2016 Index of Economic Freedom

Major Works Cited

The 2016 Index of Economic Freedom relies on data from multiple internationally recognized sources to present a representation of economic freedom in each country that is as comprehensive, impartial, and accurate as possible. The following sources provided the primary information for analyzing and scoring the 10 components of economic freedom. In addition, the authors and analysts used supporting documentation and information from various government agencies and sites on the Internet, news reports and journal articles, and official responses to inquiries. All statistical and other information received from government sources was verified with independent, credible third-party sources.

African Development Bank, Statistics Pocketbook 2015; available at

African Development Bank and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, African Economic Outlook 2015; available at http://www.africaneconomicoutlook.org/en/.

African Financial Markets Initiative, Country Profiles; available at

Asian Development Bank, Asian Development Outlook 2015: Asian Development Outlook; available at

             , Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2015; available at

Country statistical agencies, central banks, and ministries of finance, economy, and trade; available at http://unstats.un.org/unsd/methods/inter-natlinks/sd_natstat.asp;
http://www.census.gov/aboutus/stat_int.html; and http://www.bis.org/cbanks.htm.

Deloitte, International Tax and Business Guide, Country Highlights; available at

Economist Intelligence Unit, Ltd., Country Commerce, London, U.K., 2010–2015.

             , Country Finance, London, U.K., 2010–2015.

             , Country Report, London, U.K., 2010–2015.

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Country Strategies, 2010–2015;
available at http://www.ebrd.com/pages/country.shtml.

European Commission, Eurostat, European Statistics; available at

International Monetary Fund, Article IV Consultation Staff Reports, various countries, Washington, D.C., 2010–2015; available at http://www.imf.org/external/ns/cs.aspx?id=51.

             , Country Information; available at http://www.imf.org/external/country/index.htm.

             , Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix, various countries, Washington, DC, 2010–2015.

             , World Economic Outlook Database, April 2015; available at

Low Tax Network, various countries; available at http://www.lowtax.net.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD Economic Outlook, Vol. 2015, Issue 1 (June 19, 2015); available at http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/economics/oecd-economic-outlook-volume-2015-issue-1_eco_outlook-v2015-1-en.

             , OECD Statistics Portal; available at http://stats.oecd.org/source/.

             , OECD Web site; available at www.oecd.org/home.

PricewaterhouseCoopers, Worldwide Tax Summaries; available with registration at

Transparency International, The Corruption Perceptions Index, Berlin, Germany, 2000–2014; available at http://www.transparency.org/cpi2014/.

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, World Investment Report 2014: Investing in the SDGs: An Action Plan; available at

United States Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook 2015; available at

United States Department of Commerce, Country Commercial Guides, Washington, DC,
2010–2015; available at http://www.buyusainfo.net/adsearch.cfm?search_type=int&loadnav=no.

United States Department of State, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2014, released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, June 2015; available at

             , Investment Climate Statements: 2010–2015, released by the Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs; available at http://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/.

United States Trade Representative, Office of the, 2015 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers, Washington, D.C., 2015; available at https://ustr.gov/about-us/policy-offices/press-office/reports-and-publications/2015/2015-national-trade-estimate.

World Bank, World Bank World Development Indicators Online, Washington, DC; available at http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/world-development-indicators.

             , Country Briefs and Trade-at-a-Glance (TAAG) Tables, Washington, DC; available at http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/TRADE/0,,contentMDK:22421950~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:239071,00.html.

             , Doing Business; available at www.doingbusiness.org.

World Trade Organization, Trade Policy Reviews, 1996–2015; available at

Heritage Media Contacts

  • Justin Posey
    • Communications Manager, Institute for Economic Freedom and Opportunity
    • work: 202.608.6175
    • cell: 202.230.6690
  • Jim Weidman
    • Director, Editorial Services
    • work: 202.608.6145

Heritage Research Contacts

  • Anthony Kim and Tori Whiting

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