Animist and other: 50%

Workforce: 1,850,000 Commerce and Services: 19% Manufacturing: 6% Agriculture and Fishing: 75% Construction: na Government and Public Authorities: na Students: Primary: 515,000 Secondary: 128,000 Tertiary: 1,344

ECONOMY Economic System: socialist Currency: Kip, I US$ = 350 Kip Major Industries: tin mining, timber, coffee, electric power Major Agricultural Products: rice, corn, vegetables, tobacco, cotton Major Imports: rice and other foodstuffs, petroleum products, machinery, transportation equipment Major Exports: electric power, forest products, tin, coffee Per Capita GNP: US$ 159 (1986)

Economic Statistics (Millions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

1991 19R2 1983 1984 19R5 19R6 1987 GNP na 475.7 534.2 530.0 600.0 na na GNP Growth na na na na na na na CPI Rise na na na 20.0% 20.0% 20.0% 20.0% Exports 16.914 25.664 25.527 12.595 17.989 14.234 na to U.S. 1.001 1.456 2.546 2.001 0.455 0.3 1.1 Imports 84.796 88.062 92.721 49.590 64.247 69.678 na from U.S. 0.330 0.440 0.110 0.110 0.220 0.1 0.3

Laos is a very minor U.S. trading partner.

41

POLITICAL Offlcial Name of Country: LAO PEOPLE'S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC Capital: Vientiane Type of Government: Communist State Type of Chief of State: President Name of Chief of State: Phourni VONGVIC141T (acting) Name of Head of Government: General Secretary Kaysone PHOMVIHAN Foreign Minister: Phoun SIPASEUTH

1987 Freedom House Index (1 is most free, 7 is least) Political Freedom: 7 Civil liberties: 7 Status of Freedom: Not Free 1987 Voting with U.S. at United Nations: 8. 1%

Fiscal 1987 Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic:none Military: none

MILITARY 1987 Military Budget: na Increase over 1986: na Expenditure as a Percentage of GNP: na Percentage of Government Spending: na

Total Regular Forces: 55,500 Army: 52,500 Reserves: na Navy: 1,000 Airforce: 2,000

Combat Aircraft: 34 Naval Vessels: 14 River Patrol Craft

Security Alliance with U.S.: none U.S. Military Installations: none Soviet Military Personnel: 500 advisors Vietnamese Military Personnel: 50,000 troops Armed Opposition Groups: United Lao National Liberation Front, 2,000

INVESTMENT 1987 U.S. Direct Investment: na 1987 Laotian Direct Investment in the U.S.: na

MACAU

LAND Area: 6.17 square miles Cultivated: 2% Forest: 5% Pasture: 0% Resources: none

POPULATION 1987 Estimate: 437,822 Annual Population Growth: 5.53% Projected Population in 2000: 600,000 Life Expectancy: 68 years Literacy: 90% Infant Mortality: 12 Ethnic Divisions: Chinese: 98%, Portuguese: 2% Religions: mainly Buddhist, Catholic: 4%

Workforce: 190,000 Commerce and Services: 34% Manufacturing: 45% Agriculture and Fishing: 6% Construction: 8% Government and Public Authorities: 7% Students: Primary: 32,000 Secondary: 13,000 Tertiary: 4,000

ECONOMY Economic System: free enterprise Currency: Pataca, 1 US$ = 8 Pataca Major Industries: textiles, toys, plastic products, gambling, furniture Major Agricultural Products: rice, vegetables Major Imports: foodstuffs Major Exports: textiles and clothing, toys Per Capita GNP: US$ 2,800 (1986)

Economic Statistics (Millions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

1981 19R2 1993 1984 1985 1986 1987 GNP na na 788.1 979.8 1030.0 1137.7 na GNP Growth na 8.0% 8.0% 8.0% 2.5% 6.2% na CPI Rise na na na 11.1% 2.07% 1.7% na Exports 700.42 720-84 755.04 910.59 907.09 1033.55 na to U.S. 166.8 217.7 246.4 399.0 370.1 444.5 548.7 Imports 716.10 713.29 724.16 793.32 775.68 874.31 na from U.S. 1.0 13.6 0.6 1.7 1.2 2.7 5.4

Macau is a minor U.S. trading partner. -

POLITICAL Official Name of Country: MACAU Capital: Macau Type of Government: Chinese Territory under Portuguese Administration Type of Chief of State: Governor Name of Chief of State: Carlos MELANCLA, Name of Head of Government: same Foreign Minister: Portugal is responsible for foreign affairs.

1987 Freedom House Index (I is most free, 7 is least) Political Freedom: 3 Civil Liberties: 4 Status of Freedom: Partly Free 1987 Voting with U.S. at United Nations: not a member

Fiscal 1987 Foreign Assistance (Actual Obligations) Economic: none Military: none

MILITARY

Defense is the responsibility of Portugal.

1985 Military Expenditure: US$ 24,900,000 Increase over 1984: 144% Expenditure as Percentage of GNP: 2.5% Percent of Government Spending- 11.1%

Total Regular Forces: na Army: na Reserves: na Navy: na Airforce: na

Aircraft: na Naval Vessels: na

Security Alliance with U.S.: none U.S. Military Installations: none U.S. Military Personnel: none Armed Opposition Groups: none

INVESTMENT 1987 U.S. Direct Investment: na 1987 Macau Direct Investment in the U.S.: na

44

MALAYSU

LAND Area: 127,316 square miles Cultivated: 14.3% Forest: 70% Pasture: 1% Resources: tin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron, palm oil, rubber

POPULATION 1987 Estimate: 16,068,516 Annual Population Growth: 2.08% Projected Population in 2000:20,200,000 Life Expectancy: 70 Literacy: 65% Infant Mortality: 30 Ethnic Divisions: Malay: 59%, Chinese: 32%, Indian: 9% Religions: Muslim, Buddhist, Hindu, other

Workforce: 5,570,000 Commerce and Services: 22.9% Manufacturing: 14.5% Agriculture and Fishing: 35.1% Construction: 6.6% Government and Public Authorities: 15.0% Students: Primary: 2,230,000 Secondary: 1,320,000 Tertiary: 48,655

ECONOMY Economic System: free enterprise Currency: Ringgit (Malaysian dollar), 1 US$ = 2.495 M$ Major Industries: rubber and palm oil processing and manufacturing tin mining, logging, petroleum production, electronics Major Agricultural Products: natural rubber, palm oil, rice, coconuts, pepper Major Imports: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, crude petroleum, food Major Exports: natural rubber, palm oil, tin, timber, petroleum, light manufactures Per Capita GNP: US$ 1,636 (1986)

Economic Statistics (Billions of US$, percentages where appropriate)

19R1 1992 19R3 1984 1985 1986 1987 GNP 25.09 26.84 30.11 33.97 31.41 26.32 29.80 GNP Growth 7.1% 5.6% 5.9% 7.3% -1.5% 1.0% 4.7% CPI Rise 9.7% 5.8% 3.7% 3.9% 0.3% 1.5% 0.8% Exports 11.773 12.044 14.128 16.563 15.408 13.832 17.817 to U.S. 2.272 1.959 2.205 2.825 2.399 2.534 3.053 Imports 11.581 12.409 13.241 14.057 12.301 10.819 12.670 from U.S. 1.537 1.736 1.684 1.856 1.539 1.730 1.897

Malaysia is the 23rd largest U.S. trading partner.

POLITICAL Offleial Name of Country: MALAYSIA Capital: Kuala Lumpur Type of Government: Federal Constitutional Monarchy Type of Chief of State: King, elected by hereditary Sultans Name of Chief of State: TUANKA Mahmood Iskandar Al-Haj Mohamad al-Marhum. Sultan Ismail Name of Head of Government: Prime Minister Dr. MAHATTHR, bin Mohamad Foreign Minister: Abu Hassan OMOR

1987 Freedom House Index (1 is most free, 7 is least) Political Free

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