Backgrounder posted May 11, 2015
The Federal Housing Administration: What Record of Success?
More than 80 years ago, Congress passed a series of laws that significantly expanded the federal government’s presence in the housing finance system. These federal programs have grown and contributed to an explosion of mortgage debt over the past few decades. Homeownership rates, however, have barely changed since the late 1960s.
The long-term increase in mortgage debt…
Backgrounder posted September 23, 2014
The Economic and Fiscal Effects of Eliminating the Federal Death Tax
The federal estate tax (often referred to as the death tax) is a tax on a person’s lifetime accumulated property. In 2014, the death tax applies a 40 percent tax to all accumulated wealth above $5.34 million. While the death tax applies to relatively few Americans and raises only tiny amounts of revenue for the federal government, it imposes substantial costs on the…
Issue Brief posted August 11, 2014
Five Guiding Principles for Housing Finance Policy: A Free-Market Vision
The two government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs), Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, remain under government conservatorship with the federal government standing behind all of their obligations. Housing finance reform is likely to be addressed during the next congressional session, but it appears the House and the Senate may offer very different reform proposals.
Backgrounder posted June 18, 2014
Why Is Federal Housing Policy Fixated on 30-Year Fixed-Rate Mortgages?
Robust mortgage financing exists in virtually every developed nation in the world without the degree of government involvement found in the U.S. While the U.S. homeownership rate is about average among developed nations, U.S. citizens typically pay among the highest interest rates in the industrialized world. Still, many groups argue that eliminating the…
Backgrounder posted April 23, 2014
Basel III Capital Standards Do Not Reduce the Too-Big-to-Fail Problem
Many experts recognize that the government will still step in to support some financial institutions rather than allow them to go through bankruptcy. This “too-big-to-fail” doctrine remains at least as prominent now—and as costly to taxpayers—as it was prior to the 2008 crisis, partly because the Dodd–Frank bill exacerbated the problem. For instance, in the…
Issue Brief posted April 18, 2014
Fannie and Freddie 2.0: The Senate Does Not Get the Government Out of the Market
In an effort to reform the nation’s housing finance system, Senate Banking Committee Chairman Tim Johnson (D–SD) and ranking member Mike Crapo (R–ID) have announced that they will hold a markup for their bill on April 29, but many details still have to be ironed out.
Given that close to 100 percent of the U.S. mortgage market is now backed by the federal government, it…
Issue Brief posted April 3, 2014
U.S. Financial Markets Do Not Need a New Regulator: Senate Misses the Mark
Senators Tim Johnson (D–SD) and Mike Crapo (R–ID) have released a new housing finance reform bill, and as expected, it is very similar to the bill that Senators Bob Corker (R–TN) and Mark Warner (D–VA) released last June. Both Senate proposals would wind down the government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs) Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, and both would replace the GSEs with a new…
Issue Brief posted March 27, 2014
Johnson–Crapo Housing Finance Reform Misguided
Senators Tim Johnson (D–SD) and Mike Crapo (R–ID) have released a new housing finance reform bill, and as expected, it is very similar to the bill that Senators Bob Corker (R–TN) and Mark Warner (D–VA) released last June.
Both Senate proposals would wind down the government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs) Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, but both would also replace the GSEs…
Issue Brief posted February 28, 2014
Chairman Camp’s Tax Reform Plan a Milestone for Dynamic Analysis
House Ways and Means Committee chairman Dave Camp (R–MI) released a plan for comprehensive tax reform. Setting aside its merits, Camp’s proposal is noteworthy on two accounts: (1) It presents the most comprehensive tax reform proposal in decades, and (2) it includes a dynamic estimate from the Joint Committee on Taxation (JCT).
The latter is a long overdue and welcome…
Backgrounder posted February 7, 2014
GSE Reform: The Economic Effects of Eliminating a Government Guarantee in Housing Finance
The U.S. government was barely involved in the housing finance market before the Great Depression. Subsequently, the Federal National Mortgage Association (commonly known as Fannie Mae) and the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) attained an almost legendary status for having “saved” the housing market in the 1930s with various forms of government guarantees. The…
Issue Brief posted December 17, 2013
GSE Reform: FHFA Should Not Pursue Mortgage Principal Reduction Alternatives
Should the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) expand home mortgage modification policy to include principal reduction alternatives (PRAs)? For the past five years, the FHFA has maintained a consistent stance that implementing a PRA policy would come at a high cost to taxpayers with little benefit overall to homeowners. On the other hand, the Federal Housing…
Issue Brief posted December 5, 2013
Unprecedented Minimum-Wage Hike Would Hurt Jobs and the Economy
President Obama and some Senators have proposed increasing the federal minimum wage to $10.10 per hour over the next two years—its highest level ever, after accounting for inflation. The proposed increase far outstrips the productivity growth of minimum-wage workers and would force employers to curtail hiring.
Some proponents of the increase theorize that increased…
Issue Brief posted November 12, 2013
GSE Reform: Affordable Housing Goals and the “Duty” to Provide Mortgage Financing
As Congress considers legislation to eliminate the government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs) Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, advocacy groups are pressuring financial institutions to adhere to a “duty to serve” their markets rather than to meet specific affordable housing goals.
The “duty to serve” is a nebulous concept that codifies the idea that the GSEs (and lenders) have a…
Issue Brief posted November 7, 2013
GSE Reform: Trust Funds or Slush Funds?
Should Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac—the two government-sponsored housing enterprises (GSEs) in federal conservatorship since 2008—be required to use taxpayer money to fund housing advocacy groups’ activities? Five years ago, Congress answered “yes” to this question. The requirement has been in limbo since the GSEs collapsed, but that is only because Ed DeMarco, the acting…