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- GDP (PPP):
- $418.5 billion
- 4.3% growth
- 6.0% 5-year compound annual growth
- $24,020 per capita
- Inflation (CPI):
- FDI Inflow:
Kazakhstan is Central Asia’s largest economy. Although large-scale privatizations have been promised for the coming years, progress in implementing such reforms remains to be seen. In an attempt to promote diversified economic growth, regulatory reforms have aimed at streamlining the business start-up process. Diversification of the economy and the need to lower dependence on hydrocarbon exports remain significant challenges.
Economic Freedom Snapshot
- 2016 Economic Freedom Score: 63.6 (up 0.3 point)
- Economic Freedom Status: Moderately Free
- Global Ranking: 68th
- Regional Ranking: 12th in the Asia–Pacific Region
- Notable Successes: Trade Freedom and Management of Public Finance
- Concerns: Property Rights and Corruption
- Overall Score Change Since 2012: No Change
Implementation of deeper institutional reforms remains critical to securing sustainable long-term and broad-based economic expansion. Systemic weaknesses persist in the protection of property rights and enforcement of anti-corruption measures. Lacking transparency, the judicial system is vulnerable to political influence.
President Nursultan Nazarbayev, whose rule began in 1989 when Kazakhstan was still a Soviet republic, won a sixth five-year term in 2015. The opposition is marginalized, and the lack of a succession plan creates longer-term political uncertainty. Kazakhstan joined the Eurasian Economic Union, which includes Russia and Belarus, on January 1, 2015. Production in the giant Kashagan oil field off the northern shore of the Caspian Sea is expected to begin by 2016 and could help Kazakhstan extract 3 million barrels per day by 2030. Kazakhstan is also the world’s largest producer of uranium.
Corruption is widespread at all levels of government. As of January 2015, a new criminal code strengthened penalties for accepting and giving bribes. The judiciary is constitutionally subservient to the executive branch, judges are subject to political bias, and corruption is evident throughout the judicial system. In 2014, new procedures made property transfer and registration easier, but property rights are not protected effectively.
The flat personal income tax rate is 10 percent, and the standard corporate tax rate is 20 percent. Other taxes include a value-added tax and excise taxes. The overall tax burden equals 14 percent of total domestic income. Government spending accounts for 20.2 percent of total domestic output. Large oil revenues have kept the budget balanced, and public debt is about 15 percent of GDP.
Launching a business takes six procedures, and no minimum capital is required, but completing licensing requirements can be burdensome. Labor regulations are relatively flexible, but enforcement of the labor code is erratic. In 2015, the government tried to resist a sharp currency devaluation, and newly reelected President Nursultan Nazarbayev included in his latest reform program a pledge to reduce electricity subsidies.
Kazakhstan’s average tariff rate is 3.8 percent. Kazakhstan was approved to be the 162nd member of the World Trade Organization in 2015. Local content requirements and sectoral barriers impede foreign investment. Troubled banks have been recapitalized, and the financial sector has become largely stabilized. However, the number of non-performing loans remains high, concentrated mostly in three banks.